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Diabetics Retinopathy

Biplab Giri, Sananda Dey, Tanaya Das, Mrinmoy Sarkar, Jhimli Banerjee, Sandeep Kumar Dash
Chronic exposure of glucose rich environment creates several physiological and pathophysiological changes. There are several pathways by which hyperglycemia exacerbate its toxic effect on cells, tissues and organ systems. Hyperglycemia can induce oxidative stress, upsurge polyol pathway, activate protein kinase C (PKC), enhance hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), promote the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and finally alters gene expressions. Prolonged hyperglycemic condition leads to severe diabetic condition by damaging the pancreatic β-cell and inducing insulin resistance...
August 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Matthias Kolibabka, Nadine Dietrich, Thomas Klein, Hans-Peter Hammes
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Linagliptin has protective effects on the retinal neurovascular unit but, in proliferative retinopathy, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibition could be detrimental. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of linagliptin on ischaemia-induced neovascularisation of the retina. METHODS: C57BL/6J and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (Glp1r)-/- mice were subjected to a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Both strains were subcutaneously treated with linagliptin from postnatal days 12 to 16...
August 10, 2018: Diabetologia
Min-Kyung Kang, Eun-Jung Lee, Yun-Ho Kim, Dong Yeon Kim, Hyeongjoo Oh, Soo-Il Kim, Young-Hee Kang
Diabetes-associated visual cycle impairment has been implicated in diabetic retinopathy, and chronic hyperglycemia causes detrimental effects on visual function. Chrysin, a naturally occurring flavonoid found in various herbs, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties. The goal of the current study was to identify the retinoprotective role of chrysin in maintaining robust retinoid visual cycle-related components. The in vitro study employed human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells exposed to 33 mM of glucose or advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the presence of 1⁻20 μM chrysin for three days...
August 8, 2018: Nutrients
Jennifer K Sun, Adam R Glassman, Wesley T Beaulieu, Cynthia R Stockdale, Neil M Bressler, Christina Flaxel, Jeffrey G Gross, Michel Shami, Lee M Jampol
OBJECTIVE: Present rationale, guidelines, and results of ranibizumab treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network ( Protocol S. DESIGN: Post hoc analyses from a randomized clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and five participants with 394 study eyes having PDR without prior PRP. INTERVENTION: Post hoc analyses from a randomized clinical trial of 0...
August 7, 2018: Ophthalmology
Jost B Jonas, Wen Bin Wei, Liang Xu, Marcella Rietschel, Fabian Streit, Ya Xing Wang
PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of depression in the general population of Beijing and its association with ocular diseases. METHODS: The population-based Beijing Eye Study was conducted in a rural and an urban region of Greater Beijing. The study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination and an interview including questions on the socioeconomic background. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using a Chinese depression scale adapted from Zung´s self-rated depression scale...
2018: PloS One
Wei Zhu, Yan Wu, Yi-Fang Meng, Qian Xing, Jian-Jun Tao, Jiong Lu
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was considered to be a common complication of diabetes. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential association between obesity and DR risk by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective studies. METHODS: A consummate literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and web of science was conducted until July 2016. A total of 13 prospective cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis. RESULTS: On meta-analysis of all the studies assessing DR risk, obesity was associated with a significant increase in DR incidence (relative risk [RR], 1...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Daniel Chin Shiuan Lio, Chenghao Liu, Christian Wiraja, Beiying Qiu, Chee Wai Fhu, Xiaomeng Wang, Chenjie Xu
Leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1 (Lrg1) is an emerging biomarker for angiogenesis. Its expression in ocular tissues is up-regulated in both human patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and rodent models of pathological angiogenesis. However, there is no existing sensor that allows visualization and monitoring of Lrg1 expression non-invasively and in real time. Herein, we report a nucleic acid-gold nanorod-based nanosensor for the non-invasive monitoring of cellular Lrg1 expression in angiogenesis...
August 10, 2018: ACS Sensors
Ilkay Kilic Muftuoglu, Tiezhu Lin, William R Freeman
PURPOSE: Automated segmentation of retinal layers by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is usually erroneous in the presence of retinal diseases. The purpose of this study is to report the changes in ganglion cell complex (GCC) comprising retina nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients by manually correcting the automated segmentation errors. METHODS: Thirty eyes of 30 patients with new-onset choroidal neovascularization secondary to neovascular AMD and 30 eyes of 30 healthy subjects were included...
August 9, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Vivian K Lee, Brett M Hosking, Joanna Holeniewska, Ewa C Kubala, Peter Lundh von Leithner, Peter J Gardner, Richard H Foxton, David T Shima
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic retinopathy is increasing in prevalence worldwide and is fast becoming a global epidemic and a leading cause of visual loss. Current therapies are limited, and the development of effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy requires a greater in-depth knowledge of disease progression and suitable modelling of diabetic retinopathy in animals. The aim of this study was to assess the early pathological changes in retinal morphology and neuronal, inflammatory and vascular features consistent with diabetic retinopathy in the ob/ob mouse model of type 2 diabetes, to investigate whether features similar to those in human diabetic retinopathy were present...
August 9, 2018: Diabetologia
Mari-Luz Moreno, Salvador Mérida, Francisco Bosch-Morell, María Miranda, Vincent M Villar
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is one of the most common clinical subtypes of retinal degeneration (RD), and it is a neurodegenerative disease that could cause complete blindness in humans because it ultimately affects the photoreceptors viability. RP afflicts an estimated 1.5 million patients worldwide. The retina is highly susceptible to oxidative stress which can impair mitochondrial function. Many retina pathologies, such as diabetic retinopathy and secondary cone photoreceptor death in RP, have been related directly or indirectly with mitochondrial dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Vincenza Caolo, Quentin Roblain, Julie Lecomte, Paolo Carai, Linsey Peters, Ilona Cuijpers, Emma Louise Robinson, Kasper Derks, Jurgen Sergeys, Agnès Noël, Elizabeth A V Jones, Lieve Moons, Stephane Heymans
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes, which eventually leads to blindness. Up to date, no animal model has yet shown all the co-morbidities often observed in DR patients. Here, we investigated whether obese 42 weeks old ZSF1 rat, which spontaneously develops diabetes, hypertension and obesity, would be a suitable model to study DR. Although arteriolar tortuosity increased in retinas from obese as compared to lean (hypertensive only) ZSF1 rats, vascular density pericyte coverage, microglia number, vascular morphology and retinal thickness were not affected by diabetes...
August 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dong-Hyun Lee, Ho Chul Yi, So Hyun Bae, Joon Hee Cho, Sang Wook Choi, Hakyoung Kim
OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk factors for retinal microvascular impairment on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in type 2 diabetic patients without clinical diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: This retrospective and cross-sectional study enrolled 74 diabetic patients without clinically evident DR for the study group and 34 healthy subjects for the control group. OCT-A parameters were measured to determine vascular density (VD) and the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) size in the superficial and deep capillary plexuses (SCP/DCP) of the retina...
2018: PloS One
Nicole El-Darzi, Artem Astafev, Natalia Mast, Aicha Saadane, Morrie Lam, Irina A Pikuleva
N , N -dimethyl-3β-hydroxycholenamide (DMHCA) is an experimental pharmaceutical and a steroidal liver X receptor (LXR) agonist, which does not induce undesired hepatic lipogenesis. Herein, DMHCA was evaluated for its retinal effects on normal C57BL/6J and Cyp27a1-/- Cyp46a1-/- mice; the latter having higher retinal total and esterified cholesterol in addition to retinal vascular abnormalities. Different doses and two formulations were used for DMHCA delivery either via drinking water (C57BL/6J mice) or by oral gavage ( Cyp27a1-/- Cyp46a1-/- mice)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Laura Gomes Nunes Melo, Paulo Henrique Morales, Karla Rezende Guerra Drummond, Deborah Conte Santos, Marcela Haas Pizarro, Bianca Senger Vasconcelos Barros, Tessa Cerqueria Lemos Mattos, André Araújo Pinheiro, Felipe Mallmann, Franz Schubert Lopes Leal, Fernando Korn Malerbi, Marilia Brito Gomes
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in economically active populations. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and to identify risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes in Brazil. METHODS: This was a nationwide, cross-sectional study conducted between August 2010 and August 2014. The study included 1760 patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients underwent a standard questionnaire, clinical and laboratory analyses and were screened for diabetic retinopathy...
August 8, 2018: BMC Public Health
Kathryn Bouskill, Carolyn Smith-Morris, George Bresnick, Jorge Cuadros, Elin Rønby Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Novel telemedicine platforms have expanded access to critical retinal screening into primary care settings. This increased access has contributed to improved retinal screening uptake for diabetic patients, particularly those treated in Federally Qualified Health Centers ('safety net' clinics). The aim of this study was to understand how the implementation of telemedical screening for diabetic retinopathy within primary care settings is improving the delivery of critical preventative services, while also introducing changes into clinic workflows and creating additional tasks and responsibilities within resource-constrained clinics...
August 7, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Rebecca O'Brien, Eric Johnson, Sebastien Haneuse, Karen J Coleman, Patrick J O'Connor, David P Fisher, Stephen Sidney, Andy Bogart, Mary Kay Theis, Jane Anau, Emily B Schroeder, David Arterburn
Background: Bariatric surgery improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but less is known about microvascular outcomes. Objective: To investigate the relationship between bariatric surgery and incident microvascular complications of T2DM. Design: Retrospective matched cohort study from 2005 to 2011 with follow-up through September 2015. Setting: 4 integrated health systems in the United States...
August 7, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Xunwen Lei, Guifeng Zeng, Yuemei Zhang, Qiang Li, Jinzhi Zhang, Zhenggang Bai, Kehu Yang
Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level represents an independent risk factor for macrovascular disease. However, the relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and the progression of diabetic retinopathy in patients remains controversial. Hence, the purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to explore any potential association between Hcy and the risk of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to screen studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria from date of database inception to November 2017...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Olga Lamacchia, Francesca Viazzi, Paola Fioretto, Antonio Mirijello, Carlo Giorda, Antonio Ceriello, Giuseppina Russo, Pietro Guida, Roberto Pontremoli, Salvatore De Cosmo
Background: We described, in a large sample of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and GFR ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (with or without albuminuria), the differences in the clinical features associated with the two different chronic kidney disease phenotypes and we investigated, in a subset of patients, the modulating role of albuminuria on kidney disease progression. Methods: Clinical data of 1395 patients with T1DM were extracted from electronic medical records...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
William H Herman, Barbara H Braffett, Shihchen Kuo, Joyce M Lee, Michael Brandle, Alan M Jacobson, Lisa A Prosser, John M Lachin
OBJECTIVE: The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) demonstrated that intensive therapy for type 1 diabetes delayed the development of microvascular and neuropathic complications compared to conventional therapy. At the end of DCCT, all participants were trained in intensive therapy, care was transferred to community providers, and the difference in HbA1c between treatment groups narrowed and disappeared. Our objective was to describe the outcomes and the quality-of-life and costs associated with those outcomes in participants who maintained excellent vs...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Antonio Lopez-Ramos, Pedro Arnulfo Gomez-Bastar, Van Charles Lansingh, Jaime Arturo Rodriguez-Gomez, Veronica Vargas-Fragoso, Felipe Andres Soria-Arellano, Santos Horacio Silva-Camacho, Javier Castillo-Velazquez, Luz Consuelo Zepeda-Romero, Hans Limburg
PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, diabetes mellitus, and diabetic retinopathy in patients aged 50 years and older in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. METHODS: Ninety-one clusters of 60 people aged 50+ were selected randomly and a rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) was conducted. Participants had their visual acuity and cause of visual impairment assessed, underwent a random glucose test and fundoscopy under mydriasis if they had diabetes...
August 6, 2018: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
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