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villous atrophy

Jonas F Ludvigsson, Benjamin Lebwohl, Qi Chen, Gabriella Bröms, Randi L Wolf, Peter H R Green, Louise Emilsson
BACKGROUND: Coeliac disease has been linked to anxiety and depression. However, their association with mucosal healing is unknown. AIM: To examine the relationship between anxiety, depression and mucosal healing in coeliac disease. METHODS: Between 1969 and 2008, we collected data on all small intestinal biopsies with villous atrophy from Sweden's 28 pathology departments. We restricted our cohort to individuals with data on follow-up biopsy (either persistent villous atrophy [n = 3317] or mucosal healing [n = 4331])...
October 4, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Nirmal K Onteddu, Venkata Siva Krishna Kumar Pulivarthi, Mihira Ginnavaram, Ramalinga Kedika
Olmesartan-induced enteropathy (OIE) typically presents with a constellation of signs and symptoms including chronic diarrhoea, weight loss and villous atrophy on biopsy. We describe a 68-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of hypothyroidism and hypertension who presented to our hospital with recurrent episodes of acute intermittent diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, renal failure and 15 lbs weight loss. After an extensive workup, she was diagnosed with possible OIE. Cessation of the offending drug resulted in improvement of clinical symptoms and also hospital admissions for severe diarrhoea reinforcing the diagnosis of OIE...
October 2, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Lori Connors, Andrew O'Keefe, Lana Rosenfield, Harold Kim
Non-immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food hypersensitivity includes a spectrum of disorders that predominantly affect the gastrointestinal tract. This review will focus on the following more common non-IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity syndromes: food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), allergic proctocolitis (AP), food protein-induced enteropathy (FPE) and celiac disease. FPIES, AP and FPE typically present in infancy and are most commonly triggered by cow's milk protein or soy. The usual presenting features are profuse emesis and dehydration in FPIES; blood-streaked and mucousy stools in AP; and protracted diarrhea with malabsorption in FPE...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Coralie Derrieux, Amélie Trinquand, Julie Bruneau, Virginie Verkarre, Ludovic Lhermitte, Marion Alcantara, Patrick Villarese, Bertrand Meresse, David Sibon, Olivier Hermine, Nicole Brousse, Thierry Molina, Christophe Cellier, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan, Georgia Malamut, Elizabeth Macintyre
Celiac disease is a chronic inflammation of the small intestine with villous atrophy that can become refractory to a gluten-free diet. Two categories of refractory celiac disease (I and II) can be distinguished by the phenotype of intra-epithelial lymphocytes and the status of TRG genes. Their distinction is important because 30% to 50% of type II, but only 0% to 14% of type I, evolve to an aggressive enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma and therefore require intensive treatment. Currently, differential diagnosis integrates immunohistochemistry, immunophenotyping, and TRG clonality analyses but each have limitations...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
Kazuya Higashizono, Kazuhiko Fukatsu, Ayako Watkins, Tomoki Watanabe, Midori Noguchi, Motonari Ri, Satoshi Murakoshi, Hiroshi Yasuhara, Yasuyuki Seto
BACKGROUND: Preoperative carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation has been recommended in enhanced recovery after surgery protocols. However, the effects of CHO supplementation on gut and systemic immunity are not well understood. METHODS: Mice (n = 60) were randomized to 1 of the following 5 groups: control (ad lib feeding), 12-hour fasting without CHO administration (fasting), and 12 hours of fasting with CHO administration at 2, 4, and 8 hours before sacrifice. Then, lymphocytes were isolated from gut-associated lymphoid tissue, that is, Peyer's patches, the intraepithelial space, and the lamina propria of the small intestine...
September 27, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
M C Rolfes, P Sriaroon, B J Dávila Saldaña, C C Dvorak, H Chapdelaine, R M Ferdman, K Chen, S Jolles, N C Patel, Y J Kim, T K Tarrant, T Martelius, M Seppanen, A Y Joshi
OBJECTIVE: Predictive factors associated with clinical outcomes of chronic norovirus infection (CNI) in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD) are lacking. METHOD: We sought to characterize CNI using a multi-institutional cohort of patients with PIDD and CNI using the Clinical Immunology Society's CIS-PIDD Listserv e-mail group. RESULTS: Thirty-four subjects (21 males and 13 females) were reported from centers across North America, Europe, and Asia...
August 12, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
A Sadki, M Le Besnerais, F Héron, I Marie
INTRODUCTION: Olmesartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker, used to treat arterial hypertension. Severe digestive manifestations have been associated with olmesartan, including sprue-like enteropathy and lymphocytic colitis. OBSERVATIONS: We report two cases of sprue-like enteropathy associated with olmesartan, leading to malabsorption syndrome related to villous atrophy. After olmesartan discontinuation, patients exhibited resolution of clinical digestive symptoms and disappearance of biochemical abnormalities...
August 30, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Jeremy R Glissen Brown, Prashant Singh
Coeliac disease (CD) develops in genetically susceptible individuals who, in response to unclear environmental triggers, develop an immune response triggered by gluten ingestion. It is now recognised as a global disease affecting about 0.7% of the world's population. The clinical presentation ranges from malabsorption to asymptomatic individuals diagnosed by screening high-risk groups. Diagnosis requires the demonstration of small intestinal villous atrophy in the presence of circulating coeliac auto-antibodies and/or an unequivocal response to a gluten-free diet (GFD)...
August 13, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Amanda K Cartee, Juan P Reyes Genere, Amy S Oxentenko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Gastroenterology
Atakan Comba, Gönül Çaltepe, Özlem Yüce, Esra Erena, Ayhan G Kalaycı
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation between age at diagnosis and compliance to gluten free diet (GFD) on growth in children with celiac disease and the factors that influenced compliance to GFD. POPULATION AND METHODS: Celiac disease (CD) patients with villous atrophy followed in our hospital between January 2015 and January 2017, were included. They were classified according to diagnosis age and GFD compliance. Patients' anthropometric characteristics at diagnosis and follow-up were compared...
August 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Antonio Di Sabatino, Marco V Lenti, Gino R Corazza, Carmen Gianfrani
Autoimmune and allergic disorders are highly prevalent conditions in which an altered or abnormal immune response is mounted against self- or environmental antigens, respectively. Antigen-based immunotherapy is a therapeutic option aimed at restoring the specific immune tolerance toward pathogenic antigens while leaving the rest of the immune system unaffected. This strategy proved efficacy especially in allergic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food allergies, but still has shortcomings for the treatment of autoimmune diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Yuusaku Sugihara, Sakiko Hiraoka, Nobuharu Fujii, Shiho Takashima, Yasushi Yamasaki, Toshihiro Inokuchi, Masahiro Takahara, Kenji Kuwaki, Keita Harada, Takehiro Tanaka, Hiroyuki Okada
BACKGROUND: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication of allo-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Endoscopic biopsy can provide a definitive diagnosis, but the optimal endoscopic approach for diagnosis remains uncertain. This study evaluated whether ileocolonoscopic imaging can predict acute GVHD severity after allo-HSCT. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent allo-HSCT were referred to our institution, and those diagnosed with acute GVHD by pathology were included in this retrospective study...
July 11, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Cagdas Yavas, Guler Yavas, Esin Celik, Ahmet Buyukyoruk, Cennet Buyukyoruk, Deniz Yuce, Ozlem Ata
We aimed to evaluate effects of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, L-glutamine, and L-arginine (HMB/GLN/ARG) on radiation-induced acute intestinal toxicity. Forty rats were divided into four groups: group (G) 1 was defined as control group, and G2 was radiation therapy (RT) control group. G3 and G4 were HMB/GLN/ARG control and RT plus HMB/GLN/ARG groups, respectively. HMB/GLN/ARG started from day of RT and continued until the animals were sacrificed 10 days after RT. The extent of surface epithelium smoothing, villous atrophy, lamina propria inflammation, cryptitis, crypt distortion, regenerative atypia, vascular dilatation and congestion, and fibrosis were quantified on histological sections of intestinal mucosa...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Lu Xia, Yunhan Yang, Jialu Wang, Yuchao Jing, Qian Yang
BACKGROUND: Pig diarrhea causes high mortality and large economic losses in the swine industry. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes pig diarrhea, with 100% mortality in piglets less than 2 weeks old. No investigation has yet been made of the small intestine of piglets that survived infection by TGEV. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the impact of TGEV infection on the small intestine of recovered pigs. RESULTS: Histological analyses showed that TGEV infection led to villi atrophy, and reduced villous height and crypt depth...
June 19, 2018: Virology Journal
Prashant Singh, Ananya Arora, Tor A Strand, Daniel A Leffler, Markku Mäki, Ciaran P Kelly, Vineet Ahuja, Govind K Makharia
GOALS: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the overall diagnostic accuracy of point of care tests (POCTs) for diagnosing celiac disease (CD). BACKGROUND: Recently, POCTs for CD have been developed and are commercially available. Studies have reported significant variability in their sensitivity (70% to 100%) and specificity (85% to 100%). STUDY: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE databases, and the Cochrane library through June 2017...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Youyou Luo, Jie Chen, Youhong Fang, Jingan Lou, Jindan Yu
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis is a chronic progressive inflammatory condition. The clinical spectrum includes pernicious anemia, atrophic gastritis, antibodies to parietal cell antigens and intrinsic factor, achlorhydria, hypergastrinemia and carcinoma. It is rare in paediatric cohorts. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a boy with metaplastic atrophic gastritis in whom immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked(IPEX) syndrome was confirmed by FOXP3 gene mutation...
June 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Suneil A Raju, William L White, Michelle S Lau, Peter D Mooney, Michael A Rees, Mitchell Burden, Carolina Ciacci, David S Sanders
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coeliac disease may be missed at gastroscopy. We aimed to assess the sensitivity of Pentax optical zoom technology endoscopes in detecting duodenal villous atrophy and the ease of image interpretation by non-coeliac specialists. METHOD: All patients attending for a gastroscopy were assessed for endoscopic villous atrophy in part one and two of the duodenum with high definition white light endoscopy and magnification endoscopy. Endoscopic findings of the duodenum were compared to histology as the reference standard...
September 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Luigina De Leo, Vincenzo Villanacci, Fabiana Ziberna, Serena Vatta, Stefano Martelossi, Grazia Di Leo, Chiara Zanchi, Matteo Bramuzzo, Fabiola Giudici, Alessandro Ventura, Tarcisio Not
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (anti-tTG) have simplified celiac disease (CD) diagnosis. However, in atypical forms of CD, intestinal biopsy sampling is still required. This prospective study investigates whether histologic analysis of the duodenal bulb combined with intestinal IgA anti-tTG deposit immunoassay makes CD diagnosis possible in at-risk children with low concentrations of serum anti-tTG. METHODS: Histologic and intestinal IgA anti-tTG deposit immunoassays were used...
September 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
James McCulloch, Miriam Barclay, Adam Levene, Robert Fearn
A 21-year-old woman presented with a 2-week history of vomiting, diarrhoea and epigastric pain, with 9 kg weight loss over the last two months. Laboratory tests were normal with negative coeliac serology. Duodenal biopsies revealed total villous atrophy, crypt hypertrophy and intraepithelial lymphocytosis. A diagnosis of seronegative coeliac disease was made, and she started a gluten-free diet. However, she did not respond and her weight fell to 30.6 kg (body mass index 11), becoming dependent on parenteral nutrition...
May 26, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Moris Sangineto, Giusi Graziano, Simona D'Amore, Roberto Salvia, Giuseppe Palasciano, Carlo Sabbà, Michele Vacca, Marica Cariello
Celiac disease (CD) is a systemic disorder characterized by an immune-mediated reaction to gluten and a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Currently, the main treatment of CD is represented by adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) which determines the resolution of symptoms, and the normalization of the serology and of the duodenal villous atrophy. In the present study, we aimed to identify changes in gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of celiac patients on GFD for at least 2 years, in order to identify novel disease biomarkers and candidate targets for putative therapeutic approaches...
2018: PloS One
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