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Oncology cancer tumor

Gaia Griguolo, Stephane Pouderoux, Maria Vittoria Dieci, William Jacot, Céline Bourgier, Federica Miglietta, Nelly Firmin, Pierfranco Conte, Marie Viala, Valentina Guarneri, Amélie Darlix
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the solid tumors most commonly associated with leptomeningeal disease (LMD). LMD carries a devastating prognosis; however, disease presentation and prognostic factors are uncertain. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: In order to describe patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and factors associated with survival in a contemporary multicentric cohort, 153 consecutive BC patients diagnosed with LMD at two European institutions (2002-2017) were included...
August 17, 2018: Oncologist
Roxana M Grasu, Juan P Cata, Anh Q Dang, Claudio E Tatsui, Laurence D Rhines, Katherine B Hagan, Shreyas Bhavsar, Sally R Raty, Radha Arunkumar, Yury Potylchansky, Ian Lipski, Benjamin A Arnold, Thomas M McHugh, Justin E Bird, Andrea Rodriguez-Restrepo, Mike Hernandez, Keyuri U Popat
OBJECTIVE Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs follow a multimodal, multidisciplinary perioperative care approach that combines evidence-based perioperative strategies to accelerate the functional recovery process and improve surgical outcomes. Despite increasing evidence that supports the use of ERAS programs in gastrointestinal and pelvic surgery, data regarding the development of ERAS programs in spine surgery are scarce. To evaluate the impact of an Enhanced Recovery After Spine Surgery (ERSS) program in a US academic cancer center, the authors introduced such a program and hypothesized that ERSS would have a significant influence on meaningful clinical measures of postoperative recovery, such as pain management, postoperative length of stay (LOS), and complications...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Soraya Puglisi, Paola Perotti, Deborah Cosentini, Elisa Roca, Vittoria Basile, Alfredo Berruti, Massimo Terzolo
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor characterized by poor prognosis in most cases. Moreover, in most cases ACC produces an excess of adrenal steroid hormones with relevant clinical consequences. Areas covered: After an extensive literature search, this narrative review addresses diagnostic management, including hormonal, radiological and pathological assessment, and treatment, which should be directed toward both cancer and hormone related problems. While surgery is the first option in ACC without evidence of metastatic disease, and the only possibility of cure, the therapeutic management of metastatic patients is centered on systemic therapy including mitotane alone or in combination with chemotherapy...
August 17, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Tae Gyu Kim, Won Park, Hakyoung Kim, Doo Ho Choi, Hee Chul Park, Seok-Hyung Kim, Yong Beom Cho, Seong Hyen Yun, Hee Cheol Kim, Woo Yong Lee, Jeeyun Lee, Ki Mun Kang
PURPOSE: There is uncertainty over the effect of systemic inflammatory response on oncologic outcomes in patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer. We investigated the association between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as markers of systemic inflammation and tumor response and prognosis after treatment. METHODS: A total of 176 patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and curative surgery for rectal cancer were analyzed retrospectively...
August 17, 2018: Tumori
Shane Pearce, Siamak Daneshmand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endoscopy coupled with targeted resections represents a cornerstone in the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of patients with bladder cancer. Direct visualization can be challenging and imprecise due to patient-, tumor-, and surgeon-specific factors. We will review contemporary endoscopic technologies and techniques used to improve our ability to safely identify and resect malignant lesions in patients with bladder cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Enhanced endoscopic imaging technology may improve detection rates for bladder cancer throughout the upper and lower urinary tract, which may lead to improvements in recurrence and progression rates for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC)...
August 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
Isabel Sousa, Filipa Rodrigues, Hugo Prazeres, Raquel T Lima, Paula Soares
Liposomal therapies opened the chapter of nanomedicine, in 1995, with the approval of liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil® ) for the treatment of numerous types of cancer. For the first time, liposomes permitted the employment of potent chemotherapeutic agents with improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, with less undesired side effects. Liposomal therapies allow the drug encapsulation and more selective delivery in the tumor bed, particularly due to the enhanced permeation and retention effect. These unique characteristics explain why liposomal therapies are being increasingly considered as alternatives in cancer therapy and represent an important research field with the recent approval for clinical use and emergent formulations in clinical trials...
August 16, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
I V Mizgirev, D R Safina, I V Demidyuk, S V Kostrov
Development and implementation of adequate organism-level models is one of the key elements in biomedical research that focuses on experimental oncology. Over the last decade, studies using Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) have gained in popularity in this area of research. This review describes the various approaches that have been used in developing highly effective models for oncological (clinical term, better cancer or tumor) studies based on D. rerio . Priority is given to transplantation models of cancer and their application to optically transparent D...
April 2018: Acta Naturae
Barbara L Parsons
An accurate understanding of the clonal origins of tumors is critical for designing effective strategies to treat or prevent cancer and for guiding the field of cancer risk assessment. The intent of this review is to summarize evidence of multiclonal tumor origin and, thereby, contest the commonly held assumption of monoclonal tumor origin. This review describes relevant studies of X chromosome inactivation, analyses of tumor heterogeneity using other markers, single cell sequencing, and lineage tracing studies in aggregation chimeras and engineered rodent models...
July 2018: Mutation Research
Alicia E Snider, Jeremy V Lynn, Kevin M Urlaub, Alexis Donneys, Yekaterina Polyatskaya, Noah S Nelson, Russell E Ettinger, Geoffrey C Gurtner, Mark M Banaszak Holl, Steven R Buchman
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is most commonly managed with a combination of tumor ablation, radiation, and/or chemotherapy. Despite the oncologic benefit of these treatments, the detrimental effect of radiation on surrounding tissue challenges the attainment of ideal breast reconstruction outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of topical deferoxamine (DFO) to reduce cutaneous ulceration and collagen disorganization following radiotherapy in a murine model of expander-based breast reconstruction...
August 16, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
S Marnitz, C Köhler, N Gharbi, S Kunze, K Jablonska, J Herter
PURPOSE: For endometrial cancer (EC), clinical and pathological risk factors are taken to triage patients and estimate their prognosis. Lymph node involvement (pN+), lymphovascular space involvement (LSVI), grading, age of the patients, and T classification are internationally accepted parameters for treatment decisions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies on adjuvant radiation, chemotherapy, and chemoradiation are discussed against the background of risk stratification and clinical decision-making in early-to-advanced stage endometrial cancer...
August 15, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Kartick Rastogi, Sandeep Bhaskar, Shivani Gupta, Sandeep Jain, Daleep Singh, Pawan Kumar
Context: Brain metastasis is one of the most feared complications of cancer that poses significant mortality and morbidity in patients with advanced cancer. The incidence is rising because of greater use of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy; and increased survival from recent advances in immunotherapy and modern radiotherapy techniques. Despite all, the prognosis remains poor. Aims: This study aimed to analyze prognostic factors and overall survival in patients with brain metastases...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
Nikhil Chauhan, Janet Bukovcan, Eveline Boucher, David Cosgrove, Julien Edeline, Bonnie Hamilton, Laura Kulik, Fayaz Master, Riad Salem
BACKGROUND: Globally, hepatocellular carcinoma is the second most common cause of cancer deaths. It remains challenging to intensify cancer treatment without impairing liver function. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the TheraSphere in the Treatment of Patients with Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma (STOP-HCC) study is to examine the hypothesis that transarterial radioembolization (TheraSphere yttrium-90 glass microspheres) combined with standard first-line treatment with sorafenib will improve outcomes over treatment with sorafenib alone in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma...
August 15, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Christian Antonio Tuwahatu, Chi Chung Yeung, Yun Wah Lam, Vellaisamy Arul Lenus Roy
The development of polymeric materials as drug delivery systems has advanced from systems that rely on classical passive targeting to carriers that can sustain the precisely controlled release of payloads upon physicochemical triggers in desired microenvironment. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP), materials designed to capture specific molecules based on their molecular shape and charge distribution, are attractive candidates for fulfilling these purposes. In particular, drug-imprinted polymers coupled with active targeting mechanisms have been explored as potential drug delivery systems...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Rodrigo Toledo, Camilo Jimenez
Inactivating mutations of the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B ( SDHB ) gene and the subsequent stabilization and activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 2-alpha (HIF2α) unit are recognized hallmarks associated with the development of metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (MPPG). Despite this discovery, the development of systemic therapies for patients with MPPG has been very slow. The rarity of the disease, the lack of preclinical animal models, and the impracticable development of large clinical trials has hindered the therapeutic progress for MPPG...
2018: F1000Research
Kevin M Sullivan, Heidi L Kenerson, Venu G Pillarisetty, Kimberly J Riehle, Raymond S Yeung
With the widespread adoption of molecular profiling in clinical oncology practice, many physicians are faced with making therapeutic decisions based upon isolated genomic alterations. For example, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are effective in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) while anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies are ineffective in Ras-mutant colorectal cancers. The matching of mutations with drugs aimed at their respective gene products represents the current state of "precision" oncology...
July 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Roger K C Ngan
Hormone therapy, rather than chemotherapy, is recommended for hormone-receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal receptor 2 negative (HER2-) advanced or metastatic breast cancer (A/MBC) according to the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO), American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, unless in visceral crisis in which chemotherapy is indicated. Hormonal monotherapy of selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) or selective estrogen receptor down-regulator (SERD), aromatase inhibitor (AI), or their combination as doublets, used to be the mainstay options as first-line (1L) therapy for most patients...
July 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Musa AlHarbi, Nahla Ali Mobark, Latifa AlMubarak, Rasha Aljelaify, Mariam AlSaeed, Amal Almutairi, Fatmah Alqubaishi, M Emarat Hussain, Ali Abdullah O Balbaid, Amal Said Marie, Lamia AlSubaie, Saeed AlShieban, Nada alTassan, Shakti H Ramkissoon, Malak Abedalthagafi
Primary brain tumors are a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in children. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a high-grade astrocytoma that occurs in both children and adults and is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite extensive study in recent years, the clinical management of these tumors has remained largely unchanged, consisting of surgical resection, conventional chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Although the etiology and genomic drivers in GBM are diverse, constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is a rare, recessively inherited disease with a predisposition to gliomagenesis...
August 13, 2018: Oncologist
Joan Carles, Daniel Castellano, María-José Méndez-Vidal, Begoña Mellado, María-Isabel Saez, Aránzazu González Del Alba, José-Luis Perez-Gracia, José Jimenez, Cristina Suárez, Juan M Sepúlveda, Ray Manneh, Ignacio Porras, Cristina López, Rafael Morales-Barrera, José-Ángel Arranz
INTRODUCTION: Although increasing numbers of therapies with proven survival benefits have become available for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), including radium-223, there is still a need for reliable biomarkers that provide information about clinically meaningful outcomes and treatment responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a translational study that was conducted prospectively by the Spanish Oncology Genito-Urinary Group and included 45 patients with histologically confirmed mCRPC who were treated with radium-223...
July 21, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Murat Araz, Ismail Beypinar, Sinan Kazan, Fatih Inci, Mesut Celiker, Mukremin Uysal
PURPOSE: Breast cancer classifies to 4 major subgroups according to immunohistochemistry staining features as Luminal A, Luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression, and Triple Negative. Cancer Antigen15-3 (CA15-3) is used as a tumor marker in breast cancer while its value in early stage and in breast cancer subgroups is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate that whether it is or not differences of the serum preoperative CA15-3 levels in early breast cancer subgroups...
August 4, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Paul Russell Roberts, Ashesh B Jani, Satyaseelan Packianathan, Ashley Albert, Rahul Bhandari, Srinivasan Vijayakumar
For 2018, the American Cancer Society estimated that there would be approximately 1.7 million new diagnoses of cancer and about 609,640 cancer-related deaths in the United States. By 2030 these numbers are anticipated to exceed a staggering 21 million annual diagnoses and 13 million cancer-related deaths. The three primary therapeutic modalities for cancer treatments are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Individually or in combination, these treatment modalities have provided and continue to provide curative and palliative care to the myriad victims of cancer...
August 13, 2018: Radiation Oncology
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