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Oncology cancer tumor

Junaid Raja, Johannes M Ludwig, Scott N Gettinger, Kurt A Schalper, Hyun S Kim
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy is at the forefront of modern oncologic care. Various novel therapies have targeted all three layers of tumor biology: tumor, niche, and immune system with a range of promising results. One emerging class in both primary and salvage therapy is oncolytic viruses. This therapy offers a multimodal approach to specifically and effectively target and destroy malignant cells, though a barrier oncoviral therapies have faced is a limited therapeutic response to currently delivery techniques...
December 4, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Elisa Caiola, Francesca Falcetta, Silvia Giordano, Mirko Marabese, Marina C Garassino, Massimo Broggini, Roberta Pastorelli, Laura Brunelli
BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a heterogeneous disease, with multiple different oncogenic mutations. Approximately 25-30% of NSCLC patients present KRAS mutations, which confer poor prognosis and high risk of tumor recurrence. About half of NSCLCs with activating KRAS lesions also have deletions or inactivating mutations in the serine/threonine kinase 11 (LKB1) gene. Loss of LKB1 on a KRAS-mutant background may represent a significant source of heterogeneity contributing to poor response to therapy...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Zacharie Segaoula, Aline Primot, Frederic Lepretre, Benoit Hedan, Emmanuel Bouchaert, Kevin Minier, Laurent Marescaux, François Serres, Sylvie Galiègue-Zouitina, Catherine André, Bruno Quesnel, Xavier Thuru, Dominique Tierny
BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer in humans. Among its types, mucosal melanomas represent one of the most highly metastatic and aggressive forms, with a very poor prognosis. Because they are rare in Caucasian individuals, unlike cutaneous melanomas, there has been fewer epidemiological, clinical and genetic evaluation of mucosal melanomas. Moreover, the lack of predictive models fully reproducing the pathogenesis and molecular alterations of mucosal melanoma makes its treatment challenging...
December 4, 2018: BMC Cancer
Marieke van Son, Max Peters, Marinus Moerland, Linda Kerkmeijer, Jan Lagendijk, Jochem van der Voort van Zyp
Over the last decades, primary prostate cancer radiotherapy saw improving developments, such as more conformal dose administration and hypofractionated treatment regimens. Still, prostate cancer recurrences after whole-gland radiotherapy remain common, especially in patients with intermediate- to high-risk disease. The vast majority of these patients are treated palliatively with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), which exposes them to harmful side-effects and is only effective for a limited amount of time...
December 3, 2018: Cancers
Michael H Gerber, Patrick W Underwood, Sarah M Judge, Daniel Delitto, Andrea E Delitto, Rachel L Nosacka, Bayli B DiVita, Ryan M Thomas, Jennifer B Permuth, Steven J Hughes, Shannon M Wallet, Andrew R Judge, Jose G Trevino
Cancer cachexia is a debilitating condition seen frequently in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The underlying mechanisms driving cancer cachexia are not fully understood but are related, at least in part, to the immune response to the tumor both locally and systemically. We hypothesize that there are unique differences in cytokine levels in the tumor microenvironment and systemic circulation between PDAC tumors and that these varying profiles affect the degree of cancer cachexia observed...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Javier Amézaga, Sara Arranz, Ander Urruticoechea, Gurutze Ugartemendia, Aitziber Larraioz, Maria Louka, Matxalen Uriarte, Carla Ferreri, Itziar Tueros
The fatty acid (FA) composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids of cancer patients can reflect tumor status, dietary intakes, and cancer type or therapy. However, the characteristic membrane profiles have so far not yet defined as a potential biomarker to monitor disease evolution. The present work provides the first evidence of cancer metabolic signatures affecting cell membranes that are independent of nutritional habits. From the Oncology Outpatient Unit of the Onkologikoa hospital, two groups of cancer patients ( n = 54) and healthy controls ( n = 37) were recruited, and mature RBCs membrane phospholipids were analyzed for FA profiling (GC-MS)...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
Gregory M Videtic, Rebecca Paulus, Anurag K Singh, Joe Y Chang, William Parker, Kenneth R Olivier, Robert D Timmerman, Ritsuko R Komaki, James J Urbanic, Kevin L Stephans, Sue S Yom, Clifford G Robinson, Chandra P Belani, Puneeth Iyengar, Munther I Ajlouni, Darindra D Gopaul, Shashikant B Lele, Ronald C McGarry, Hak Choy, Jeffrey D Bradley
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): To present long-term results of XXXX, a randomized lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) trial of 34 Gy in 1 fraction versus 48 Gy in 4 fractions. MATERIALS/METHODS: This was a phase II multicenter study of medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer patients with biopsy-proven peripheral T1 or T2 N0M0 tumors, with 1-year toxicity rates as primary endpoint and selected failure and survival outcomes as secondary endpoints. The study opened in September 2009 and closed in March 2011...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Antonio Raffone, Antonio Travaglino, Gabriele Saccone, Massimo Mascolo, Luigi Insabato, Antonio Mollo, Giuseppe De Placido, Fulvio Zullo
INTRODUCTION: Benign and precancerous endometrial hyperplasias (EH) are differentiated according to two alternative histomorphologic classifications: World Health Organization (WHO) or Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia (EIN) system. 2018 European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) guidelines recommends paired box 2 protein (PAX2) immunohistochemistry to identify precancerous EH. However, methods for interpreting immunostaining and diagnostic accuracy are not defined, and the role of PAX2 in endometrial carcinogenesis is unclear...
December 4, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Brendan P Lovasik, Rebecca L Seidel, Matteo Novello, Mylin A Torres, Albert Losken, Monica Rizzo
INTRODUCTION: Breast conserving surgery (BCS) has a postoperative morbidity up to 30%. We report the feasibility of a single-incision approach for tumor excision and axillary sentinel node biopsy (SNB) sampling intended to minimize patient morbidity and complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A tertiary surgical oncology single surgeon database was retrospectively reviewed for all patients undergoing BCS and SNB between January 2013 and December 2015. The single-incision approach used a single breast incision to resect the tumor and the Lymphazurin-tagged SNB...
December 3, 2018: Breast Journal
Adam W Bartlett, Megan P Cann, Daniel K Yeoh, Anne Bernard, Anne L Ryan, Christopher C Blyth, Rishi S Kotecha, Brendan J McMullan, Andrew S Moore, Gabrielle M Haeusler, Julia E Clark
BACKGROUND: A thorough understanding of local and contemporary invasive fungal infection (IFI) epidemiology in immunocompromised children is required to provide a rationale for targeted prevention and treatment strategies. METHODS: Retrospective data over 10 years from four tertiary pediatric oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) units across Australia were analyzed to report demographic, clinical, and mycological characteristics of IFI episodes, and crude IFI prevalence in select oncology/HSCT groups...
December 4, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Lieve G J Leijssen, Anne M Dinaux, Hiroko Kinutake, Liliana G Bordeianou, David L Berger
BACKGROUND: Although stage I colorectal cancer has an excellent prognosis after complete surgical resection, disease recurrence still occurs. This study aimed to assess prognostic risk factors in this early stage of disease. METHODS: All non-neoadjuvantly treated stage I colon (CC) and rectal (RC) patients who underwent a surgical resection between 2004 and 2015 were identified. Clinicopathological differences and long-term oncological outcomes were compared. RESULTS: CC patients (n = 433) were older and had more pre-existing comorbidities...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Valeriia Gulaia, Vadim Kumeiko, Nikita Shved, Eduardas Cicinskas, Stanislav Rybtsov, Alexey Ruzov, Alexander Kagansky
Cellular quiescence is a reversible, non-cycling state controlled by epigenetic, transcriptional and niche-associated molecular factors. Quiescence is a condition where molecular signaling pathways maintain the poised cell-cycle state whilst enabling rapid cell cycle re-entry. To achieve therapeutic breakthroughs in oncology it is crucial to decipher these molecular mechanisms employed by the cancerous milieu to control, maintain and gear stem cells towards re-activation. Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have been extensively studied in most malignancies, including glioma...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
B Malicherova, T Burjanivova, E Minarikova, I Kasubova, T Pecova, M Bobrovska, I Homola, Z Lasabova, L Plank
Malignant melanoma is an oncological disease characterized by etiologic heterogeneity and it has increasing incidence and mortality in the Slovak Republic. While it is treated surgically in combination with chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy, malignant melanomas can ulcerate and are susceptible to infections. These are highly aggressive cancers with metastasis, and recent studies have shown the presence of mutations in RAC1, PPP6C and STK19 genes in melanoma patients. Mutations in these genes are driver mutations; important in oncogenesis and providing selective advantage to tumor cells...
August 9, 2018: Neoplasma
Saiyun Hou, Billy Huh, Hee Kee Kim, Kyung-Hoon Kim, Salahadin Abdi
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a commonly encountered disease entity following chemotherapy for cancer treatment. Although only duloxetine is recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) for the treatment of CIPN in 2014, the evidence of the clinical outcome for new pharmaceutic therapies and non-pharmaceutic treatments has not been clearly determined. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review and evidence-based recommendations on the treatment of CIPN...
November 2018: Pain Physician
Rosalba De Nola, Luca Maria Schönauer, Maria Grazia Fiore, Matteo Loverro, Carmine Carriero, Edoardo Di Naro
RATIONALE: Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a very rare malignant tumor, belonging to a family of pregnancy-related illnesses, called gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD). Less than 300 cases of PSTT have been reported in literature, with an incidence of ≈ 1/50,000-100,000 pregnancies representing only 0.23% to 3.00% of all GTDs. PATIENT CONCERNS: Our report describes 2 additional cases of PSTT outlining their main diagnostic features and the subsequent management...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Varol Gülseren, Mustafa Kocaer, Özgü Güngördük, İsa Aykut Özdemir, Ceren Gölbaşı, Adnan Budak, Mehmet Gökçü, Muzaffer Sancı, Kemal Güngördük
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the treatment options and survival of uterine cervical cancer (UCC) patients who develop isolated pulmonary metastases (IPM) and to establish risk factors for IPM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from patients diagnosed with UCC between June 1991 and January 2017 at the Gynecological Oncology Department, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, were investigated. In total, 43 cases with IPM were evaluated retrospectively...
2018: Ginekologia Polska
Yuhong Dai, Hong Qiu
Malignant acute abdomen is a emergency with abrupt onset, rapid progress and often a complex etiology, presenting difficulties for treatment and high mortality. Therefore, multidisciplinary team (MDT) treatment modality is required. Compared with single-discipline diagnosis and treatment modality, diagnosis made from MDT discussion is more accurate, where specialists can improve efficiency and quality of the treatment through better communication. A good MDT can cover all stages from the diagnosis to the assessment and treatment of the disease, and combine them into a more coherent process...
November 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Salvatore Paiella, Matteo De Pastena, Mirko D'Onofrio, Stefano Francesco Crinò, Teresa Lucia Pan, Riccardo De Robertis, Giovanni Elio, Enrico Martone, Claudio Bassi, Roberto Salvia
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a solid tumor with still a dismal prognosis. Diagnosis is usually late, when the disease is metastatic or locally advanced (LAPC). Only 20% of PC are amenable to surgery at the time of diagnosis and the vast majority of them, despite radically resected will unavoidably recur. The treatment of LAPC is a challenge. Current guidelines suggest to adopt systemic therapies upfront, based on multi-drugs chemotherapy regimens. However, the vast majority of patients will never experience conversion to surgical exploration and radical resection...
2018: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Bárbara Meléndez, Claude Van Campenhout, Sandrine Rorive, Myriam Remmelink, Isabelle Salmon, Nicky D'Haene
Immunotherapies based on immune checkpoint inhibitors are emerging as an innovative treatment for different types of advanced cancers. While the utility of immune checkpoint inhibitors has been clearly demonstrated, the response rate is highly variable across individuals. Due to the cost and toxicity of these immunotherapies, a critical challenge in this field is the identification of predictive biomarkers to discriminate which patients may respond to immunotherapy. Recently, a high tumor mutational burden (TMB) has been identified as a genetic signature that is associated with a favorable outcome for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy...
December 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Ruchi Chaudhary, Luca Quagliata, Jermann Philip Martin, Ilaria Alborelli, Dinesh Cyanam, Vinay Mittal, Warren Tom, Janice Au-Young, Seth Sadis, Fiona Hyland
Background: Tumor mutational burden (TMB) is an increasingly important biomarker for immune checkpoint inhibitors. Recent publications have described strong association between high TMB and objective response to mono- and combination immunotherapies in several cancer types. Existing methods to estimate TMB require large amount of input DNA, which may not always be available. Methods: In this study, we develop a method to estimate TMB using the Oncomine Tumor Mutation Load (TML) Assay with 20 ng of DNA, and we characterize the performance of this method on various formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) research samples of several cancer types...
December 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
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