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Oncology cancer tumor

Jessica Krebs, Sonja Wasner, Sainab Egloffstein, Michael P Lux, Eva Morawa, Matthias W Beckmann, Yesim Erim
PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to find out about psychological distress, fear of progression, and resilience levels in patients with breast cancer and gynecological tumors asking for a second opinion concerning their oncological treatment. METHODS: 158 female cancer patients were assessed for those parameters in a questionnaire survey comprising SOC-13, FoP-Q-SF, and the NCCN distress thermometer. RESULTS: 16.2% of the breast cancer patients and 20...
October 16, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Xiaonan Yin, Yuan Yin, Chaoyong Shen, Huijiao Chen, Jiang Wang, Zhaolun Cai, Zhixin Chen, Bo Zhang
Background: Regorafenib is a novel multikinase inhibitor (MKI) approved for use in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), treatment-refractory gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and other solid tumor malignancies. However, the adverse events (AEs) associated with regorafenib have not been systematically investigated. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to identify AEs associated with regorafenib in patients with advanced solid tumors. Methods: The databases of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase and abstracts presented in American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meetings were searched for relevant publications from January 2004 to September 2017...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Shoko Mori, Cristian Navarrete-Dechent, Tatyana A Petukhova, Erica H Lee, Anthony M Rossi, Michael A Postow, Lara A Dunn, Benjamin R Roman, Vivian T Yin, Daniel G Coit, Travis J Hollmann, Klaus J Busam, Kishwer S Nehal, Christopher A Barker
Background: Tumor board conferences (TBCs) are used by oncologic specialists to review patient cases, exchange knowledge, and discuss options for cancer management. These multidisciplinary meetings are often a cornerstone of treatment at leading cancer centers and are required for accreditation by certain groups, such as the American College of Surgeons' Commission on Cancer. Little is known regarding skin cancer TBCs. The objective of this study was to characterize the structure, function, and impact of existing skin cancer TBCs in the United States...
October 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Sung Han Kim, Mi Kyung Song, Jung Kwon Kim, Bumsik Hong, Seok Ho Kang, Ja Hyeon Ku, Byong Chang Jeong, Ho Kyung Seo
Purpose: To compare oncologic outcomes between open nephroureterectomy (ONU) and laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Materials and Methods: The medical records of consecutive ONU and LNU cases from five tertiary institutions were retrospectively analyzed between 2000 and 2012. The propensity-score matching methodology was used to compare the two surgical approaches in terms of age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, tumor location, grade, pathologic T and N stages, the presence of lymphovascular invasion, and follow-up duration...
October 12, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Frank Traub, Anthony M Griffin, Jay S Wunder, Peter C Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Soft-tissue sarcomas (STSs) are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors that can be difficult to treat. This is particularly true after incomplete or unplanned excisions and especially for patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III tumors, who are at high risk for relapse. Numerous studies have shown that an inadequate sarcoma excision is associated with a worse prognosis. However, other reports have suggested an improved prognosis for patients with an initial unplanned excision and subsequent re-excision in comparison with patients who undergo planned primary surgery...
October 15, 2018: Cancer
Mark J Margres, Manuel Ruiz-Aravena, Rodrigo Hamede, Menna E Jones, Matthew F Lawrance, Sarah A Hendricks, Austin Patton, Brian W Davis, Elaine A Ostrander, Hamish McCallum, Paul A Hohenlohe, Andrew Storfer
Understanding the genetic basis of disease-related phenotypes, such as cancer susceptibility, is crucial for the advancement of personalized medicine. Although most cancers are somatic in origin, a small number of transmissible cancers have been documented. Two such cancers have emerged in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii ) and now threaten the species with extinction. Recently, cases of natural tumor regression in Tasmanian devils infected with the clonally contagious cancer have been detected. We used whole-genome sequencing and FST -based approaches to identify the genetic basis of tumor regression by comparing the genomes of seven individuals that underwent tumor regression with those of three infected individuals that did not...
October 13, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Oisín Bugter, Jose A Hardillo, Robert J Baatenburg de Jong, Arjen Amelink, Dominic J Robinson
A new approach in early cancer detection focuses on detecting field cancerization (FC) instead of the tumor itself. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether reflectance spectroscopy can detect FC in the buccal mucosa of patients with laryngeal cancer. The optical properties of the buccal mucosa of patients were measured with multidiameter single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy. The blood oxygen saturation and blood volume fraction were significantly lower in the buccal mucosa of laryngeal cancer patients than in non-oncologic controls...
October 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Markus Zimmermann, Christiane Kuhl, Sebastian Keil
Purpose: Size and density measurements of the ablation zones on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatic metastases of primary breast or colorectal cancer were acquired over time. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five liver metastases [colorectal cancer (CRC): n = 16; mean size: 19.6 ± 8.5 mm; breast cancer (BC): n = 9; 27.9 ± 13.6 mm] in 15 patients (CRC: n = 11; age: 65.4 ± 6.5 years; BC: n = 4; 62.0 ± 13.8 years) treated by RFA were included in this retrospective study...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
Juan Ignacio Pascual Piédrola, Mateo Hevia Suárez, Francisco Javier Ancizu Markert, Angel García Cortés, Pablo Doménech López, Santiago Chiva San Román, José María Velis Campillo, Fernando Díez-Caballero Alonso, José Enrique Robles García, David Rosell Costa, Felipe Villacampa Aubá, Fernando Ramón de Fata Chillón, Bernardino Miñana López
Prostate cancer is a health problem in many Countries worldwide. Understanding the essential function of androgens in the prostate physiology led to the development of hormonal blockade as a therapeutic option in advanced disease, with limited response with time and development of resistance. In this stage, where castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is defined, it is associated with poor prognosis because survival varies between 18 and 24 months. Even with castration levels, tumors are dependent on the functional androgen receptor (AR)...
September 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Andrea Papadia, Maria Luisa Gasparri, Junjie Wang, Anda P Radan, Michael D Mueller
The risk of lymph nodal metastases in endometrial cancer varies greatly according to the characteristics of the primary tumor. Surgical staging with a systematic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer is debated since three decades. On one hand, it provides important pathological information on the spread of the tumor allowing for an appropriate decision making on adjuvant treatment but on the other side it is characterized by a non negligible short and long term morbidity. In the past decades, various efforts have been made in the attempt to apply the concept of the sentinel lymph node mapping in endometrial cancer...
October 11, 2018: Minerva Ginecologica
Yu-Ting Chen, Kee-Thai Kiu, Min-Hsuan Yen, Tung-Cheng Chang
BACKGROUND: Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard surgical principle in the treatment of rectal cancer. However, in recent years, there has been an increasing debate about how to obtain better results in circumferential margin (CRM) and distal margins of the surgical specimen. The CRM and distal margin involvement rates have been linked to local recurrence and disease-free survival rates. In this study, we compared three surgical techniques for the treatment of lower rectal cancer...
October 11, 2018: Asian Journal of Surgery
Silvio E Perea, Idania Baladrón, Carmen Valenzuela, Yasser Perera
Protein kinase CK2, formerly referred to as casein kinase II, is a serine/threonine kinase often found overexpressed in solid tumors and hematologic malignancies that phosphorylates many substrates integral to the hallmarks of cancer. CK2 has emerged as a viable oncology target having been experimentally validated with different kinase inhibitors, including small molecule ATP-competitors, synthetic peptides, and antisense oligonucleotides. To date only two CK2 inhibitors, CIGB-300 and CX-4945, have entered the clinic in phase 1-2 trials...
January 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Simona Marzi, Silvia Minosse, Antonello Vidiri, Francesca Piludu, Marco Giannelli
PURPOSE: While previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility and potential usefulness of quantitative non-Gaussian diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) of the brain, more recent research has focused on oncological application of DKI in various body regions such as prostate, breast, and head and neck (HN). Given the need to minimize scan time during most routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions of body regions, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with only three orthogonal diffusion weighting directions (x, y, z) is usually performed...
October 13, 2018: Medical Physics
Claudia Matteucci, Emanuela Balestrieri, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Paola Sinibaldi-Vallebona
Cancer incidence and mortality, metastasis, drug resistance and recurrence are still the critical issues of oncological diseases. In this scenario, increasing scientific evidences demonstrate that the activation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) is involved in the aggressiveness of tumors such as melanoma, breast, germ cell, renal, ovarian, liver and haematological cancers. In their dynamic regulation, HERVs have also proved to be important determinants of pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells (ESC) and of the reprogramming process of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
October 11, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Alessandra Pannunzio, Mauro Coluccia
Prostaglandins and thromboxane are lipid signaling molecules deriving from arachidonic acid by the action of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes COX-1 and COX-2. The role of cyclooxygenases (particularly COX-2) and prostaglandins (particularly PGE₂) in cancer-related inflammation has been extensively investigated. In contrast, COX-1 has received less attention, although its expression increases in several human cancers and a pathogenetic role emerges from experimental models. COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms seem to operate in a coordinate manner in cancer pathophysiology, especially in the tumorigenesis process...
October 11, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Nikki Tirada, Mireille Aujero, Gauri Khorjekar, Stephanie Richards, Jasleen Chopra, Sergio Dromi, Olga Ioffe
An understanding of prognostic factors in breast cancer is imperative for guiding patient care. Increased tumor size and more advanced nodal status are established independent prognostic factors of poor outcomes and are incorporated into the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM (primary tumor, regional lymph node, distant metastasis) staging system. However, other factors including imaging findings, histologic evaluation results, and molecular findings can have a direct effect on a patient's prognosis, including risk of recurrence and relative survival...
October 12, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Bradley J Monk, James T Kauderer, Katherine M Moxley, Albert J Bonebrake, Summer B Dewdney, Angeles Alvarez Secord, Frederick R Ueland, Carolyn M Johnston, Carol Aghajanian
OBJECTIVE: Preclinical data suggest elesclomol increases oxidative stress and enhances sensitivity to cytotoxic agents. The objective of this prospective multicenter phase 2 trial was to estimate the activity of IV elesclomol plus weekly paclitaxel in patients with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian, tubal or peritoneal cancer through the frequency of objective tumor responses (ORR). METHODS: Patients with measurable disease, acceptable organ function, performance status ≤ 2, and one prior platinum containing regimen were eligible...
October 8, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Juan Glinka, Federico Diaz, Augusto Alva, Oscar Mazza, Rodrigo Sanchez Claria, Victoria Ardiles, Eduardo de Santibañes, Juan Pekolj, Martín de Santibañes
PURPOSE: Pancreatic cancer (PC) has not changed overall survival in recent years despite therapeutic efforts. Surgery with curative intent has shown the best long-term oncological results. However, 80%-85% of patients with these tumors are unresectable at the time of diagnosis. In those patients, first therapeutic attempts are minimally invasive or surgical procedures to alleviate symptoms. The addition of radiotherapy (RT) to standard chemotherapy, ergo chemoradiation, in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is still controversial...
September 2018: Radiation Oncology Journal
Siham Hedir, Marcella De Giorgi, Jade Fogha, Martina De Pascale, Louis-Bastien Weiswald, Emilie Brotin, Bogdan Marekha, Christophe Denoyelle, Camille Denis, Peggy Suzanne, Fabien Gautier, Philippe Juin, Laetitia Ligat, Frédéric Lopez, Ludovic Carlier, Rémi Legay, Ronan Bureau, Sylvain Rault, Laurent Poulain, Jana Sopková-de Oliveira Santos, Anne Sophie Voisin-Chiret
Protein-protein interactions are attractive targets because they control numerous cellular processes. In oncology, apoptosis regulating Bcl-2 family proteins are of particular interest. Apoptotic cell death is controlled via PPIs between the anti-apoptotic proteins hydrophobic groove and the pro-apoptotic proteins BH3 domain. In ovarian carcinoma, it has been previously demonstrated that Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 cooperate to protect tumor cells against apoptosis. Moreover, Mcl-1 is a key regulator of cancer cell survival and is a known resistance factor to Bcl-2/Bcl-xL pharmacological inhibitors making it an attractive therapeutic target...
November 5, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jahanafrooz Zohreh, Motamed Nasrin, Rinner Beate, Mokhtarzadeh Ahad, Baradaran Behzad
Silibinin is a natural plant polyphenol with high antioxidant and anticancer properties, which causes broad-spectrum efficacy against cancer, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in most cancer cell types. Silibinin, by modulating the apoptosis, cell cycle progression and autophagic pathways in various cellular and molecular routs might be used to design more effective anticancer strategies. Silibinin also regulates aberrant miRNAs expression linked to many aspects of cell biology in cancer. Maybe the most interesting aspect of silibinin is its ability to trigger multiple cellular signaling pathways to induce a particular biologic effect in various cell types...
October 8, 2018: Life Sciences
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