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Infectious Diseases*

Aakash Pandita, Astha Panghal, Girish Gupta, Anup Verma, Anish Pillai, Anita Singh, Kirti Naranje
BACKGROUND: Childhood vaccination is a common procedure and a part of routine medical care during infancy. Although vaccination is the cornerstone for prevention of many infectious diseases, it is associated with significant pain, which is often ignored. Non pharmacological interventions such as breast feeding and kangaroo mother care (KMC) have been used to decrease this procedural pain. However there is paucity of published data on effective use of KMC in term neonates and infants beyond the neonatal age...
October 12, 2018: Early Human Development
Jan Tkadlec, Monika Peckova, Lucie Sramkova, Vilem Rohn, David Jahoda, Dominik Raszka, Jan Berousek, Frantisek Mosna, Tomas Vymazal, Milan Kvapil, Pavel Drevinek
OBJECTIVES: Broad-range PCR has the potential to detect virtually any bacterial species via amplification and nucleotide sequencing of a DNA region common to all bacteria. We aimed to evaluate its usefulness and clinical relevance when applied to a wide variety of primary sterile materials. METHODS: A prospective study including 1370 samples (75 heart valves, 151 joint tissue samples, 230 joint aspirates, 848 whole blood samples and 66 culture negative cerebrospinal fluid samples) were studied by using a commercial PCR system for detecting 16S rDNA (Molzym)...
October 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Willem G van Panhuis, Anne Cross, Donald S Burke
Objective: In 2013, we released Project Tycho, an open-access database comprising 3.6 million counts of infectious disease cases and deaths reported for over a century by public health surveillance in the United States. Our objective is to describe how Project Tycho version 1 (v1) data has been used to create new knowledge and technology and to present improvements made in the newly released version 2.0 (v2). Materials and Methods: We analyzed our user database and conducted online searches to analyze the use of Project Tycho v1 data...
October 15, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Sarah B Doernberg, Thuy Tien Tram Tran, Steven Y C Tong, Mical Paul, Dafna Yahav, Joshua S Davis, Leonard Leibovici, Helen W Boucher, G Ralph Corey, Sara E Cosgrove, Henry F Chambers, Vance G Fowler, Scott R Evans, Thomas L Holland
Background: Desirability of outcome ranking (DOOR) is an innovative approach in clinical trials to evaluate the global benefits and risks of an intervention. We developed and validated a DOOR endpoint for Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) through a survey to infectious diseases clinicians and secondary analysis of trial data. Methods: We administered a survey of 20 cases of S. aureus BSI, asking respondents to rank outcomes by global desirability...
October 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Shengnan Hao, Xi Chen, Fang Wang, Qianqian Shao, Jia Liu, Hui Zhao, Chao Yuan, Hanxiao Ren, Haiting Mao
Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is a potent immunosuppressive cytokine, consisting of an EBV-induced gene 3 (EBI3) subunit and a p35 subunit. IL-35 is mainly produced by regulatory T and regulatory B cells and plays a crucial role in the development and prevention of infectious and autoimmune diseases. However, the effect of IL-35 in malignant disease is not well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that breast cancer cells (BCCs) also expressed and secreted IL-35 and higher level of IL-35 in BCCs was closely associated with poor prognosis of patients and was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for breast cancer...
October 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Jie Ji, Rosemary Thwaite, Nerea Roher
Most pathogens invade organisms through their mucosa. This is particularly true in fish as they are continuously exposed to a microbial-rich water environment. Developing effective methods for oral delivery of immunostimulants or vaccines, which activate the immune system against infectious diseases, is highly desirable. In devising prophylactic tools, good experimental models are needed to test their performance. Here, we show a method for oral intubation of adult zebrafish and a set of procedures to dissect and prepare the intestine for cytometry, confocal microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Pavimol Angsantikul, Soracha Thamphiwatana, Qiangzhe Zhang, Kevin Spiekermann, Jia Zhuang, Ronnie H Fang, Weiwei Gao, Marygorret Obonyo, Liangfang Zhang
Inspired by the natural pathogen-host interactions and adhesion, this study reports on the development of a novel targeted nanotherapeutics for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection. Specifically, plasma membranes of gastric epithelial cells (e.g. AGS cells) are collected and coated onto antibiotic-loaded polymeric cores, the resulting biomimetic nanoparticles (denoted AGS-NPs) bear the same surface antigens as the source AGS cells and thus have inherent adhesion to H. pylori bacteria...
June 2018: Adv Ther (Weinh)
Yong-Guo Zhang, Yinglin Xia, Rong Lu, Jun Sun
Fish oil is a natural product that has shown efficacy for managing inflammatory conditions with few side effects. There is emerging evidence that crosstalks between gut epithelial cells and immune cells contribute to chronic infectious diseases. HIV-infected (HIV+) older adults show age-related co-morbidities at a younger age than their uninfected counterparts. Persistent inflammation related to the chronic viral infection and its sequelae is thought to contribute to this disparity. However, little is known about whether fish oil reduces intestinal inflammation in HIV + patients...
September 2018: Genes & Diseases
Samaneh Halvaee, Roshanak Daie Ghazvini, Seyed Jamal Hashemi, Ensieh Zibafar, Saeed Yekaninejad, Mohsen Geramishoar, Heidar Bakhshi, Shahram Mahmoudi, Hasti Kamali Sarvestani, Razieh Yaghoubi, Leila Hosseinpour, Zeinab Borjian
Background: Intertrigo is an erythematous inflammatory condition with multiple etiologies including fungi and bacteria. Intertrigo manifests in different clinical forms with various complaints. This study was conducted to evaluate the causative agents of intertriginous infections with emphasize on clinical presentations. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2015-2016, on 188 patients with clinical suspicion of superficial and cutaneous intertriginous infections in Tehran, Iran...
September 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Abdul Rahman Bizri, Jawad Fares, Umayya Musharrafieh
Background: The Syrian crisis has altered the epidemiology of infectious diseases in countries hosting large numbers of refugees. Lebanon witnessed several outbreaks linked to the presence of significant numbers of Syrian refugees, namely, Hepatitis A virus (HAV). We explore the epidemiology of HAV in Lebanon and the impact of the Syrian war during the 2014 outbreak and suggest solutions to prevent and minimize the HAV spread amid the current socioeconomic conditions. Methods: We reviewed all HAV cases reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Unit at the Ministry of Public Health between January 2001 and December 2017...
October 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
Amit Om, Anjali Om
The objectives of this review are to demonstrate that portraits, in their visual reflections of subjects faces and expressions, offer significant representations relevant to the field of dermatology and bring attention to an underappreciated aesthetic of dermatological conditions. The review comprises paintings that purposefully or inadvertently depict dermatological conditions. The findings were substantiated by searching PubMed using the keywords art , painting , and dermatology , as well as combinations of these terms...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
G T Chua, P H Li, M Hk Ho, E Lai, V Ngai, F Ys Yau, M Yw Kwan, T F Leung, T H Lee
Vaccination of egg-allergic individuals has been a historical concern, particularly for influenza and measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccines that are developed in chicken egg embryos or chicken cell fibroblasts. The egg proteins in these vaccines were believed to trigger an immediate allergic reaction in egg-allergic individuals. However, recently published international guidelines have updated their recommendations and now state that these vaccines can be safely administered to egg-allergic individuals. This joint consensus statement by the Hong Kong Institute of Allergy and the Hong Kong Society for Paediatric Immunology Allergy & Infectious Diseases summarises the updates and provides recommendations for local general practitioners and paediatricians...
October 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Eita Sasaki, Haruka Momose, Yuki Hiradate, Takuo Mizukami, Isao Hamaguchi
Vaccines effectively prevent infectious diseases. Many types of vaccines against various pathogens that threaten humans are currently in widespread use. Recently, adjuvant adaptation has been attempted to activate innate immunity to enhance the effectiveness of vaccines. The effectiveness of adjuvants for vaccinations has been demonstrated in many animal models and clinical trials. Although a highly potent adjuvant tends to have high effectiveness, it also has the potential to increase the risk of side effects such as pain, edema, and fever...
October 11, 2018: Vaccine
Mahfuza Talukder Flowra, Muhammad Asaduzzaman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Elisabetta Zucchi, Francesco Cavallieri, Giada Giovannini, Francesca Antonelli, Maria Teresa Mascia, Roberta Bedin, Jessica Mandrioli
A 64 years-old woman presented subacute onset distal paraesthesia concurrently with cold-induced urticaria, a rare form of physical urticaria. Both the disturbances developed a fortnight after an upper respiratory tract infection. EMG confirmed an exclusively sensory polyneuropathy, with prolongation of distal latencies and reduction of amplitudes. Anti-GQ1b and anti-GT1a antigangliosides antibodies were found in serum. The clinical workout included CSF analysis, cryoglobulin and paraprotein search, neurotropic infective agents, neoplastic markers and extensive autoimmune disease antibodies analysis, all of which resulted negative...
October 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Tapiwa Ganyani, Kimberlyn Roosa, Christel Faes, Niel Hens, Gerardo Chowell
We assess the relationship between epidemic size and the scaling of epidemic growth of Ebola epidemics at the level of administrative areas during the 2014-16 Ebola epidemic in West Africa. For this purpose, we quantify growth scaling parameters from the ascending phase of Ebola outbreaks comprising at least 7 weeks of epidemic growth. We then study how these parameters are associated with observed epidemic sizes. For validation purposes, we also analyse two historic Ebola outbreaks. We find a high monotonic association between the scaling of epidemic growth parameter and the observed epidemic size...
October 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Cyril Jose, Kesrin Amra, Chintan Bhavsar, Munira Momin, Abdelwahab Omri
Some of the criteria for selection of a viable nanocarrier formulation currently being explored are the development of a site-specific and bioavailable formulation. Although the literature reports a variety of techniques for fabrication of nanocarrier systems, their stability and scale-up issues are a concern for their prominence in the pharmaceutical industry. The other widely recognized drawbacks of nanoparticulates, i.e., polymeric nanoparticles and lipid vesicular nanoparticles (liposomes), are low circulatory half-lives due to reticuloendothelial system (RES) uptake and leaky architecture leading to burst kinetics...
2018: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
(no author information available yet)
End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is a life threaten clinical syndrome with significantly increasing mortality when patients complicated with infections. For patients with ESLD, infections can induce or aggravate the occurrence of liver decompensation. In turn, infections are among the most common complications under, disease progression. There is lacking of working procedures for early diagnosis and appropriate management for patients of ESLD complicated with infections, neither guidelines nor consensus at home and abroad...
August 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
(no author information available yet)
Approved direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA ) in chronic hepatitis C were introduced. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics data of DAAs were analyzed. Comorbidity and concomitant medications of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients were extracted from Chinese Health Insurance database. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) were calculated by integrated above data and confirmed by using Liverpool DDI website. Based on those data, experts propose consensus on management of drug-drug interaction with direct-acting antiviral agents in chronic hepatitis C, including pre-treatment, on-treatment, and post-treatment...
July 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
B Liu, Y X Zhang, W H Zhang, Y P Han, J Li
Objective: To analyze the changing trends in etiologies of hospitalized patients with liver disease and provide clinical basis for the formulation of medical policy. Methods: Patients who were hospitalized in the Department of Infectious Diseases from 2006 to 2014 were selected as the research subjects. Data of patients with liver diseases were retrospectively analyzed to determine the proportion of main causes of infection, the proportion of different viral infections in viral hepatitis, and the changing trends in proportion of hepatitis B in different age groups...
June 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
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