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Infectious Diseases*

Jeffrey L Platt, Marilia Cascalho, Jorge A Piedrahita
For more than a century, transplantation of tissues and organs from animals into man, xenotransplantation, has been viewed as a potential way to treat disease. Ironically, interest in xenotransplantation was fueled especially by successful application of allotransplantation, that is, transplantation of human tissue and organs, as a treatment for a variety of diseases, especially organ failure because scarcity of human tissues limited allotransplantation to a fraction of those who could benefit. In principle, use of animals such as pigs as a source of transplants would allow transplantation to exert a vastly greater impact than allotransplantation on medicine and public health...
December 12, 2018: ILAR Journal
Guy Mollett, Bruno C Bremer Hinckel, Tapan Bhattacharyya, Tegwen Marlais, Om Prakash Singh, Pascal Mertens, Andrew K Falconar, Sayda El-Safi, Shyam Sundar, Michael A Miles
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the Leishmania donovani complex, is a fatal neglected tropical disease that is targeted for elimination in India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Improved diagnostic tests are required for early case detection and for monitoring outcome of treatment. Previous investigations using Leishmania lysate antigen demonstrated that IgG1 response is a potential indicator of clinical status after chemotherapy. Methods: IgG1 or IgG ELISAs with rK39 or lysate antigens, and novel IgG1 rK39 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were assessed with Indian VL serum samples from the following clinical groups: paired pre- and post-chemotherapy (deemed cured); relapsed; other infectious diseases, and endemic healthy controls...
December 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Neda A Moatamed
Urine is a major repository of biometabolites, some proteins, and DNA. Within the past few decades, it has become increasingly apparent that certain infectious, neoplastic, and congenital diseases can be investigated using urine samples for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. In this chapter, a number of pertinent urine analytes and methods of banking urine samples for future analyses are discussed.
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Heinz Flamm
After his medical studies in Vienna and Graz, Georg von Hofmann-Wellenhof, born in 1860 in Vienna, became an assistant at the Pathology Institute at the University of Graz. In 1887, he described a bacterium in the pharynx which resembled diphtheria bacillus. As it was not pathogenic in animal experiments, he named it Bacillus pseudodiphthericus, now Corynebacterium pseudodiphthericum. After moving to the Institute of Hygiene at the University of Vienna, he isolated a strain of glanders bacterium from a deceased patient in 1889...
December 11, 2018: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Mohd Suhail, Ashraf Ali, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Azamal Husen, Fahim Ahmad, Esam Ibraheem Azhar, Nigel H Greig
Dementia is known as loss of cellular communications in the brain at a region caused by multi-factorial diseases and pathogenic infections. Approximately eighty percent reported cases of Alzheimer's disease are followed by vascular dementia. The common symptoms of dementia include memory loss, concentration problems, thinking, and language solving situations. Dementia is a multifactorial disease but based on latest research; various reports have been published describing the linkage and role of viruses, prions and miRNAs in neurodegeneration and neurodegenerative disorders resulting into dementia and due to this we selected to review and provide latest information related to dementia...
December 2018: Virusdisease
Lauren K Freeman, Jasmine N Lindsay, Sarah Elizabeth B Davis, Brian F Norman, April W Thompkins, Vera P Luther, Christopher A Ohl, P Brandon Bookstaver
We describe the proportion of pharmacist representation among current and corresponding prior editions of Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Pharmacist representation was 13% and 21% in previous and current editions, respectively, increasing significantly since 2011. We advocate for continued collaborations between IDSA and pharmacy organizations to enhance multidisciplinary representation in CPGs.
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Meghan N Jeffres, Lauren R Biehle, Conan MacDougall
Background: The growing need for clinicians with antimicrobial stewardship (AS) skills has resulted in an examination of educational methods for pharmacy and medical learners. This study explores characteristics associated with student assessment of didactic infectious diseases (ID) education quality and variables associated with a career interest in ID and/or AS. Methods: Infectious diseases faculty from US pharmacy schools were sent a 15-question survey in September 2017...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Angela H Benton, Mary E Marquart
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic pathogen that can cause severe infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and middle ear infections. It is also one of the top pathogens contributing to bacterial keratitis and conjunctivitis. Though two pneumococcal vaccines exist for the prevention of nonocular diseases, they do little to fully prevent ocular infections. This pathogen has several virulence factors that wreak havoc on the conjunctiva, cornea, and intraocular system...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Saikou Y Bah, Collins Misita Morang'a, Jonas A Kengne-Ouafo, Lucas Amenga-Etego, Gordon A Awandare
Genomics and bioinformatics are increasingly contributing to our understanding of infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum . This ranges from investigations of disease outbreaks and pathogenesis, host and pathogen genomic variation, and host immune evasion mechanisms to identification of potential diagnostic markers and vaccine targets. High throughput genomics data generated from pathogens and animal models can be combined with host genomics and patients' health records to give advice on treatment options as well as potential drug and vaccine interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Aarti Rana, Shweta Thakur, Girish Kumar, Yusuf Akhter
Mycobacterial infections are one of the deadliest infectious diseases still posing a major health burden worldwide. The battle against these pathogens needs to focus on novel approaches and key interventions. In recent times, availability of genome scale data has revolutionized the fields of computational biology and immunoproteomics. Here, we summarize the cutting-edge 'omics' technologies and innovative system scale strategies exploited to mine the available data. These may be targeted using high-throughput technologies to expedite the identification of novel antigenic candidates for the rational next generation vaccines and serodiagnostic development against mycobacterial pathogens for which traditional methods have been failing...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Enzhuo Yang, Rui Yang, Ming Guo, Dan Huang, Wandang Wang, Zhuoran Zhang, Crystal Chen, Feifei Wang, Wenzhe Ho, Ling Shen, Heping Xiao, Zheng W Chen, Hongbo Shen
Tuberculosis (TB) has become the most deadly infectious diseases due to epidemics of HIV/AIDS and multidrug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant TB (MDR-/XDR-TB). Although person-to-person transmission contributes to MDR-TB, it remains unknown whether infection with MDR strains resembles infection with drug-sensitive (DS) TB strains, manipulating limited or broad immune responses. To address these questions, macaques were infected with MDR strain V791 and a drug-sensitive Erdman strain of TB. MDR bacilli burdens in the airway were significantly higher than those of the Erdman control after pulmonary exposure...
December 12, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Hideyuki Takahashi, Haruo Watanabe, Kwang Sik Kim, Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Tatsuo Yanagisawa
While Neisseria meningitidis typically exists in an asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage state, it may cause potentially lethal diseases in humans, such as septicemia or meningitis, by invading deeper sites in the body. Since the nutrient compositions of human cells are not always conducive to meningococci, N. meningitidis needs to exploit nutrients from host environments. In the present study, the utilization of cysteine by the meningococcal cysteine transport system (CTS) was analyzed for the pathogenesis of meningococcal infections...
December 11, 2018: MBio
Efraim Jaul, Jeremy Barron, Joshua P Rosenzweig, Jacob Menczel
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pressure ulcers particularly in the frail older adult population continues to be high and very costly especially in those suffering from chronic diseases and has brought a higher awareness to comprehensive, preventive and therapeutic measures for treatment of pressure ulcers. Internal risk factors highlighted by comorbidities play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pressure ulcers. MAIN BODY: Focusing on the impact of common chronic diseases (comorbidities) in aging on pressure ulcers (e...
December 11, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Shi-Fang Li, Mei-Jiao Gong, Fu-Rong Zhao, Jun-Jun Shao, Yin-Li Xie, Yong-Guang Zhang, Hui-Yun Chang
The interferons (IFNs) are a primary defense against pathogens because of the strong antiviral activities they induce. IFNs can be classified into three groups: type I, type II and type III, according to their genetic, structural, and functional characteristics and their receptors on the cell surface. The type I IFNs are the largest group and include IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-ε, IFN-ω, IFN-κ, IFN-δ, IFN-τ and IFN-ζ. The use of IFNs for the treatment of viral infectious diseases on their antiviral activity may become an important therapeutic option, for example, IFN-α is well known for the successful treatment of hepatitis B and C virus infections, and interest is increasing in the antiviral efficacy of other novel IFN classes and their potential applications...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Giselle Ann D Fontamillas, Si Won Kim, Hoy-Ung Kim, Sung-Jo Kim, Jong Geun Kim, Tae Sub Park, Byung-Chul Park
BACKGROUND: The livestock industry requires high-quality products as well as improved productivity. There have been many studies regarding the utilization of feed additives to increase productivity, enhance immune functions, and prevent infectious diseases in livestock. Biofunctional feed additives would be beneficial not only for animal health, but also for consumers. In this study, we utilized root and byproduct (stem and leaf) powders of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN, Korean Danggui) as feed additives and examined the deposition of biofunctional compounds, such as decursin and decursinol angelate, into egg white and yolk...
December 7, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Qing-Ye Zhuang, Yuan Qiu, Zi-Hao Pan, Su-Chun Wang, Bo Wang, Wan-Kun Wu, Jian-Min Yu, Ying Yi, Fu-Liang Sun, Kai-Cheng Wang
Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) infection is responsible for large numbers of animal deaths worldwide and is one of the most dangerous infectious diseases in young puppies. Twenty-four rectal swabs were collected from dogs with clinical signs of vomiting and hemorrhagic diarrhea and were initially verified to be infected with CPV-2 using colloidal gold test strips. From the 24 CPV-positive samples, complete genome of 5050-5054 nucleotides was sequenced with a next-generation sequencing platform. Characteristics of the Open Reading Frames from different CPV-2 strains detected in this study were analyzed...
December 11, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Peta Bradbury, Nowshin N Rumzhum, Alaina J Ammit
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is a key prostanoid known to have both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory impact in the context of chronic respiratory diseases. We hypothesize that these opposing effects may be the result of different prostanoid E (EP) receptor-mediated signaling pathways. In this study, we focus on two of the four EP receptors, EP2 and EP4 , as they are known to induce cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signaling pathways. Using primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, we first focussed on the PGE2 -induced production of two cAMP-dependent proinflammatory mediators: interleukin 6 (IL-6) and cyclo-oxygenase 2 production...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Melvin Berger
Immune-deficient patients depend on the antibodies in pooled human immunoglobulin G (IgG) preparations to remain free from serious infections. The potency of IgG preparations is therefore an ongoing concern. The use of pooled IgG to prevent infection is based on the concept that healthy adults have recovered from infections earlier in life and maintain relatively high antibody titers. In general, vaccine-induced immunity is less robust or long-lasting than immunity after natural infection, and many infectious diseases which were formerly widely prevalent have become much less common due to improved hygiene and vaccines...
December 2018: Transfusion
Fabiola Marín-Aguilar, Jesús Ruiz-Cabello, Mario D Cordero
The inflammasomes are innate immune system sensors that control the activation of caspase-1 and induce inflammation in response to infectious microbes and molecules originating from host proteins, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Il1b and IL18, and a particular inflammatory type of cell death termed pyroptosis. It is broadly considered that chronic inflammation may be a common link in age-related diseases, aging being the greatest risk factor for the development of chronic diseases. In this sense, we discuss the role of inflammasomes in non-infectious inflammation and their interest in aging and age-related diseases...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
Saleela M Ruwanpura, Sarah Rosli, Michelle D Tate
Inflammasomes are large innate cytoplasmic complexes that play a major role in promoting inflammation in the lung in response to a range of environmental and infectious stimuli. Inflammasomes are critical for driving acute innate immune responses that resolve infection and maintain tissue homeostasis. However, dysregulated or excessive inflammasome activation can be detrimental. Here, we discuss the plethora of recent data from clinical studies and small animal disease models that implicate excessive inflammasome responses in the pathogenesis of a number of acute and chronic respiratory inflammatory diseases...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
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