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Infectious Diseases*

Nobuo Watanabe, Kirill Kryukov, So Nakagawa, Junko S Takeuchi, Meiko Takeshita, Yukiko Kirimura, Satomi Mitsuhashi, Toru Ishihara, Hiromichi Aoki, Sadaki Inokuchi, Tadashi Imanishi, Shigeaki Inoue
Prompt identification of causative pathogenic bacteria is imperative for the treatment of patients suffering from infectious diseases, including sepsis and pneumonia. However, current culture-based methodologies have several drawbacks including their limitation of use to culturable bacterial species. To circumvent these problems, we attempted to detect bacterial DNA in blood using next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) technology. We conducted metagenomic and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing of DNA extracted from bacteria-spiked blood using an Ion Personal Genome Machine...
2018: PloS One
Monica C Campos, Jamille G Dombrowski, Jody Phelan, Claudio R F Marinho, Martin Hibberd, Taane G Clark, Susana Campino
Zika virus infections can cause a range of neurologic disorders including congenital microcephaly. However, while Zika infections have been notified across all regions in Brazil, there has been an unusual number of congenital microcephaly case notifications concentrated in the Northeast of the country. To address this observation, we investigated epidemiological data (2014-2016) on arbovirus co-distribution, environmental and socio-economic factors for each region in Brazil. Data on arbovirus reported cases and microcephaly were collected from several Brazilian Ministry of Health databases for each Federal unit...
2018: PloS One
Laura D Tamayo, Felipe Guhl, Gustavo A Vallejo, Juan David Ramírez
The increase in the global land temperature, expected under predictions of climate change, can directly affect the transmission of some infectious diseases, including Chagas disease, an anthropozoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by arthropod vectors of the subfamily Triatominae. This work seeks to study the effects of temperature on the development of the life cycle, fertility and fecundity of the insect vector Rhodnius prolixus and on the metacyclogenesis of T. cruzi. All of the variables were subjected to 3 temperatures: 26°C, 28°C and 30°C...
August 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Amanda Hayashida Mizuta, Guilherme de Menezes Succi, Victor Angelo Martins Montalli, Regina Célia de Menezes Succi
OBJECTIVE: To identify the perception of medical students and physicians on the importance of vaccination and the risks of vaccine refusal. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with application of questionnaires about vaccines, vaccine refusal and its repercussions on public and individual health. A sample of 92 subjects was selected from a private medical school: group 1 (53 students from first to fourth grades) and group 2 (39 physicians). Data collected were tabulated in the Microsoft Excel Program and analyzed by Fisher's exact test...
August 9, 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
M Margariti, M Hadjulis, M Lazaridou, G F Angelidis, V Fotopoulos, L Markaki, F Koulouri
Schizophrenia is one of the most disabling disorders globally, with a significant impact on the professional, social and personal functioning of those affected. Mortality rates are estimated to be 2-2.5 times greater than in the general population attributable to not only suicide but also physical illnesses, such as cardiovascular, metabolic and infectious diseases. Patients with schizophrenia have increased needs for health services which vary according to the stage of the illness and the way the disorder affects the patient...
April 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Dirk Baumjohann, Vigo Heissmeyer
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are critically involved in the establishment of potent antibody responses against infectious pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, but their dysregulation may also result in aberrant antibody responses that frequently coincide with autoimmune diseases or allergies. The fate and identity of Tfh cells is tightly controlled by gene regulation on the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level. Here, we provide deeper insights into the posttranscriptional mechanisms that regulate Tfh cell differentiation, function, and plasticity through the actions of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and small endogenously expressed regulatory RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Benoit Allard, Alice Panariti, James G Martin
Pathogen persistence in the respiratory tract is an important preoccupation, and of particular relevance to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. The equilibrium between elimination of pathogens and the magnitude of the host response is a sword of Damocles for susceptible patients. The alveolar macrophage is the first sentinel of the respiratory tree and constitutes the dominant immune cell in the steady state. This immune cell is a key player in the balance between defense against pathogens and tolerance toward innocuous stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Katharina Arens, Christodoulos Filippis, Helen Kleinfelder, Arthur Goetzee, Gabriele Reichmann, Peter Crauwels, Zoe Waibler, Katrin Bagola, Ger van Zandbergen
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) drives the pathophysiology of human autoimmune diseases and consequently, neutralizing antibodies (Abs) or Ab-derived molecules directed against TNFα are essential therapeutics. As treatment with several TNFα blockers has been reported to entail a higher risk of infectious diseases such as leishmaniasis, we established an in vitro model based on Leishmania -infected human macrophages, co-cultured with autologous T-cells, for the analysis and comparison of anti-TNFα therapeutics...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Heng Yin, Haijing Wu, Yongjian Chen, Jianzhong Zhang, Min Zheng, Genhui Chen, Linfeng Li, Qianjin Lu
Autophagy is a complicated cellular mechanism that maintains cellular and tissue homeostasis and integrity via degradation of senescent, defective subcellular organelles, infectious agents, and misfolded proteins. Accumulating evidence has shown that autophagy is involved in numerous immune processes, such as removal of intracellular bacteria, cytokine production, autoantigen presentation, and survival of lymphocytes, indicating an apparent and important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Indeed, in genome-wide association studies, autophagy-related gene polymorphisms have been suggested to be associated with the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Dillon Charles Adam, Chau Minh Bui, Anita Elizabeth Heywood, Mohana Kunasekaran, Mohamud Sheikh, Padmanesan Narasimhan, Chandini Raina MacIntyre
OBJECTIVE: Compare the adoption and adherence to health protection behaviours prior to and during travel among international Australian travellers who return to Australia with notified chikungunya or malaria infection. This information could inform targeted health promotion and intervention strategies to limit the establishment of these diseases within Australia. RESULTS: Seeking travel advice prior to departure was moderate (46%, N = 21/46) yet compliance with a range of recommended anti-vectorial prevention measures was low among both chikungunya and malaria infected groups (16%, N = 7/45)...
August 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Antal Martinecz, Pia Abel Zur Wiesch
Treatment of infectious diseases is often long and requires patients to take drugs even after they have seemingly recovered. This is because of a phenomenon called persistence, which allows small fractions of the bacterial population to survive treatment despite being genetically susceptible. The surviving subpopulation is often below detection limit and therefore is empirically inaccessible but can cause treatment failure when treatment is terminated prematurely. Mathematical models could aid in predicting bacterial survival and thereby determine sufficient treatment length...
August 9, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Gholamreza Azizi, Reza Yazdani, Wiliam Rae, Hassan Abolhassani, Manuel Rojas, Asghar Aghamohammadi, Juan-Manuel Anaya
Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) consist of a large group of genetic disorders that affect distinct components of the immune system. PID patients are susceptible to infection and non-infectious complications, particularly autoimmunity. A specific group of monogenic PIDs are due to mutations in genes that are critical for the regulation of immunological tolerance and immune responses. This group of monogenic PIDs is at high risk of developing polyautoimmunity (i.e., the presence of more than one autoimmune disease in a single patient) because of their impaired immunity...
August 11, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Daisy Elizabeth Gates, John Joseph Valletta, Camille Bonneaud, Mario Recker
Emergent infectious diseases can have a devastating impact on host populations. The high selective pressures on both the hosts and the pathogens frequently lead to rapid adaptations not only in pathogen virulence but also host resistance following an initial outbreak. However, it is often unclear whether hosts will evolve to avoid infection-associated fitness costs by preventing the establishment of infection (here referred to as qualitative resistance) or by limiting its deleterious effects through immune functioning (here referred to as quantitative resistance)...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Yingzhu Feng, Chien-Sheng Chen, Jessica Ho, Donna Pearce, Shaohui Hu, Bochu Wang, Prashant Desai, Kwang Sik Kim, Heng Zhu
Bacterial meningitis in neonates and infants is an acute lethal disease and occurs in response to microbial exploitation of the blood brain barrier (BBB), resulting in the intracranial inflammation. Several pathogens, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), can cause this devastating disease; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which these pathogens exploit the BBB remain incompletely understood. To identify important players on both the pathogen and host sides that govern the E. coli-BBB cell interactions, we took advantage of the E...
August 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Anil K Madugundu, Babylakshmi Muthusamy, Sreelakshmi K Sreenivasamurthy, Chandra Bhavani, Jyoti Sharma, Bankatesh Kumar, Krishna R Murthy, Raju Ravikumar, Akhilesh Pandey
Next-generation sequencing approaches have revolutionized genomic medicine and enabled rapid diagnosis for several diseases. These approaches are widely used for pathogen detection in several infectious diseases. Lyme disease is a tick-borne infectious disease, which affects multiple organs. The causative organism is a spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by ticks. Lyme disease can be treated easily if detected early, but its diagnosis is often delayed or is incorrect leading to a chronic debilitating condition...
August 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Yufan Chen, Xinqiong Wang, Yi Yu, Yuan Xiao, Jiebin Huang, Zhanyong Yao, Xuehua Chen, Tong Zhou, Pu Li, Chundi Xu
Emerging evidence has linked the exosomes to many immunological disorders, including infectious diseases. However, knowledge regarding the role of exosomes in Helicobacter pylori infection is limited. Here, we show that serum exosomes from chronic gastritis patients with H. pylori infection (Hp exosomes) stimulate the expression of the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), which is involved in IL-6 trans-signaling in gastric epithelial cells. Interestingly, sIL-6R upregulates the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1α, and the neutralization of sIL-6R suppresses IL-1α secretion...
August 13, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
M Bonsignore, C Alefelder, N Pausner, P Gastmeier, I Nachtigall
BACKGROUND: It is mandatory for hospitals in Germany to employ infection control physicians and have an external consultation. The recommended coverage has substantially increased in the last years. Typically, infection control physicians are specialists for hygiene and environmental medicine and/or for microbiology. As there is already a shortage of these specialists, a curricular educational program in infection control was developed by the German Medical Association in 2011. This program addresses specialists of different clinical disciplines...
August 13, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Wanda C Reygaert
Green tea is one of the most popular drinks consumed worldwide. Produced mainly in Asian countries from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, the potential health benefits have been widely studied. Recently, researchers have studied the ability of green tea to eradicate infectious agents and the ability to actually prevent infections. The important components in green tea that show antimicrobial properties are the catechins. The four main catechins that occur in green tea are (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Khalid Almoammar
Vitamin D is known as the oldest of all hormones. 7-Dehydrocholesterol is converted to previtamin D3 . It becomes a secosteroid when it is later converted to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3 ). A number of factors influence vitamin D3 production, including skin pigmentation, the use of sunscreen lotions, season, latitude, and altitude. Vitamin D is important for bone metabolism and calcium hemostasis. Researchers have linked a deficiency in vitamin D levels to a number of systemic complications, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, immune deficiency, and infectious diseases...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry
Shogo Nakano, Shin-Ichi Megro, Tadashi Hase, Takuji Suzuki, Mamoru Isemura, Yoriyuki Nakamura, Sohei Ito
Epidemiological and laboratory studies have shown that green tea and green tea catechins exert beneficial effects on a variety of diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, infectious diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. In most cases, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has been shown to play a central role in these effects by green tea. Catechins from other plant sources have also shown health benefits. Many studies have revealed that the binding of EGCG and other catechins to proteins is involved in its action mechanism...
August 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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