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Pregnenolone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102853/skin-to-skin-contact-after-birth-and-the-natural-course-of-neurosteroid-levels-in-healthy-term-newborns
#1
K R McCallie, N W Gaikwad, M E Castillo Cuadrado, M Aleman, J E Madigan, D K Stevenson, V K Bhutani
OBJECTIVE: To determine the postnatal course of neurosteroid levels in relation to gender, mode of delivery and the extent of skin-to-skin (STS) contact during the first days of life in healthy term newborns. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study of 39 neonates in which parents recorded total duration of STS in the first 2 days and nine neurosteroids (dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, progesterone, pregnenolone, pregnenolone-sulfate, allopregnanolone, isopregnanolone, epipregnanolone, pregnanolone and pregnanolone-sulfate) were assayed from blood samples at birth and at 1-2 days of age...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091906/effect-of-mifepristone-on-corticosteroid-production-in-vitro-by-adrenal-glands-of-rats-with-streptozotocin-diabetes
#2
N V Kuznetsova, N A Palchikova, V G Selyatitskaya, O I Kuzminova
Changes in pregnenolone and corticosterone production by the adrenal glands of normoglycemic rats receiving the course of intraperitoneal mifepristone or NaCl administration were co-directed, but differed in magnitude. In rats with hyperglycemia, corticosteroid production increased after NaCl administration over 5 days and returned to the initial values after 15-day administration. On the contrary, pregnenolone and corticosterone production was suppressed after 5-day course of mifepristone, but significantly increased after mifepristone administration for 15 days...
January 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974436/genetic-and-targeted-eqtl-mapping-reveals-strong-candidate-genes-modulating-the-stress-response-during-chicken-domestication
#3
Amir Fallahsharoudi, Neil de Kock, Martin Johnsson, Lejla Bektic, S J Kumari A Ubhayasekera, Jonas Bergquist, Dominic Wright, Per Jensen
The stress response has been largely modified in all domesticated animals, offering a strong tool for genetic mapping. In chickens, ancestral Red Junglefowl react stronger both in terms of physiology and behavior to a brief restraint stress than domesticated White Leghorn, demonstrating modified functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying variations in stress induced hormone levels using 232 birds from the 12th generation of an advanced intercross between White Leghorn and Red Junglefowl, genotyped for 739 genetic markers...
December 14, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934105/simultaneous-analysis-of-free-and-sulfated-steroids-by-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-with-selective-mass-spectrometric-scan-modes-and-polarity-switching
#4
Su Hyeon Lee, Nanhee Lee, Youngmin Hong, Bong Chul Chung, Man Ho Choi
Sulfated steroids can act as a latent form of active free steroids, coexisting with them in biological specimens. To evaluate the metabolic significance of free and sulfated steroid species, a simultaneous analysis of eight free steroids [cholesterol, pregnenolone, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, and 17β-estradiol] and four biologically relevant sulfated steroids was developed and validated, using selected-ion and multiple-reaction monitoring modes coupled to polarity-switching liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)...
December 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917709/synthesis-of-some-steroidal-derivatives-with-side-chain-of-20-and-22-hydrazone-aromatic-heterocycles-and-their-antiproliferative-acitivity
#5
Chunfang Gan, Liang Liu, Jianguo Cui, Zhiping Liu, Haixin Shi, Qifu Lin, Haibing Sheng, Chunhui Yang, Yanmin Huang
BACKGROUND: The modification of steroidal structure is commonly used to change the biological activity of steroids in medicinal chemistry. Some steroids containing heterocycles exhibit distinct cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines and have been gotten wide attention over the years by medicinal chemists for drug discovery. METHODS: Using pregnenolone and stigmasterol as starting materials, via different chemical reaction, two series of heterosteroids with side chain of 20- and 22-hydrazone aromatic cycles or heterocycles in their structures were synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR and HRMS...
December 5, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914864/serum-dhea-s-concentration-correlates-with-clinical-symptoms-and-neurocognitive-function-in-patients-with-bipolar-ii-disorder-a-case-controlled-study
#6
Sheng-Yu Lee, Liang-Jen Wang, Cheng-Ho Chang, Chih-Ching Wu, Hsing-Ling Chen, Shih-Hsien Lin, Chin-Liang Chu, Ti Lu, Ru-Band Lu
OBJECTIVES: Dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and pregnenolone may play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar II disorder (BP-II). The aims of the current study are to determine (a) the differences in DHEA, DHEA-S and pregnenolone in patients with BP-II and controls; and (b) the correlation of levels of the above hormones, cognitive function, and clinical symptoms. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with BP-II and healthy controls were recruited from psychiatric department...
March 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913096/a-sensitive-and-accurate-lc-ms-ms-assay-with-the-derivatization-of-1-amino-4-methylpiperazine-applied-to-serum-allopregnanolone-pregnenolone-and-androsterone-in-pre-and-postmenopausal-women
#7
Yuyong Ke, Renaud Gonthier, Fernand Labrie
The concentrations of allopregnanolone (Allopreg), pregnenolone (Preg) and androsterone (ADT) are very low in the circulation, especially in postmenopausal women, resulting in a considerable challenge for their accurate measurements in serum or plasma. In this report, a sensitive and reliable LC-MS/MS assay method has been developed using a simple sample preparation and the 1-Amino-4-methylpiperazine (AMP) derivatization procedure. A 5pg/ml (0.1pg on column) of low limit of quantitation has been achieved for Allopreg, Preg and ADT, with a sensitivity comparable to data obtained with the commercial reagent...
November 29, 2016: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890531/short-term-effects-of-diabetes-on-neurosteroidogenesis-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#8
Simone Romano, Nico Mitro, Silvia Diviccaro, Roberto Spezzano, Matteo Audano, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Donatella Caruso, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
Diabetes may induce neurophysiological and structural changes in the central nervous system (i.e., diabetic encephalopathy). We here explored whether the levels of neuroactive steroids (i.e., neuroprotective agents) in the hippocampus may be altered by short-term diabetes (i.e., one month). To this aim, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry we observed that in the experimental model of the rat raised diabetic by streptozotocin injection, one month of pathology induced changes in the levels of several neuroactive steroids, such as pregnenolone, progesterone and its metabolites (i...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888513/decreased-allopregnanolone-levels-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-obtained-during-status-epilepticus
#9
Stefano Meletti, Chiara Lucchi, Giulia Monti, Giada Giovannini, Roberta Bedin, Tommaso Trenti, Cecilia Rustichelli, Giuseppe Biagini
Neuroactive steroids are increasingly considered as relevant modulators of neuronal activity. Especially allopregnanolone (AP) and pregnenolone sulfate (PS) have been shown to possess, respectively, anticonvulsant or proconvulsant properties. In view of the potential role of these steroids, we aimed at evaluating AP and PS levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples obtained from patients with status epilepticus (SE). To this purpose, we enrolled 41 patients affected by SE and 41 subjects investigated for nonepileptic neurologic disorders...
November 26, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884493/initial-genetic-dissection-of-serum-neuroactive-steroids-following-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-across-bxd-mouse-strains
#10
Patrizia Porcu, Todd K O'Buckley, Marcelo F Lopez, Howard C Becker, Michael F Miles, Robert W Williams, A Leslie Morrow
Neuroactive steroids modulate alcohol's impact on brain function and behavior. Ethanol exposure alters neuroactive steroid levels in rats, humans, and some mouse strains. We conducted an exploratory analysis of the neuroactive steroids (3α,5α)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP), (3α,5α)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THDOC), and pregnenolone across 126-158 individuals and 19 fully inbred strains belonging to the BXD family, which were subjected to air exposure, or chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure...
November 10, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855232/novel-scc-mutation-in-a-patient-of-mexican-descent-with-sex-reversal-salt-losing-crisis-and-adrenal-failure
#11
Jasmeet Kaur, Alan M Rice, Elizabeth O'Connor, Anil Piya, Bradley Buckler, Himangshu S Bose
: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is caused by mutations in cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1 and old name, SCC). Errors in cholesterol side chain cleavage by the mitochondrial resident CYP11A1 results in an inadequate amount of pregnenolone production. This study was performed to evaluate the cause of salt-losing crisis and possible adrenal failure in a pediatric patient whose mother had a history of two previous stillbirths and loss of another baby within a week of birth...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815506/plasma-membrane-origin-of-the-steroidogenic-pool-of-cholesterol-used-in-hormone-induced-acute-steroid-formation-in-leydig-cells
#12
Sathvika Venugopal, Daniel Benjamin Martinez-Arguelles, Seimia Chebbi, Françoise Hullin-Matsuda, Toshihide Kobayashi, Vassilios Papadopoulos
Hormone-sensitive acute steroid biosynthesis requires trafficking of cholesterol from intracellular sources to the inner mitochondrial membrane. The precise location of the intracellular cholesterol and its transport mechanism are uncertain. Perfringolysin O, produced by Clostridium perfringens, binds cholesterol. Its fourth domain (D4) retains cholesterol-binding properties but not cytotoxicity. We transfected steroidogenic MA-10 cells of mouse Leydig cell tumors with the mCherry-D4 plasmid. Tagged D4 with fluorescent proteins enabled us to track cholesterol...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790795/development-and-application-of-an-uhplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-simultaneous-determination-of-17-steroidal-hormones-in-equine-serum
#13
Michele Genangeli, Giovanni Caprioli, Manuela Cortese, Fulvio Laus, Mara Matteucci, Riccardo Petrelli, Massimo Ricciutelli, Gianni Sagratini, Stefano Sartori, Sauro Vittori
A new, fast and simple analytical method that is able to identify and quantify simultaneously 17 steroid hormones and metabolites (Pregnenolone, 17-OH-Pregnenolone, Progesterone, 17-OH Progesterone, Androsterone, Androstenedione, DHEA, DHEAS, Testosterone, Cortisol, Corticosterone, Aldosterone, 11-Deoxycortisol, 11-Deoxycorticosterone, Dihydrotestosterone, Estrone, Estradiol) has been developed in equine serum using the UHPLC-MS/MS technique. 400 μL of sample were deproteinized with 1000 µl of acetonitrile, evaporated, restored with 50 µl of a solution of 25% methanol and injected in UHPLC-MS/MS triple quadrupole...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737514/presence-of-sex-steroid-metabolizing-enzymes-in-the-olfactory-mucosa-of-rats
#14
Sawa Horie, Akiko Yamaki, Shigeru Takami
Although several lines of evidence have suggested that sex steroids influence olfaction, little is known about the cellular basis of steroid-metabolizing enzymes in the olfactory system. Thus, we aimed to examine gene expression and immunolocalization of four sex steroid-metabolizing enzymes in the olfactory mucosa (OM) of albino rats; steroid side chain-cleaving enzyme (P450scc), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD-1), 17β-HSD type 2 (17β-HSD-2), and aromatase. P450scc is known to catalyze conversion from cholesterol to pregnenolone...
October 13, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717154/application-of-testosterone-to-epitestosterone-ratio-to-horse-urine-a-complimentary-approach-to-detect-the-administrations-of-testosterone-and-its-pro-drugs-in-thoroughbred-geldings
#15
Marjaana Viljanto, James Scarth, Pamela Hincks, Lynn Hillyer, Adam Cawley, Craig Suann, Glenys Noble, Christopher J Walker, Andrew T Kicman, Mark C Parkin
Detection of testosterone and/or its pro-drugs in the gelding is currently regulated by the application of an international threshold for urinary testosterone of 20 ng/mL. The use of steroid ratios may provide a useful supplementary approach to aid in differentiating between the administration of these steroids and unusual physiological conditions that may result in atypically high testosterone concentrations. In the current study, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to quantify testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E)...
October 7, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702589/electrochemistry-of-cytochrome-p450-17%C3%AE-hydroxylase-17-20-lyase-p450c17
#16
Lisandra L Martin, Clemens Kubeil, Alexandr N Simonov, Vladimir L Kuznetsov, C Jo Corbin, Richard J Auchus, Alan J Conley, Alan M Bond, Raymond J Rodgers
Within the superfamily of cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s), there is a small class which is functionally employed for steroid biosynthesis. The enzymes in this class appear to have a small active site to accommodate the steroid substrates specifically and snuggly, prior to the redox transformation or hydroxylation to form a product. Cytochrome P450c17 is one of these and is also a multi-functional P450, with two activities, the first 17α-hydroxylation of pregnenolone is followed by a subsequent 17,20-lyase transformation to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) as the dominant pathways to cortisol precursors or androgens in humans, respectively...
October 3, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698208/regulation-of-steroidogenesis-in-fetal-bovine-ovaries-differential-effects-of-lh-and-fsh
#17
Jeremy J Allen, Susan L Herrick, Joanne E Fortune
In cattle, primordial follicles form before birth. Fetal ovarian capacity to produce progesterone and estradiol is high before follicle formation begins and decreases around the time follicles first appear (around 90 days of gestation). However, mechanisms that regulate steroid production during this time remain unclear. We hypothesized that LH stimulates progesterone and androgen production and that FSH stimulates aromatization of androgens to estradiol. To test this, we cultured pieces from fetal bovine ovaries for 10 days without or with exogenous hormones and then measured the accumulation of steroids in the culture medium by RIA...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697863/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-enhances-mitochondrial-metabolic-activity-in-mammalian-adrenals-and-gonads
#18
Manoj Prasad, Anna N Walker, Jasmeet Kaur, James L Thomas, Shirley A Powell, Amit V Pandey, Randy M Whittal, William E Burak, Guy Petruzzelli, Himangshu S Bose
The acute response to stress consists of a series of physiological programs to promote survival by generating glucocorticoids and activating stress response genes that increase the synthesis of many chaperone proteins specific to individual organelles. In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), short-term stress triggers activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) module that either leads to neutralization of the initial stress or adaptation to it; chronic stress favors cell death. UPR induces expression of the transcription factor, C/EBP homology protein (CHOP), and its deletion protects against the lethal consequences of prolonged UPR...
December 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692342/per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-pfass-new-endocrine-disruptors-in-polar-bears-ursus-maritimus
#19
Kathrine Eggers Pedersen, Robert J Letcher, Christian Sonne, Rune Dietz, Bjarne Styrishave
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging in the Arctic and accumulate in brain tissues of East Greenland (EG) polar bears. In vitro studies have shown that PFASs might possess endocrine disrupting abilities and therefore the present study was conducted to investigate potential PFAS induced alterations in brain steroid concentrations. The concentrations of eleven steroid hormones were determined in eight brain regions from ten EG polar bears. Pregnenolone (PRE), the dominant progestagen, was found in mean concentrations of 5-47ng/g (ww) depending on brain region...
September 27, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690325/biotransformation-of-cholesterol-and-16-17-alpha-epoxypregnenolone-by-novel-cladosporium-sp-strain-is547
#20
Cuiping Pang, Yuting Cao, Xiangdong Zhu
Nowadays, there are a few steroid drugs or intermediates that have been obtained via the transformation of microorganisms, and many strains of transformed steroids have not been found yet. Therefore, it is very significant to screen for the strains that have the abilities to transform steroids to produce valuable products. This study has focused on the screen and identification of strains, the structural identification of converted products, and the optimization of transformation conditions, as well as the establishment of transformation systems...
January 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
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