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Aurélie Sauvage, Géraldine Bolen, Sébastien Monclin, Magda Grauwels
Orbital compartment syndrome (OCS) is described in humans as an acute rise in intraorbital pressure following a severe and rapidly evolving orbital affection. It includes orbital oedema, haemorrhage or infection causing a marked reduction in local blood perfusion, and severely affecting the orbital neurovascular structures. If not promptly recognised and treated, it results in irreversible blindness. It is one of the rare ophthalmic surgical emergencies, requiring lateral canthotomy and cantholysis. This case report describes two canine cases of complex orbital, periorbital and facial abscesses resulting in OCS and permanent unilateral blindness diagnosed by ultrasonography, computed tomography and electroretinography...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
Anastasia Marie Litke, Sarah Samuelson, Kerry R Delaney, Yves Sauvé, Robert L Chow
Purpose: Despite numerous studies associating Visual System Homeobox 1 (VSX1), with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy and keratoconus, its role in these diseases is unclear. Here we examine the pathogenicity of VSX1 missense mutations in vitro and in a mouse genetic model. Methods: Vsx1 transcriptional repressor activity, protein stability, and subcellular localization activity, was examined using luciferase reporter-based assays, western blotting and immunolabeling, respectively, in transfected human embryonic kidney 293T cells...
December 3, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Matteo Scaramuzzi, Priyanka Kumar, Neal Peachey, Paolo Nucci, Elias I Traboulsi
PURPOSE: Wolfram syndrome is characterized by early onset diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and optic atrophy, but retinal degeneration has not been described as a major component of the phenotype. We present two cases with Wolfram syndrome and evidence of retinal degeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational case series. Patients underwent complete ocular examinations as well as retinal imaging and electroretinography. RESULTS: Both patients had electroretinographic evidence of retinal dysfunction/degeneration in addition to optic atrophy with an otherwise normal-appearing retina...
December 3, 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
Ruiping Gu, Wenyi Tang, Boya Lei, Chen Jiang, Fang Song, Gezhi Xu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective function of a synthesized glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper peptide (GILZ-p) in a light-induced retinal degeneration model. METHODS: The GILZ98-134 peptide was synthesized and injected intravitreally into Sprague Dawley rats. Retinal injury was then induced in the rats by exposing their eyes to constant white light (5000 lux) for 24 h. The activation of retinal caspases-9/3 and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol were measured at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after light injury...
November 25, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
H Jiang, H Xu
As a classical hallucinogen with high potential for abuse, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) can cause long-lasting abnormalities in retina, but little is known about the exact mechanism. This study was to investigate effects of long-term systemic treatment of LSD at low dose on retinal damage and understand the underlying mechanisms. CD1 mice were treated intraperitoneally with 0.1 mg/kg or 0.2 mg/kg LSD daily for 2 months, mice treated with saline as negative control. Electroretinography (ERG) was used to test the retinal function after LSD treatment...
November 25, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Madhu Nath, Nabanita Halder, Parijat Chandra, Sundararajan Baskar Singh, Ashok Kumar Deorari, Atul Kumar, Thirumurthy Velpandian
Background and objectives: The study investigated the intravitreal safety and vitreous disposition of lisinopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in rabbits for its projected use in retinopathy. Methods: For the safety study, following the baseline ERG recording and fundus photography, 40 µg/50 µl of lisinopril sterile injection was injected unilaterally in the rabbit eyes (n = 4), where other eye served as a control. The electroretinogram and fundus images were obtained at 24, 48, 72 and 168 h following the intravitreal injection...
2018: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
Mayara Rodrigues Brandão De Paiva, Nayara Almeida Lage, Maria Carolina Andrade Guerra, Marcos Paulo Gomes Mol, Marcela Coelho Silva Ribeiro, Gustavo De Oliveira Fulgêncio, Dawidson A Gomes, Isabela Da Costa César, Sílvia Ligório Fialho, Armando Silva-Cunha
PURPOSE: To assess the in vivo release profile and the retinal toxicity of a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) sustained-release sirolimus (SRL) intravitreal implant in normal rabbit eyes. METHODS: PLGA intravitreal implants containing or not SRL were prepared, and the viability of ARPE-19 and hES-RPE human retinal cell lines was examined after 24 and 72 h of exposure to implants. New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups that received intravitreal implants containing or not SRL...
November 19, 2018: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Michael T Massengill, Brianna Young, Deep Patel, Farwa Jafri, Ernesto Sabogal, Neil Ash, Hong Li, Cristhian J Ildefonso, Alfred S Lewin
Purpose: The I307N rhodopsin (Rho) mouse is a light-inducible model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) that may be useful in testing therapies. We investigated the time-course of retinal changes of the I307N Rho mouse with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: SD-OCT was performed up to day 30 after light damage; electroretinography (ERG) was employed to evaluate photoreceptor function. We utilized ImageJ to analyze reflectivity of the retina...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Fred K Chen, Xiao Zhang, Jonathan Eintracht, Dan Zhang, Sukanya Arunachalam, Jennifer A Thompson, Enid Chelva, Dominic Mallon, Shang-Chih Chen, Terri McLaren, Tina Lamey, John De Roach, Samuel McLenachan
PURPOSE: Mutation of the CLN3 gene, associated with juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, has recently been associated with late-onset, non-syndromic retinal dystrophy. Herein we describe the multimodal imaging, immunological and systemic features of an adult with compound heterozygous CLN3 mutations. METHODS: A 50-year-old female with non-syndromic retinal dystrophy from the age of 36 years underwent multimodal retinal imaging, electroretinography, neuroimaging, immunological studies and genetic testing...
November 16, 2018: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Qian Zhang, Xinhua Xiao, Jia Zheng, Ming Li, Miao Yu, Fan Ping, Tong Wang, Xiaojing Wang
Scope: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a severe microvascular complication of diabetes. Previous clinical trials have shown that Compound Danshen Dripping Pill (CDDP) improves DR symptoms. However, the mechanism involved remains unclear. Procedures: Rats fed a high-fat diet and injected with streptozotocin (STZ) were used as an experimental type 2 diabetes rodent model. CDDP was administered to two groups of diabetic rats at 0.2 and 0.4 g/kg/day via gastric gavage for 12 weeks. After the 12 weeks of treatment, retinal function was evaluated by electroretinography (ERG)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ting Xiao, Ke Xu, Xiaohui Zhang, Yue Xie, Yang Li
BACKGROUND: Sector retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an atypical form of RP in which only one or two quadrants of the retina are involved. The objectives of this study were to report the results of a molecular screening of five unrelated Chinese patients with sector RP and describe the clinical features observed in patients with RHO mutations. METHODS: Five probands that were clinically diagnosed with sector RP were recruited for genetic analysis. They underwent ophthalmic examinations, including best corrected visual acuity, fundus examination, visual field examinations, and electroretinography...
November 2, 2018: Eye
Xiang Ren, Ni-Na Wang, Hui Qi, Yuan-Yuan Qiu, Cheng-Hong Zhang, Emily Brown, Hui Kong, Li Kong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most serious complications of diabetes and is the leading cause of adult blindness in developed countries. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulation in diabetes is associated with its complications. Thioredoxin (Trx) is a small molecule (12kDa) antioxidant protein widely distributed in mammalian tissues, which has important biological functions including anti-apoptosis and transcriptional regulation. In a previous study, we found that Trx plays a key role in retinal neurodegeneration prior to the occurrence of endothelial damage in diabetic mice...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Carolyn A Bernstein, Rony-Reuven Nir, Rodrigo Noseda, Anne B Fulton, Shaelah Huntington, Alice J Lee, Suzanne M Bertisch, Alexandra Hovaguimian, Catherine Buettner, David Borsook, Rami Burstein
Migraine-type photophobia, most commonly described as exacerbation of headache by light, affects nearly 90% of the patients. It is the most bothersome symptoms accompanying an attack. Using subjective psychophysical assessments, we showed that migraine patients are more sensitive to all colors of light during ictal than during interictal phase and that control subjects do not experience pain when exposed to different colors of light. Based on these findings, we suggested that color preference is unique to migraineurs (as it was not found in control subjects) rather than migraine phase (as it was found in both phases)...
October 29, 2018: Pain
Christina Moutsiana, Radwa Soliman, Lee de Wit, Merle James-Galton, Martin I Sereno, Gordon T Plant, D Samuel Schwarzkopf
Lesions of primary visual cortex or its primary inputs typically result in retinotopically localized scotomas. Here we present an individual with unexplained visual field loss and deficits in visual perception in the absence of structural damage to the early visual pathway or lesions in visual cortex. The subject, monocular from an early age, underwent repeated perimetry tests over 8 years demonstrating severe anopia of the lower hemifield, and a clockwise progression of the loss through her upper left visual field...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Haojiang Yang, Liming Tao, Lin Li
As a powerful psychostimulant with high potential for abuse, methamphetamine (Meth) could cause long-lasting abnormalities in retinas. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of systemic administration of Meth at low dose on retinal damage and understand the underlying mechanisms of pathology. CD1 mice were treated with 0.5 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg Meth by intraperitoneal injection daily for 2 months, mice treated with saline were used as negative control. Electroretinography (ERG) reflects the mass response of photoreceptor cells and was used to test the outer retinal function after Meth treatment...
October 29, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
Bo Chang, Bernard FitzMaurice, Jieping Wang, Benjamin E Low, Michael V Wiles, Patsy M Nishina
Purpose: To determine the molecular basis of lesion development in a murine model of spontaneous retinal vascularization, rnv3 (retinal vascularization 3, aka JR5558). Methods: Disease progression of rnv3 was examined in longitudinal studies by clinical evaluation, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy analyses. The chromosomal position for the recessive rnv3 mutation was determined by DNA pooling and genome-wide linkage analysis. The causative mutation was discovered by comparison of whole exome sequences of rnv3 mutant and wild-type (WT) controls...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Xiu-Fang Lv, Li-Ming Tao, Hui Zhong
As a powerful psychostimulant with high potential for abuse, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes long-lasting neurotoxicity. This study was to investigate the effects of systemic administration of MDMA on retinal damage in C57 mice and its underlying mechanisms. C57 mice were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10): group 1 receiving PBS by intraperitoneal injection daily; group 2 receiving 1 mg/kg MDMA by intraperitoneal injection daily for 3 months. The retinal function was tested by electroretinography (ERG)...
October 26, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Anuradha Dhingra, Brent A Bell, Neal S Peachey, Lauren L Daniele, Juan Reyes-Reveles, Rachel C Sharp, Bokkyoo Jun, Nicolas G Bazan, Janet R Sparrow, Hye Jin Kim, Nancy J Philp, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia
Like other neurons, retinal cells utilize autophagic pathways to maintain cell homeostasis. The mammalian retina relies on heterophagy and selective autophagy to efficiently degrade and metabolize ingested lipids with disruption in autophagy associated degradation contributing to age related retinal disorders. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) supports photoreceptor cell renewal by daily phagocytosis of shed photoreceptor outer segments (OS). The daily ingestion of these lipid-rich OS imposes a constant degradative burden on these terminally differentiated cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
J Jason McAnany, Jason C Park
Purpose: To define the nature and extent of temporal frequency abnormalities in diabetics who have mild or no nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) by using the flicker electroretinogram (ERG). Methods: Light-adapted flicker ERGs were recorded from 20 diabetics who have no clinically apparent retinopathy, 20 diabetics who have mild NPDR, and 20 nondiabetic, age-equivalent controls. ERGs were elicited by full-field sinusoidal flicker across the temporal frequency range of 6 to 100 Hz and were recorded using conventional techniques...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Rola Ba-Abbad, Monique Leys, Xinjing Wang, Christina Chakarova, Naushin Waseem, Keren J Carss, F Lucy Raymond, Kinga M Bujakowska, Eric A Pierce, Omar A Mahroo, Moin D Mohamed, Graham E Holder, Marybeth Hummel, Gavin Arno, Andrew R Webster
Purpose: We describe the clinical features in two pedigrees with dominantly inherited retinopathy segregating the previously reported frameshifting mutation, c.836dupG (p.Ile280Asn*78) in the terminal exon of the RGR gene, and compare their haplotypes to that of the previously reported pedigree. Methods: The probands were ascertained at West Virginia University Eye Institute (WVU) and Moorfields Eye Hospital (MEH) through next generation sequencing (NGS) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) respectively...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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