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Public health emergency

Stephanie Fischinger, Carolyn M Boudreau, Audrey L Butler, Hendrik Streeck, Galit Alter
Vaccines are among the most impactful public health interventions, preventing millions of new infections and deaths annually worldwide. However, emerging data suggest that vaccines may not protect all populations equally. Specifically, studies analyzing variation in vaccine-induced immunity have pointed to the critical impact of genetics, the environment, nutrition, the microbiome, and sex in influencing vaccine responsiveness. The significant contribution of sex to modulating vaccine-induced immunity has gained attention over the last years...
December 13, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Glenn Goodwin, Dyana Picache, Brian J Louie, Nicholas Gaeto, Tarik Zeid, Paxton P Aung, Armando Clift, Sonu Sahni
Background Despite advances in resuscitation science and public health, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) cases have an average survival rate of only 12% nationwide, compared to 24.8% of cases occurring in hospital. Many factors, including resuscitation interventions, contribute to positive patient outcomes and have, therefore, been studied in attempts to optimize emergency medical services (EMS) protocols to achieve higher rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in the field. However, no consensus has been met regarding the appropriate amount of time for EMS to spend on scene...
October 9, 2018: Curēus
Philip B Duffy, Christopher B Field, Noah S Diffenbaugh, Scott C Doney, Zoe Dutton, Sherri Goodman, Lisa Heinzerling, Solomon Hsiang, David B Lobell, Loretta J Mickley, Samuel Myers, Susan M Natali, Camille Parmesan, Susan Tierney, A Park Williams
We assess scientific evidence that has emerged since the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2009 Endangerment Finding for six well-mixed greenhouse gases, and find that this new evidence lends increased support to the conclusion that these gases pose a danger to public health and welfare. Newly available evidence about a wide range of observed and projected impacts strengthens the association between risk of some of these impacts and anthropogenic climate change; indicates that some impacts or combinations of impacts have the potential to be more severe than previously understood; and identifies substantial risk of additional impacts through processes and pathways not considered in the endangerment finding...
December 13, 2018: Science
Emma Altobelli, Leonardo Rapacchietta, Valerio F Profeta, Roberto Fagnano
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) represents an important public health problem with a prevalence between 1.3% and 12.5%. Several population-based randomized trials have evaluated ultrasound screening for AAA providing evidence of a reduction in aneurysm-related mortality in the screened population. The aim of our study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk factors for AAA. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies and we performed a meta-analysis that evaluated the following risk factors: gender, smoking habits, hypertension, coronary artery disease and family history of AAA...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Gabriela Topa, José F Jurado-Del Pozo
Occupations focused on helping others, guaranteeing people's security, and defending societal values can be stressful and risky for the workers involved. Emotional exhaustion and health complaints usually emerge as indicators of the stress suffered by these workers in undertaking their roles. This research aims to explore the effects of psychological contract breach on both emotional exhaustion and health complaints among three kinds of Spanish workers, namely firefighters ( n = 80), professional soldiers ( n = 77), and prison officers ( n = 107)...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Nicholas Johnson, Mar Fernández de Marco, Armando Giovannini, Carla Ippoliti, Maria Luisa Danzetta, Gili Svartz, Oran Erster, Martin H Groschup, Ute Ziegler, Ali Mirazimi, Vanessa Monteil, Cecile Beck, Gaelle Gonzalez, Sylvie Lecollinet, Houssam Attoui, Sara Moutailler
Mosquito-borne viruses are the cause of some of the greatest burdens to human health worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where both human populations and mosquito numbers are abundant. Due to a combination of anthropogenic change, including the effects on global climate and wildlife migration there is strong evidence that temperate regions are undergoing repeated introduction of mosquito-borne viruses and the re-emergence of viruses that previously were not detected by surveillance. In Europe, the repeated introductions of West Nile and Usutu viruses have been associated with bird migration from Africa, whereas the autochthonous transmission of chikungunya and dengue viruses has been driven by a combination of invasive mosquitoes and rapid transcontinental travel by infected humans...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jodi Thiessen, Athaliah Bagoi, Caroline Homer, Michele Rumsey
INTRODUCTION: The recent policy environment in both Papua New Guinea and Australia for partnering with private entities to address health issues has led to a public-private partnership (PPP) between the National Department of Health in Papua New Guinea, the Australian Government and the Oil Search Foundation. A reproductive health training unit was formed to provide health worker training in essential obstetric care and emergency obstetric care. This article provides a qualitative evaluation of the PPP, looking at facilitating features and barriers to the PPP's target of improving the competence of frontline health workers in obstetric care service provision in Papua New Guinea...
December 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Lang Rao, Wenbiao Wang, Qian-Fang Meng, Mingfu Tian, Bo Cai, Yingchong Wang, Aixin Li, Minghui Zan, Feng Xiao, Lin-Lin Bu, Geng Li, Andrew Li, Yingle Liu, Shi-Shang Guo, Xingzhong Zhao, Tza-Huei Wang, Wei Liu, Jianguo Wu
Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a global health threat due to its unexpected causal link to devastating neurological disorders such as fetal microcephaly. However, to date, no approved vaccine or specific treatment is available for ZIKV infection. Here, we develop a biomimetic nanodecoy (ND) that can trap ZIKV, divert ZIKV away from its intended targets, and inhibit ZIKV infection. The ND, which is composed of a gelatin nanoparticle core camouflaged by mosquito medium host cell membranes, effectively adsorbs ZIKV and inhibits ZIKV replication in ZIKV-susceptible cells...
December 13, 2018: Nano Letters
Giorgio Mattei, Barbara Pistoresi
From the mid-1990s on, the suicide rate in Italy declined steadily, then apparently rose again after the onset of the Great Recession, along with a sharp increase in unemployment. The aim of this study is to test the association between the suicide rate and unemployment (i.e., the unemployment rate for males and females in the period 1977-2015, and the long-term unemployment rate in the period 1983-2012) in Italy, by means of cointegration techniques. The analysis was adjusted for public unemployment spending (referring to the period 1980-2012)...
December 12, 2018: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
Dongjuan Dai, William J Rhoads, Marc A Edwards, Amy Pruden
Hot water premise plumbing has emerged as a critical nexus of energy, water, and public health. The composition of hot water microbiomes is of special interest given daily human exposure to resident flora, especially opportunistic pathogens (OPs), which rely on complex microbial ecological interactions for their proliferation. Here, we applied shotgun metagenomic sequencing to characterize taxonomic and functional shifts in microbiomes as a function of water heater temperature setting, stagnation in distal pipes, and associated shifts in water chemistry...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gábor Kemenesi, Krisztián Bányai
SUMMARYThe tick-borne pathogen Powassan virus is a rare cause of encephalitis in North America and the Russian Far East. The number of documented cases described since the discovery of Powassan virus in 1958 may be <150, although detection of cases has increased over the past decade. In the United States, the incidence of Powassan virus infections expanded from the estimated 1 case per year prior to 2005 to 10 cases per year during the subsequent decade. The increased detection rate may be associated with several factors, including enhanced surveillance, the availability of improved laboratory diagnostic methods, the expansion of the vector population, and, perhaps, altered human activities that lead to more exposure...
January 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Carmen L Charlton, Esther Babady, Christine C Ginocchio, Todd F Hatchette, Robert C Jerris, Yan Li, Mike Loeffelholz, Yvette S McCarter, Melissa B Miller, Susan Novak-Weekley, Audrey N Schuetz, Yi-Wei Tang, Ray Widen, Steven J Drews
SUMMARYRespiratory viral infections are associated with a wide range of acute syndromes and infectious disease processes in children and adults worldwide. Many viruses are implicated in these infections, and these viruses are spread largely via respiratory means between humans but also occasionally from animals to humans. This article is an American Society for Microbiology (ASM)-sponsored Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology (PGCM) document identifying best practices for diagnosis and characterization of viruses that cause acute respiratory infections and replaces the most recent prior version of the ASM-sponsored Cumitech 21 document, Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Respiratory Disease , published in 1986...
January 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Nicola Coley, Anna Rosenberg, Tessa van Middelaar, Alexandra Soulier, Mariagnese Barbera, Juliette Guillemont, Jaap Steensma, Valérie Igier, Marjo Eskelinen, Hilkka Soininen, Eric Moll van Charante, Edo Richard, Miia Kivipelto, Sandrine Andrieu
OBJECTIVES: To explore older adults' reasons for participating in a multinational eHealth prevention trial, and compare motivations between countries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mixed methods research using quantitative and qualitative approaches (the ACCEPT-HATICE study). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Substudy conducted during the recruitment phase of an 18-month RCT testing the efficacy of an eHealth intervention for self-management of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive decline in older adults in Finland, France, and the Netherlands...
December 9, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Charity Warigon, Wondimagegnehu Alemu, Fiona Braka, Hallah Tashikalmah, Yared Yehushualet, Kulchumi Hammanyero, Samuel Bawa, David Oviaesu, Sisay Tegegne, Mustapha Umar Maiiyali, Anne Eudes Jean Baptiste, Peter Nsubuga, Collins Boakye Agyemang
BACKGROUND: The mandate and unique experience of the World Health Organization (WHO) globally, enables over 190 countries, Nigeria inclusive, to depend on the technical support provided by the organization to define and mitigate the threats to public health. With other emerging health actors competing for scarce donors' resources, the demand for visibility has invariably equaled expectations on WHO's expertise and technical support. However, the inability to systematically document activities conducted by WHO personnel before 2013 overshadowed most of its invaluable contributions due to poor publicity...
December 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Xuhua Ran, Xiaohong Chen, Miaomiao Wang, Jiajia Cheng, Hongbo Ni, Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Xiaobo Wen
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis remains one of the most common zoonotic diseases globally, with more than half million human cases reported annually. Brucellosis is an emerging and re-emerging disease in China since the 1990s. An infectious reservoir constituted by domestic animals with brucellosis, especially ovine and caprine herds, poses a significant threat to public health. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep and goat flocks in a national context is unavailable so far. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the overall status of brucellosis in sheep and goats in China in almost two decades...
December 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Bernadette M Ward, Belinda O'Sullivan, Penny Buykx
BACKGROUND: The entertainment precincts of cities, while contributing to local economies, need to be carefully managed to mitigate harms. Individual behaviours and government regulation have typically been the foci of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol-related harm. Little is known about how changes to the built environment might influence alcohol-related harms in these settings. The aim of this study was to explore how a public shelter and a volunteer-funded and staffed mobile van in a regional city influenced perceptions of safety and reduction in alcohol-related harm...
December 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
Hadiza Aliyu Iyal, Faisal Shuaib, Madubu Dauda, Abdullahi Suleiman, Fiona Braka, Sisay G Tegegne, Peter Nsubuga, Terna Nomhwange, Yared G Yehualashet, Sambo Ishaku, Charity Warigon, Furera Zakari, Gregory Umeh, Lami Samaila, Basirat Abdullahi, Kulchumi Hammanyero, Paul Dogo, Dawud Adamu, Rui G Vaz, Wondimagegnehu Alemu
BACKGROUND: Despite concerted global efforts being made to eradicate poliomyelitis, the wild poliovirus still circulates in three countries, including Nigeria. In addition, Nigeria experiences occasional outbreaks of the circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2). Vaccine rejection by caregivers persists in some parts of northern Nigeria, which compromises the quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). In 2013, the Expert Review Committee (ERC) on polio recommended innovative interventions in all high-risk northern states to improve the quality of SIA rounds through innovative interventions...
December 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Charles Korir, Faisal Shuaib, Usman Adamu, Samuel Bawa, Audu Musa, Abba Bashir, Ayodeji Isiaka, Adamu Ningi, Charity Warigon, Banda Richard, Braka Fiona, Mkanda Pascal, Nkwogu Loveday, Sisay G Tegegne, Mohammed Abdul-Aziz, Abdullahi Suleiman, Kabiru Mohammed, Melisa Corkum, Chima Onoka, Peter Nsubuga, Yared G Yehualashet, Rui G Vaz, Wondimagegnehu Alemu
BACKGROUND: The declaration of poliomyelitis eradication as a programmatic emergency for global public health by the 65th World Health Assembly in 2012 necessitated innovations and strategies to achieve results. Review of the confirmed polio cases in 2013 showed that most of the cases were from non-compliant households, where parents connived with vaccinators to finger mark the children without actually vaccinating the children with oral polio vaccine or children were absent from home at the time of the visit of vaccinators...
December 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Latifa Merzougui, Nedia Marwen, Hajer Hannachi, Massoudi Asma, Olfa Ben Elhaj, Manssouri Waddah, Ridha Fatnassi
INTRODUCTION: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a major health concern and is one of the most common complications following caesarean section, with an incidence of 3%-15%. With the worldwide increase in caesarean section rates, the incidence of SSI is expected to increase in parallel. This study was designed to estimate the incidence and determine the risk factors of SSI after caesarean section in an Obstetrics and Gynaecology department in the Kairouan region in Tunisia. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of all patients who delivered by caesarean section between December 2015 and February 2016 was conducted in the Kairouan Obstetrics and Gynaecology department...
May 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Victoria Pagani, François Alla, Linda Cambon, Frédérique Claudot
INTRODUCTION: Public health tries to modify existing social norms by setting up strategies to promote the emergence of norms that are more adapted to the objectives of good health and well-being. Prevention policies and the corresponding interventions concern health behaviours and are designed to modify the individual's habits, and contribute to defining new ways of being, acting and living. Prevention therefore involves numerous personal, cultural, social and collective values. An ethical reflection concerning the meaning, rationale and justice of these actions is therefore essential...
May 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
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