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Public health emergency

Clarissa Simas, Nubia Munoz, Leonardo Arregoces, Heidi J Larson
We report the case of multiple adverse reactions following HPV vaccination in Colombian adolescents in Carmen de Bolivar. In August 2012, the country introduced a school-based HPV immunization programme which successfully reached over 90% of the target population in the first year. In 2014, between May 29th and June 2nd,15 adolescent girls in one school presented adverse reactions after vaccination and were admitted to the local hospital. Soon, videos of girls fainting, twitching, and arriving unconscious at emergency rooms started to appear in national news media as well as on social media platforms such as YouTube...
August 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Moran Bodas
Despite best intentions and considerable effort, promoting households' preparedness to emergencies remains insufficiently low globally. It seems that, in some cases, particularly those in which populations are frequently exposed to any given threat, a more complex sociopsychological framework emerges - one in which classical motivators, such as threat perception cues, are no longer capable of turning salient belief into action. Recent studies suggest that this phenomenon, called victimization, has considerable implications on the efficacy of risk communication efforts and could jeopardize the success in promoting public readiness...
August 17, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Susan Williams, Kamalesh Venugopal, Monika Nitschke, John Nairn, Robert Fawcett, Chris Beattie, Graeme Wynwood, Peng Bi
Heatwaves can be a common occurrence in Australia, and the public health impacts can be severe. Heat warnings and interventions are being adopted widely to reduce the preventable health impacts. This study examines the effects of heatwaves on morbidity and mortality in different climatic regions in the state of South Australia, to inform the targeting of heat warnings according to regional needs. Heatwaves were defined using the excess heat factor (EHF), an index based on mean daily temperature indices that quantifies heatwave severity relative to the local climate...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Betty Muriithi, Martin Bundi, Amina Galata, Gabriel Miringu, Ernest Wandera, Cyrus Kathiiko, Erick Odoyo, Martha Kamemba, Evans Amukoye, Sora Huqa, Mohammad Shah, Shingo Inoue, Yoshio Ichinose
The NUITM-KEMRI biosafety training program was developed for capacity building of new biosafety level three (BSL-3) laboratory users. The training program comprehensively covers biosafety and biosecurity theory and practice. Its training curriculum is based on the WHO biosafety guidelines, local biosafety standards, and ongoing biosafety level three research activities in the facility, also taking into consideration the emerging public health issues. The program's training approach enhances the participant's biosafety and biosecurity knowledge and builds their skills through the hands-on practice sessions and mentorship training...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Michael Muhammad, E Hill De Loney, Cassandra L Brooks, Shervin Assari, DeWaun Robinson, Cleopatra H Caldwell
Background: In April 2014, the emergency manager of Flint, Michigan switched the city's water supplier from Detroit's water department to the Flint River. The change in water source resulted in the Flint Water Crisis (FWC) in which lead (Pb) from the city's network of old pipes leached into residents' tap water. Residents of Flint reported concerns about the water to officials; however, the concerns were ignored for more than a year. Objective: This study sought to understand how Black youth in Flint conceptualize, interpret, and respond to racism they perceive as part of the normal bureaucracy contributing to the FWC...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
K Ally Memedovich, Laura E Dowsett, Eldon Spackman, Tom Noseworthy, Fiona Clement
BACKGROUND: With impending marijuana legislation in Canada, a broad understanding of the harms associated with marijuana use is needed to inform the clinical community and public, and to support evidence-informed public policy development. The purpose of the review was to synthesize the evidence on adverse health effects and harms of marijuana use. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase, PsycINFO, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Health Technology Assessment Database from the inception of each database to May 2018...
July 2018: CMAJ Open
Inga Eichhorn, Torsten Semmler, Alexander Mellmann, Derek Pickard, Muna F Anjum, Angelika Fruth, Helge Karch, Lothar H Wieler
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are a cause of bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and the potentially fatal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). While O157:H7 is the dominant EHEC serotype, non-O157 EHEC have emerged as serious causes of disease. In Germany, the most important non-O157 O-serogroups causing one third of EHEC infections, including diarrhea as well as HUS, are O26, O103, O111 and O145. Interestingly, we identified EHEC O-serogroups O26 and O111 in one single sequence type complex, STC29, that also harbours atypical enteropathogenic E...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Martha Shawn Morehead, Catherine Scarbrough
Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide phenomenon and a global public health crisis. The inappropriate use of antibiotics in the human, animal, food, and agricultural arenas have contributed to the current dilemma. Both gram-positive and gram-negative resistant bacteria have been deemed serious and urgent threats by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The World Health Organization has created a 5-objective global action plan to address antimicrobial resistance and to coordinate numerous international sectors...
September 2018: Primary Care
Irina Jornist, Khitam Muhsen, Daniela Ram, Yaniv Lustig, Virginia Levy, Sara Orzitser, Roberto Azar, Merav Weil, Viki Indenbaum, Danit Sofer, Ella Mendelson, Michal Mandelboim, Musa Hindiyeh
BACKGROUND: Human parainfluenza virus 3 (hPIV-3) causes respiratory tract infection. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of hPIV-3 infection among hospitalized patients and characterize the circulating strains. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted using respiratory samples of 15,946 hospitalized patients with respiratory symptoms in 2012-2015 in Israel. All samples were subjected to q-PCR and q-RT-PCR to determine the presence of hPIV-3 and other respiratory viruses...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Celia Lewis, Lydia H Greiner, David R Brown
Emerging evidence indicates that proximity to unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD) is associated with health outcomes. There is intense debate about "How close is too close?" for maintaining public health and safety. The goal of this Delphi study was to elicit expert consensus on appropriate setback distances for UOGD from human activity. Three rounds were used to identify and seek consensus on recommended setback distances. The 18 panelists were health care providers, public health practitioners, environmental advocates, and researchers/scientists...
2018: PloS One
Karen Pazol, Sascha R Ellington, Anna C Fulton, Lauren B Zapata, Sheree L Boulet, Marion E Rice, Shanna Cox, Lisa Romero, Eva Lathrop, Stacey Hurst, Charlan D Kroelinger, Howard Goldberg, Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza, Regina M Simeone, Lee Warner, Dana M Meaney-Delman, Wanda D Barfield
Ensuring access to and promoting use of effective contraception have been identified as important strategies for preventing unintended pregnancy (1). The importance of ensuring resources to prevent unintended pregnancy in the context of public health emergencies was highlighted during the 2016 Zika virus outbreak when Zika virus infection during pregnancy was identified as a cause of serious birth defects (2). Accordingly, CDC outlined strategies for state, local, and territorial jurisdictions to consider implementing to ensure access to contraception (3)...
August 17, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ashley E Moore, Jessica R MacNeil, Xin Wang, Sandeep J Joseph, Lauren Lorentzson, Stepy Thomas, Amy Tunali, Tonia Parrott, Monica M Farley, Melissa Tobin-D'Angelo
Several countries in Europe and Australia are reporting an increasing incidence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W (NmW) as a consequence of the rapid expansion of a single NmW clone belonging to clonal complex 11 (1-5). Because this clone is reported to be associated with more severe disease, unusual clinical presentations, and a high case fatality ratio (CFR), it is considered a hypervirulent strain (1,6). In the United States, NmW accounts for approximately 5% of meningococcal disease reported each year, and this proportion has remained stable for several years (7)...
August 17, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Muhammad Wajid, Asad Bashir Awan, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Jörg Weinreich, Peter Schierack, Yasra Sarwar, Aamir Ali
The zoonotic serovars of Salmonella enterica particularly Typhimurium and Enteritidis pose a continuous global threat to poultry industry and public health. We report the prevalence of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis serovars in local poultry, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profiling, and molecular detection of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes. A total of 340 clinical samples were collected and 239 carried Salmonella, which were identified by genus-specific PCR (invA gene) and by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight...
August 16, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Alina L Flores, Kristina Risley, Kenneth Quintana
Thirty percent of federal public health employees were retirement eligible in September 2017. Further, at the state public health level, as indicated in the recent Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS), an estimated 25% of employees are planning to retire before 2020 with an additional 18% intending to leave their organizations within one year. Due to these workforce changes, there is an urgent need for public health organizations to examine how they are ensuring a talent pool from which leaders can emerge...
2018: Preventive medicine and community health
Sheida Mohammadi, Nima Hosseini Jazani, Mehri Kouhkan, Leila Ashrafi Babaganjeh
Background and Objectives: Bacterial resistance is an emerging public health problem worldwide. Metallic nanoparticles and nanoalloys open a promising field due to their excellent antimicrobial effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of Ag-Cu nanoalloys, which were biosynthesized by Lactobacillus casei ATCC 39392, on some of the important bacterial pathogens, including Escherichia coli , Burkholderia cepacia, Listeria monocytogenes and Brucella abortus ...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Sonika Agarwal, Nidhi Kaeley, Sushant Khanduri, Nand Kishore
Snakebite is considered as a significant public health problem contributing considerably to morbidity and mortality. A neurotoxic snake bite can present from mild ptosis to complete paralysis with external and internal ophthalmoplegia. Three patients presented in emergency intubated outside with deeply comatose, fixed dilated pupil, and absent doll's eye reflex mimicking as brain dead.
July 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Guido España, John Grefenstette, Alex Perkins, Claudia Torres, Alfonso Campo Carey, Hernando Diaz, Fernando de la Hoz, Donald S Burke, Willem G van Panhuis
New epidemics of infectious diseases can emerge any time, as illustrated by the emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) in Latin America. During new epidemics, public health officials face difficult decisions regarding spatial targeting of interventions to optimally allocate limited resources. We used a large-scale, data-driven, agent-based simulation model (ABM) to explore CHIKV mitigation strategies, including strategies based on previous DENV outbreaks. Our model represents CHIKV transmission in a realistic population of Colombia with 45 million individuals in 10...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Roman Kislov, Paul M Wilson, Sarah Knowles, Ruth Boaden
BACKGROUND: Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) were funded by NIHR in England in 2008 and 2014 as partnerships between universities and surrounding health service organisations, focused on improving the quality of healthcare through the conduct and application of applied health research. The aim of this review is to synthesise learning from evaluations of the CLAHRCs. METHODS: Fifteen databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO were searched to identify any evaluations of CLAHRCs...
August 15, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Kristin Baltrusaitis, John S Brownstein, Samuel V Scarpino, Eric Bakota, Adam W Crawley, Giuseppe Conidi, Julia Gunn, Josh Gray, Anna Zink, Mauricio Santillana
BACKGROUND: Influenza causes an estimated 3000 to 50,000 deaths per year in the United States of America (US). Timely and representative data can help local, state, and national public health officials monitor and respond to outbreaks of seasonal influenza. Data from cloud-based electronic health records (EHR) and crowd-sourced influenza surveillance systems have the potential to provide complementary, near real-time estimates of influenza activity. The objectives of this paper are to compare two novel influenza-tracking systems with three traditional healthcare-based influenza surveillance systems at four spatial resolutions: national, regional, state, and city, and to determine the minimum number of participants in these systems required to produce influenza activity estimates that resemble the historical trends recorded by traditional surveillance systems...
August 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Moataz Abd El Ghany, Hazem Sharaf, Mohamed H Al-Agamy, Atef Shibl, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne, Pei-Ying Hong
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) associated with Escherichia coli are a growing threat with an increase in the prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, particularly ß-lactamase producers, occurring globally. We investigated the presence of carbapenem-resistant uropathogenic E. coli clones in community-acquired UTIs in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to identify the virulence and resistance structures of the resistant clones and relate the isolates to those circulating globally. A combination of comparative genomics and phenotypic approaches were used to characterize ten MDR-uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates recovered from UTI patients in Riyadh between November 2014 and January 2015...
2018: PloS One
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