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Lee-Wen Chen, Chien-Hui Hung, Shie-Shan Wang, Ju-Bei Yen, Ann-Chi Liu, Ya-Hui Hung, Pey-Jium Chang
The BKRF2, BKRF3 and BKRF4 genes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are located close together in the viral genome, which encode glycoprotein L, uracil-DNA glycosylase and a tegument protein, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the BKRF2 gene behaves as a true-late lytic gene, whereas the BKRF3 and BKRF4 genes belong to the early lytic gene family. Our results further reveal that both BKRF3 and BKRF4 promoters are new synergistic targets of Zta and Rta, two EBV latent-to-lytic switch transactivators. Multiple Rta- and Zta-responsive elements within the BKRF3 and BKRF4 promoters were identified and characterized experimentally...
August 7, 2018: Virus Research
Flavio Rose Epstein, Chi-Mei Liu, Janet Marie Stevenson
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are common after heart transplant, and in a regional heart transplant center servicing northern California, willingness to participate in treatment can be a major barrier. INTRODUCTION: Our primary aim is to design a remote cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention. This study is the first step in the process. Through a survey to the cohort of heart transplant recipients (N = 230), managed within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California's Heart Transplant Service, we aimed to assess symptoms of stress, depression, and anxiety, patient willingness to participate in a CBT intervention, and preference between video and telephone...
August 10, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Ruth de Francisco, Andrés Castaño-García, Susana Martínez-González, Isabel Pérez-Martínez, Ana J González-Huerta, Lucía R Morais, María S Fernández-García, Santiago Jiménez, Susana Díaz-Coto, Pablo Flórez-Díez, Adolfo Suárez, Sabino Riestra
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection on clinical outcomes in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM: To evaluate seroprevalence, seroconversion rate and complications associated with EBV infection in an adult IBD cohort attending a tertiary hospital in Spain between 2006 and 2016. METHODS: EBV serological status was performed. In seronegative patients, the seroconversion rate was evaluated...
August 10, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
David J Epstein, Jeffrey Dunn, Stan Deresinski
Multiple sclerosis therapies include interferons, glatiramer, and multiple immunosuppressive drugs. Discerning infectious risks of immunosuppressive drugs requires understanding their mechanisms of action and analyzing interventional studies and postmarketing observational data. Though identical immunosuppressive therapies are sometimes used in non-neurologic conditions, infectious risks may differ in this population. Screening for and treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection should be prioritized for patients receiving alemtuzumab; ocrelizumab is likely not associated with an increased risk of TB...
August 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Carrie B Coleman, Julie Lang, Lydia A Sweet, Nicholas A Smith, Brian M Freed, Zenggang Pan, Bradley Haverkos, Roberta Pelanda, Rosemary Rochford
Epstein Barr virus (EBV) has been classified into two strains, EBV Type-1 (EBV-1) and EBV Type-2 (EBV-2) based on genetic variances and differences in transforming capacity. EBV-1 readily transforms B-cells in culture while EBV-2 is poorly transforming. The differing ability to immortalize B-cells in vitro suggests that in vivo these viruses likely use alternative approaches to establish latency. Indeed, we recently reported that EBV-2 has a unique cell tropism for T-cells, infecting T-cells in culture and in healthy Kenyan infants, strongly suggesting EBV-2 infection of T-cells is a natural part of the EBV-2 life-cycle...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Virology
Rajeev K Pathak, Joe Fahed, Pasquale Santangeli, Matthew C Hyman, Jackson J Liang, Maciej Kubala, Tatsuya Hayashi, Daniele Muser, Manina Pathak, Arshneel Kochar, Simon A Castro, Fermin C Garcia, David S Frankel, Gregory E Supple, Robert D Schaller, David Lin, Michael P Riley, Rajat Deo, Andrew E Epstein, Erica S Zado, Sanjay Dixit, David J Callans, Francis E Marchlinski
OBJECTIVES: This study reports the long-term outcome of patients with bundle branch re-entrant tachycardia (BBRT) who underwent catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia (VT). BACKGROUND: BBRT is an uncommon mechanism of VT. Data on long-term outcomes of patients with BBRT treated with catheter ablation are insufficient. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2016, 32 patients had a sustained VT due to a bundle branch re-entrant mechanism. Diagnosis of BBRT was established per standard published criteria...
March 2018: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
Sebastian Mondaca, Matthew Margolis, Francisco Sanchez-Vega, Philip Jonsson, Jamie C Riches, Geoffrey Y Ku, Jaclyn F Hechtman, Yaelle Tuvy, Michael F Berger, Manish A Shah, David P Kelsen, David H Ilson, Kenneth Yu, Zoe Goldberg, Andrew S Epstein, Avni Desai, Vincent Chung, Joanne F Chou, Marinela Capanu, David B Solit, Nikolaus Schultz, Yelena Y Janjigian
BACKGROUND: Trastuzumab with cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine is the standard treatment in metastatic HER2-positive gastric or gastroesophageal (GE) junction adenocarcinoma; however, there is limited data on the efficacy of trastuzumab in combination with a three-drug regimen in this setting. We examined the efficacy and safety of modified docetaxel, cisplatin and 5 fluorouracil (mDCF) plus trastuzumab in a single-arm multicenter phase II trial. METHODS: Previously untreated patients with HER2-positive metastatic gastric or GE junction adenocarcinoma were treated with mDCF and trastuzumab every 2 weeks...
August 7, 2018: Gastric Cancer
Peng-Fei Wen, Min Zhang, Ting-Ting Wang, Hong-Jie Liu, Wen-Yan Zhang, Wei-Ping Liu, Lin Wang
BACKGROUND: Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoproliferative disorder (HVLPD) is a rare Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma that mainly affects children. OBJECTIVES: To examine the similarities and differences in the clinical pathological features, EBV infection status, and gene rearrangements in adults and children patients with HVLPD. METHODS: We compared the clinical manifestations, histopathology, immunophenotypical features, EBV infection status, and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements in the adult and children HVLPD groups...
August 6, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Suzanne L Epstein
Despite all we have learned since 1918 about influenza virus and immunity, available influenza vaccines remain inadequate to control outbreaks of unexpected strains. Universal vaccines not requiring strain-matching would be a major improvement. Their composition would be independent of predicting circulating viruses, and thus potentially effective against unexpected drift or pandemic strains. This commentary explores progress with candidate universal vaccines based on various target antigens. Candidates include vaccines based on conserved viral proteins such as nucleoprotein and matrix, on the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem, and various combinations...
August 1, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
I D Grice, G L Mariottini
There remains today a critical need for new antiviral agents, particularly in view of the alarming increase in drug resistance and associated issues. The marine environment has been a prolific contributor towards the identification of novel therapeutic agents in the recent few decades. Added to this, glycans (or carbohydrate- or sugar-based compounds) have in very recent decades made outstanding contributions to the development of novel therapeutics. This review brings together these significant facets of modern drug discovery by presenting the reported literature on glycans derived from marine organisms that possess antiviral activity...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Yu-Yan Lan, Fang-Hsin Chang, Jen-Hao Tsai, Yao Chang
Clinical studies suggest a positive association between malignant progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and Rta, a transcription factor of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). However, Rta induces cellular senescence in vitro. To provide an underlying mechanism integrating these clues, we adapted a concept of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), based on which senescent cells facilitate tumor progression through paracrine. First, Rta-expressing NPC cells themselves show reduced invasiveness but promote invasion of Rta-negative tumor cells through secreted factors...
August 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nathan Ungerleider, Monica Concha, Zhen Lin, Claire Roberts, Xia Wang, Subing Cao, Melody Baddoo, Walter N Moss, Yi Yu, Michael Seddon, Terri Lehman, Scott Tibbetts, Rolf Renne, Yan Dong, Erik K Flemington
Our appreciation for the extent of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transcriptome complexity continues to grow through findings of EBV encoded microRNAs, new long non-coding RNAs as well as the more recent discovery of over a hundred new polyadenylated lytic transcripts. Here we report an additional layer to the EBV transcriptome through the identification of a repertoire of latent and lytic viral circular RNAs. Utilizing RNase R-sequencing with cell models representing latency types I, II, and III, we identified EBV encoded circular RNAs expressed from the latency Cp promoter involving backsplicing from the W1 and W2 exons to the C1 exon, from the EBNA BamHI U fragment exon, and from the latency long non-coding RPMS1 locus...
August 6, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Daire Shanahan, Rachel Cowie, Helen Rogers, Konrad Staines
BACKGROUND: Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and usually presents in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and systemic immunosuppression. It is rarely seen in patients who are immunocompetent. It is clinically characterised as an asymptomatic, soft, white and corrugated lesion that cannot be scraped from the surface it adheres to. METHODS: Immunocompetent patients with OHL attending Bristol Dental Hospital within the last 6 months were identified...
August 6, 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Jennifer R Schroeder, Karran A Phillips, David H Epstein, Michelle L Jobes, Melody A Furnari, Ashley P Kennedy, Markus Heilig, Kenzie L Preston
BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence suggested that the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone reduces opioid-withdrawal symptoms, possibly by inhibiting increases in proinflammatory cytokines. METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted utilizing two different study designs (entirely outpatient, and a combination of inpatient and outpatient) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of pioglitazone as an adjunct medication for people with opioid physical dependence undergoing a buprenorphine taper...
August 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
D Epstein, M Gohel, F Heatley, A H Davies
Background: Venous leg ulcers impair quality of life significantly, with substantial costs to health services. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of interventional procedures alongside compression therapy versus compression therapy alone for the treatment of chronic venous leg ulceration. Methods: A Markov decision analytical model was developed. The main outcome measures were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and lifetime costs per patient, from the perspective of the UK National Health Service at 2015 prices...
August 2018: BJS open
Jason Stein, Quangang Xu, Kayla C Jackson, Elena Romm, Simone C Wuest, Peter Kosa, Tianxia Wu, Bibiana Bielekova
Although B cell depletion is an effective therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS), the pathogenic functions of B cells in MS remain incompletely understood. We asked whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) B cells in MS secrete different cytokines than control-subject B cells and whether cytokine secretion affects MS phenotype. We blindly studied CSF B cells after their immortalization by Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in prospectively-collected MS patients and control subjects with other inflammatory-(OIND) or non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND) and healthy volunteers (HV)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Miki Ando, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Norio Komatsu
Extranodal natural killer (NK) /T-cell lymphoma (ENKL), nasal-type, is an aggressive lymphoma that is relatively common in Asia and is resistant to anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) therapy can induce durable remission in selected tumors, such as melanomas and virus-related tumors. ENKLs are commonly infected with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) ; therefore, CTL therapy can be effective for these lymphomas. However, CTLs that are continuously exposed to viral or tumor antigens usually get exhausted...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Virginia Corbett, Andrew S Epstein, Mary S McCabe
The goal of this paper is to review and describe the characteristics and outcomes of ethics consultations on a gastrointestinal oncology service and to identify areas for systems improvement and staff education. This is a retrospective case series derived from a prospectively-maintained database (which includes categorization of the primary issues, contextual ethical issues, and other case characteristics) of the ethics consultation service at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The study analyzed all ethics consultations requested for patients on the gastrointestinal medical oncology service from September 2007 to January 2016...
August 4, 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
Yan Zhang, Wen Zhang, Wen Liu, Hong Liu, Yong Zhang, Bing Luo
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous oncogenic herpesvirus associated with various human tumors. Latent membrane protein (LMP) 1 is considered a key oncoprotein in some EBV-associated tumors, while it is absent in EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC). In the present study, we did not detect the mRNA or the protein expression of LMP1 in 10 EBVaGC tissue samples, but we found that miRNA-BART16 was more abundantly expressed in EBVaGC primary tissues than in cell lines. It has been reported that EBV-encoded miRNA-BART16 can target the 3'-untranslated regions of LMP1 and negatively regulate its expression...
August 2, 2018: Virus Research
Mohadeseh Kosari-Monfared, Novin Nikbakhsh, Sadegh Fattahi, Elham Ghadami, Mohammad Ranaei, Hassan Taheri, Fatemeh Amjadi-Moheb, Gholam A Godazandeh, Shahryar Shafaei, Maryam Pilehchian-Langroudi, Ali A Samadani, Haleh Akhavan-Niaki
Gastric cancer is a life-threatening disease; resulting from interaction among genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Aberrant dysregulation and methylation changes in Wnt/β-catenin signaling downstream elements are a prevalent phenomenon encountered in gastric tumorigenesis. Also, viral infections play a role in gastric cancer development. CTNNBIP1 (β-catenin interacting protein 1) gene is an antagonist of Wnt signaling which binds to the β-catenin molecules. The CTNNBIP1 function as tumor suppressor gene or oncogene in different types of cancer is controversial...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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