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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720396/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-protects-against-mitoxantrone-induced-cardiac-injury-in-mice
#1
Venkat Subramaniam, Gin Chuang, Huijing Xia, Brendan Burn, Jessica Bradley, Jerome L Maderdrut, David H Coy, Kurt J Varner
Mitoxantrone (MXT) is an androstenedione that is used to treat cancers and progressive forms of multiple sclerosis; however, its use is limited by its cardiotoxicity. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the secretin/growth hormone-releasing hormone/vasoactive intestinal peptide family and has many functions, including cytoprotection and immunosuppression. We tested the hypothesis that PACAP can protect against MXT-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Female BALB/c mice were treated once weekly for 4 weeks with saline (n=14) or MXT (3mg/kg, i...
July 15, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720298/steroids-steroid-precursors-and-neuroactive-steroids-in-critically-ill-equine-neonates
#2
K A Dembek, K J Timko, L M Johnson, K A Hart, B S Barr, B David, T A Burns, R E Toribio
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) dysfunction has been associated with sepsis and mortality in foals. Most studies have focused on cortisol, while other steroids have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to characterise the adrenal steroid and steroid precursor response to disease and to determine their association with the HPAA response to illness, disease severity, and mortality in hospitalised foals. All foals (n=326) were classified by two scoring systems into three categories: based on the sepsis score (septic, sick non-septic [SNS] and healthy) and the foal survival score (Group 1: 3-18%; Group 2: 38-62%; Group 3: 82-97% likelihood of survival)...
July 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710978/relationships-between-pops-biometrics-and-circulating-steroids-in-male-polar-bears-ursus-maritimus-from-svalbard
#3
Tomasz M Ciesielski, Ingunn Tjelta Hansen, Jenny Bytingsvik, Martin Hansen, Elisabeth Lie, Jon Aars, Bjørn M Jenssen, Bjarne Styrishave
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biometric variables on circulating levels of steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestagens) in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway (n = 23). Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone (PRO), androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in polar bear serum by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), while POPs were measured in plasma...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710639/downstream-process-synthesis-for-microbial-steroids
#4
Fabian B Thygs, Juliane Merz
Systematic and holistic process development, considering upstream and downstream processing simultaneously, is crucial for designing effective and economical production processes. Based on a multiphasic fermentation process, where oil is added to improve substrate solubility, a systematic approach for the purification of microbial steroids is presented. The design methodology incorporates expert knowledge in the form of heuristics to generate different downstream processing alternatives for processing the complex, multiphasic fermentation broth, and recovering the target steroid precursor androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (androstenedione; AD)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710632/process-for-biotransformation-of-androsta-4-ene-3-17-dione-4-ad-to-androsta-1-4-diene-3-17-dione-add
#5
Surya Prakash, Abhay Bajaj
Androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (androstadienedione, ADD) is key intermediate for the organic synthesis of a variety of female sex hormones such as estrone, estradiol, estriol and other related derivatives. De novo synthesis of this molecule is not yet reported in any form of living system, i.e., microbial, plant, and animal. The structural complexities due to presence of several chiral carbon centers create significant hurdles in chemical synthesis of such molecules. Microbe-mediated biotransformation offer a highly reliable, cost-effective, and relatively non hazardous way for commercial manufacturing of steroidal key intermediates...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710630/scale-up-of-phytosterols-bioconversion-into-androstenedione
#6
Sonia Martínez-Cámara, Esther Bahíllo, José-Luis Barredo, Marta Rodríguez-Sáiz
Phytosterols, generated as a by-product of vegetable oils or wood pulp, contain the cyclopentane-perhydro-phenanthrene nucleus, and can be converted into steroid intermediates by removing the C17 side chain. This chapter shows the scale-up, from flask to fermentor, of the phytosterols bioconversion into 4-androstene-3,17-dione (androstenedione; AD) with Mycobacterium neoaurum B-3805. Due to the fact that phytosterols and AD are nearly insoluble in water, two-phase systems and the use of chemically modified cyclodextrins have been described as methods to solve it...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710629/bioconversion-of-phytosterols-into-androstenedione-by-mycobacterium
#7
Kjell D Josefsen, Anna Nordborg, Håvard Sletta
The chapter describes the bioconversion of phytosterols to androstenedione (AD) with Mycobacterium spp. in shake flasks and fermenters, as well as LC-MS based methods for analysis of phytosterols and steroid products.Phytosterols are derived as a by-product of vegetable oil refining and of manufacture of wood pulp. Phytosterols contain the same four-ring nucleus as steroids, and may be converted to high-value steroids by removing the side chain at C17 and minor changes at other sites in the ring structure.Many bacteria, including Mycobacterium spp...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710628/%C3%AE-sitosterol-bioconversion-to-androstenedione-in-microtiter-plates
#8
Marco P C Marques, Pedro Fernandes
Microtiter plates are routinely used as low-cost miniaturized bioreactors due to the large number of experiments that can be conducted simultaneously under similar conditions and replicate all functions of bench-scale reactors at dramatically smaller volumes. These plates, due to the standard footprint, can be integrated with liquid-handling systems and associated equipment expanding considerably their application and use. However, care has to be taken to operate the microtiter plates in optimized mixing and oxygen transfer conditions, preventing medium evaporation in prolonged experiment runs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710625/selection-of-biodegrading-phytosterol-strains
#9
María-Angélica Mondaca, Maricel Vidal, Soledad Chamorro, Gladys Vidal
The phytosterol-biotransforming strains were selected from Mycobacterium sp., using a high concentration of β-sitosterol. The selection was made by culturing the strains in a medium enriched with 14 g β-sitosterol/L as the unique source of carbon. During 2 months, the bacterial cultures were transferred successively. The extraction of the biotransformation products was made with methanol and ethyl acetate. The qualitative and quantitative analysis was made by means of thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), and GLC-mass spectrometry...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710623/genetic-techniques-for-manipulation-of-the-phytosterol-biotransformation-strain-mycobacterium-neoaurum-nrrl-b-3805
#10
Jessica K Loraine, Margaret C M Smith
Mycobacterium neoaurum is a saprophytic, soil-dwelling bacterium. The strain NRRL B-3805 converts phytosterols to androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (androstenedione; AD), a precursor of multiple C19 steroids of importance to industry. NRRL B-3805 itself is able to convert AD to other steroid products, including testosterone (Ts) and androst-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (androstadienedione; ADD). However to improve this strain for industrial use, genetic modification is a priority. In this chapter, we describe a range of genetic techniques that can be used for M...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710293/probing-gata-factor-function-in-mouse-leydig-cells-via-testicular-injection-of-adenoviral-vectors
#11
Gervette M Penny, Rebecca B Cochran, Marjut Pihlajoki, Antti Kyrönlahti, Anja Schrade, Merja Häkkinen, Jorma Toppari, Markku Heikinheimo, David B Wilson
Testicular Leydig cells produce androgens essential for proper male reproductive development and fertility. Here, we describe a new Leydig cell ablation model based on Cre/Lox recombination of mouse Gata4 and Gata6, two genes implicated in the transcriptional regulation of steroidogenesis. The testicular interstitium of adult Gata4(flox/flox);Gata6(flox/flox) mice was injected with adenoviral vectors encoding Cre + GFP (Ad-Cre-IRES-GFP) or GFP alone (Ad-GFP). The vectors efficiently and selectively transduced Leydig cells, as evidenced by GFP reporter expression...
July 14, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690541/the-significance-of-the-sulfatase-pathway-for-local-estrogen-formation-in-endometrial-cancer
#12
Maša Sinreih, Tamara Knific, Maja Anko, Neli Hevir, Katja Vouk, Aleš Jerin, Snježana Frković Grazio, Tea Lanišnik Rižner
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common estrogen-dependent gynecological malignancy in the developed World. To investigate the local formation of estradiol (E2), we first measured the concentrations of the steroid precursor androstenedione (A-dione) and the most potent estrogen, E2, and we evaluated the metabolism of A-dione, estrone-sulfate (E1-S), and estrone (E1) in cancerous and adjacent control endometrium. Furthermore, we studied expression of the key genes for estradiol formation via the aromatase and sulfatase pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686893/a-relationship-in-adrenal-androgen-levels-between-mothers-and-their-children-from-a-dioxin-exposed-region-in-vietnam
#13
Le Thai Anh, Teruhiko Kido, Seijiro Honma, Ho Dung Manh, Ikue Koike, Yuko Oyama, Hoang Duc Phuc, Rie Okamoto, Hideaki Nakagawa, Shoji F Nakayama, Dang Duc Nhu, Nguyen Hung Minh, Ngo Van Toan, Le Ke Son
Over the past decades, southern Vietnam has been burdened by dioxins from contaminated herbicides sprayed during the Vietnam War. In a previous study, we found that dioxin exposure decreased levels of salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an adrenal androgen, in 3-year-old children. In present study, to assess the relationship between adrenal hormones disruption in lactating mothers and in children, we compared mother-child pairs from dioxin- and nondioxin-contaminated regions. In 2010 and 2011, mother-child pairs from a dioxin hotspot region (n=37) and a non-contaminated region (n=47) were recruited and donated breast milk and serum samples for dioxin and steroid hormones determination...
July 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684414/kinetic-processivity-of-the-two-step-oxidations-of-progesterone-and-pregnenolone-to-androgens-by-human-cytochrome-p450-17a1
#14
Eric Gonzalez, F Peter Guengerich
Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 17A1 plays a critical role in steroid metabolism, catalyzing both the 17α-hydroxylation of pregnenolone and progesterone and the subsequent 17α,20-lyase reactions to form dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione (Andro), respectively, critical for generating glucocorticoids and androgens. Human P450 17A1 reaction rates examined are enhanced by the accessory protein cytochrome b5 (b5), but the exact role of b5 in P450 17A1-catalyzed reactions is unclear as are several details of these reactions...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684272/androgen-profile-in-chinese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-their-reproductive-years
#15
Zehong Zhou, Rong Li, Jie Qiao
Large comparative studies of androgen profiles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and healthy women are scarce, and the application of the free androgen index (FAI) in diagnosing PCOS has lagged behind in China. Androgen profiles of women aged between 19 and 45 years with PCOS (n = 833) were compared with controls (n = 2732). The women with PCOS had an elevated androgen level (total testosterone, androstenedione and free androgen index) through their reproductive years. In the 'healthy' reference population (consisting of 821 controls without PCOS and without disorders affecting androgen concentrations), FAI, total testosterone and androstenedione were weakly but negatively correlated with age...
June 16, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684220/correlation-of-serum-anti-mullerian-hormone-to-follicular-follicle-stimulating-hormone-and-implantation-potential-of-the-ensuing-embryos
#16
Maw-Sheng Lee, Shu-Ling Tzeng, Shun-Fa Yang, Yi-Ping Lin, En-Hui Cheng, Chun-Chia Huang, Yu-Shih Yang, Tsung-Hsien Lee
Serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is a predictor of the pregnancy outcome in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles, particularly for older women. This study attempts to elucidate the effect of serum AMH on follicular hormone profiles and implantation outcome of the ensuing embryos in ART cycles. A total of 412 patients undergoing ART cycles at a private infertility center were included and 780 follicular fluid samples were collected. Levels of follicular hormones, including FSH, LH, inhibin B, AMH, estradiol, progesterone, and androstenedione were measured...
July 3, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679622/extra-ovarian-gonadotropin-negative-feedback-revealed-by-aromatase-inhibition-in-female-marmoset-monkeys
#17
Marissa Kraynak, Matthew T Flowers, Robert A Shapiro, Amita Kapoor, Jon Levine, David H Abbott
While the ovary produces the majority of estradiol (E2) in mature female primates, extra-ovarian sources contribute to E2 synthesis and action, including brain E2 regulating hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In ovary-intact female rodent models, aromatase inhibition (AI) induces a PCOS-like hypergonadotropic hyperandrogenism due to absent E2-mediated negative feedback. In order to examine the role of extra-ovarian E2 on nonhuman primate gonadotropin regulation, the present study employs letrozole to elicit AI in adult female marmoset monkeys...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676682/obesity-during-pregnancy-affects-sex-steroid-concentrations-depending-on-fetal-gender
#18
M Maliqueo, G Cruz, C Espina, I Contreras, M García, B Echiburú, N Crisosto
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: It is not clear whether maternal obesity along with fetal gender affect sex steroid metabolism during pregnancy. Therefore, we compared sex steroid concentrations and placental expression of steroidogenic enzymes between non-obese and obese pregnant women with non-pathological pregnancies, and investigated the influence of fetal gender on these parameters. METHODS: In 35 normal-weight (BMI 20-24.9 kg/m(2)) (Controls) and 36 obese women (BMI 30-36 kg/m(2)) (Obese), a fasting blood sample was obtained at first and at third trimester of gestation to measure progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, testosterone and estradiol by LC-MS/MS and estrone by RIA...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665486/uptake-and-metabolism-of-sulphated-steroids-by-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-the-adult-male-rat
#19
M Zeeshan Qaiser, Diana E M Dolman, David J Begley, N Joan Abbott, Mihaela Cazacu-Davidescu, Delia I Corol, Jonathan P Fry
Little is known about the origin of the neuroactive steroids dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and pregnenolone sulphate (PregS) in the brain or of their subsequent metabolism. Using rat brain perfusion in situ, we have found (3) H-PregS to enter more rapidly than (3) H-DHEAS and both to undergo extensive (>50%) desulphation within 0.5 min of uptake. Enzyme activity for the steroid sulphatase catalysing this deconjugation was enriched in the capillary fraction of the blood-brain barrier and its mRNA expressed in cultures of rat brain endothelial cells and astrocytes...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649885/can-the-source-of-hyperandrogenism-in-adolescents-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-predict-metabolic-phenotype
#20
Alaa Al Nofal, Lyndsay D Viers, Asma Javed
In this study, we demonstrated an association between adrenal hyperandrogenism, as determined by dehydroepiandrostenedione-to-free testosterone (DHEA-S/FT) ratio, and metabolic phenotype in obese and lean adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We compared 64 overweight/obese adolescents with PCOS (PCOS-O) with 18 lean (PCOS-L) adolescents. We analyzed the association between DHEA-S/FT ratios and metabolic parameters. Patients in the PCOS-O group were younger (median [interquartile range]) than those in the PCOS-L group (15 [15-17] vs...
June 24, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
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