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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090072/functional-analysis-of-a-carboxylesterase-gene-associated-with-isoprocarb-and-cyhalothrin-resistance-in-rhopalosiphum-padi-l
#1
Kang Wang, Yanna Huang, Xinyu Li, Maohua Chen
Carboxylesterase (CarE) is an important class of detoxification enzymes involved in insecticide resistance. However, the molecular mechanism of CarE-mediated insecticide resistance in Rhopalosiphum padi , a problematic agricultural pest, remains largely unknown. In the present study, an isoprocarb-resistant (IS-R) strain and a cyhalothrin-resistant (CY-R) strain were successively selected from a susceptible (SS) strain of R. padi . The enzyme activity indicated that enhanced carboxylesterase activity contributes to isoprocarb and cyhalothrin resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079547/ecosystem-function-in-predator-prey-food-webs-confronting-dynamic-models-with-empirical-data
#2
Alva Curtsdotter, H T Banks, J E Banks, Mattias Jonsson, Tomas Jonsson, A N Laubmeier, Michael Traugott, Riccardo Bommarco
1.Most ecosystem functions and related services involve species interactions across trophic levels, e.g. pollination and biological pest control. Despite this, our understanding of ecosystem function in multi-trophic communities is poor, and research has been limited to either manipulations in small communities or statistical descriptions in larger ones. 2.Recent advances in food web ecology may allow us to overcome the trade-off between mechanistic insight and ecological realism. Molecular tools now simplify the detection of feeding interactions, and trait-based approaches allow the application of dynamic food web models to real ecosystems...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30076391/a-plant-virus-bydv-promotes-trophic-facilitation-in-aphids-on-wheat
#3
Mitzy Porras, Consuelo M De Moraes, Mark C Mescher, Edwin G Rajotte, Tomás A Carlo
Pathogens and other parasites can have profound effects on biological communities and ecosystems. Here we explore how two strains of a plant virus - Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, BYDV - influence the foraging performance and fecundity of two aphid species: Rhopalosiphum maidis and R. padi. We found that pre-inhabitation by R. padi on plants facilitates the subsequent foraging of conspecifics and R. maidis. Without the virus, the occurrence of facilitation is asymmetric because it depends on the order of species arrival...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074992/web-monitoring-of-emerging-animal-infectious-diseases-integrated-in-the-french-animal-health-epidemic-intelligence-system
#4
Elena Arsevska, Sarah Valentin, Julien Rabatel, Jocelyn de Goër de Hervé, Sylvain Falala, Renaud Lancelot, Mathieu Roche
Since 2013, the French Animal Health Epidemic Intelligence System (in French: Veille Sanitaire Internationale, VSI) has been monitoring signals of the emergence of new and exotic animal infectious diseases worldwide. Once detected, the VSI team verifies the signals and issues early warning reports to French animal health authorities when potential threats to France are detected. To improve detection of signals from online news sources, we designed the Platform for Automated extraction of Disease Information from the web (PADI-web)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054774/nicotinamide-reverses-behavioral-impairments-and-provides-neuroprotection-in-3-nitropropionic-acid-induced-animal-model-ofhuntington-s-disease-implication-of-oxidative-stress-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-pathway
#5
Akram Sidhu, Vishal Diwan, Harsimran Kaur, Deepak Bhateja, Charan K Singh, Saurabh Sharma, Satyanarayana S V Padi
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by cognitive and psychiatric impairment caused by neuronal degeneration in the brain. Several studies have supported the hypothesis that oxidative stress is the main pathogenic factor in HD. The current study aims to determine the possible neuroprotective effects of nicotinamide on 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induced HD. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups. Group I was the vehicle-treated control, group II received 3-NP (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i...
July 27, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014365/effect-of-petroleum-derived-substances-on-life-history-traits-of-bird-cherry-oat-aphid-rhopalosiphum-padi-l-and-on-the-growth-and-chemical-composition-of-winter-wheat
#6
Milena Rusin, Janina Gospodarek, Aleksandra Nadgórska-Socha, Gabriela Barczyk, Elżbieta Boligłowa, Marzena Dabioch
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of various petroleum-derived substances (PDSs), namely petrol, diesel fuel, and spent engine oil, on life history traits of the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L., and on the growth and chemical composition of its host plant-winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. Each substance was tested separately, using two concentrations (9 and 18 g kg-1 ). Plants were cultivated in both control and contaminated soils. In early October 2013, soil was contaminated and after 1 week, winter wheat seeds, 'Batuta' cultivar, were sown...
July 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977601/controllability-in-an-islet-specific-regulatory-network-identifies-the-transcriptional-factor-nfatc4-which-regulates-type-2-diabetes-associated-genes
#7
Amitabh Sharma, Arda Halu, Julius L Decano, Megha Padi, Yang-Yu Liu, Rashmi B Prasad, Joao Fadista, Marc Santolini, Jörg Menche, Scott T Weiss, Marc Vidal, Edwin K Silverman, Masanori Aikawa, Albert-László Barabási, Leif Groop, Joseph Loscalzo
Probing the dynamic control features of biological networks represents a new frontier in capturing the dysregulated pathways in complex diseases. Here, using patient samples obtained from a pancreatic islet transplantation program, we constructed a tissue-specific gene regulatory network and used the control centrality (Cc) concept to identify the high control centrality (HiCc) pathways, which might serve as key pathobiological pathways for Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). We found that HiCc pathway genes were significantly enriched with modest GWAS p -values in the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) study...
2018: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897464/aphids-homoptera-aphididae-on-winter-wheat-predicting-maximum-abundance-of-metopolophium-dirhodum
#8
Alois Honek, Zdenka Martinkova, Pavel Saska, Anthony F G Dixon
In Central Europe, the most abundant aphid infesting the leaves of small grain cereals is Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Annual variation in its seasonal dynamics was evaluated using a 25-yr series of standardized weekly censuses of winter wheat plots. M. dirhodum made up >50 % of the aphids on the foliage. Date of immigration (8 May-3 July), length of period of population increase (0-9 wk), and date of attaining maximum abundance (28 May-22 July) varied greatly. For the prediction, we regressed maximum numbers/tiller on numbers recorded in the first week after heading...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797656/the-price-of-protection-a-defensive-endosymbiont-impairs-nymph-growth-in-the-bird-cherry-oat-aphid-rhopalosiphum-padi
#9
Daniel J Leybourne, Jorunn I B Bos, Tracy A Valentine, Alison J Karley
Bacterial endosymbionts have enabled aphids to adapt to a range of stressors, but their effects in many aphid species remain to be established. The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus), is an important pest of cereals worldwide and has been reported to form symbiotic associations with Serratia symbiotica and Sitobion miscanthi L-type Symbiont endobacteria, although the resulting aphid phenotype has not been described. This study presents the first report of R. padi infection with the facultative bacterial endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa...
May 24, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780874/the-personalized-alzheimer-s-disease-cortical-thickness-index-predicts-likely-pathology-and-clinical-progression-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#10
Annie M Racine, Michael Brickhouse, David A Wolk, Bradford C Dickerson
Introduction: An Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker adjusted for age-related brain changes should improve specificity for AD-related pathological burden. Methods: We calculated a brain-age-adjusted "personalized AD cortical thickness index" (pADi) in mild cognitive impairment patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We performed receiver operating characteristic analysis for discrimination between patients with and without cerebrospinal fluid evidence of AD and logistic regression in an independent sample to determine if a dichotomized pADi predicted conversion to AD dementia...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761046/low-bacterial-community-diversity-in-two-introduced-aphid-pests-revealed-with-16s-rrna-amplicon-sequencing
#11
Francisca Zepeda-Paulo, Sebastían Ortiz-Martínez, Andrea X Silva, Blas Lavandero
Bacterial endosymbionts that produce important phenotypic effects on their hosts are common among plant sap-sucking insects. Aphids have become a model system of insect-symbiont interactions. However, endosymbiont research has focused on a few aphid species, making it necessary to make greater efforts to other aphid species through different regions, in order to have a better understanding of the role of endosymbionts in aphids as a group. Aphid endosymbionts have frequently been studied by PCR-based techniques, using species-specific primers, nevertheless this approach may omit other non-target bacteria cohabiting a particular host species...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750593/spatio-temporal-distribution-and-environmental-drivers-of-barley-yellow-dwarf-virus-and-vector-abundance-in-kansas
#12
Laramy Enders, Trevor Hefley, John Girvin, Robert Whitworth, Charles Smith
Several aphid species transmit barley yellow dwarf, a globally destructive disease caused by viruses that infect cereal grain crops. Data from >400 samples collected across Kansas wheat fields in 2014 and 2015 were used to develop spatio-temporal models predicting the extent to which landcover, temperature and precipitation affect spring aphid vector abundance and presence of individuals carrying Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). The distribution of Rhopalosiphum padi abundance was not correlated with climate or landcover, but Sitobion avenae abundance was positively correlated to fall temperature and negatively correlated to spring temperature and precipitation...
May 11, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749926/metagenomic-analysis-of-varroa-free-australian-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-shows-a-diverse-picornavirales-virome
#13
John M K Roberts, Denis L Anderson, Peter A Durr
The viral landscape of the honey bee (Apismellifera) has changed as a consequence of the global spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and accompanying virulent strains of the iflavirus deformed wing virus (DWV), which the mite vectors. The presence of DWV in honey bee populations is known to influence the occurrence of other viruses, suggesting that the current known virome of A. mellifera may be undercharacterized. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining the honey bee virome in Australia, which is uniquely free of parasitic mites or DWV...
June 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731722/identification-expression-and-regulation-of-an-omega-class-glutathione-s-transferase-in-rhopalosiphum-padi-l-hemiptera-aphididae-under-insecticide-stress
#14
Balachandar Balakrishnan, Sha Su, Kang Wang, Ruizheng Tian, Maohua Chen
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play an essential role in the detoxification of xenobiotic toxins in insects, including insecticides. However, few data are available for the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.). In this study, we cloned and sequenced the full-length cDNA of an omega GST gene ( RpGSTO1 ) from R. padi , which contains 720 bp in length and encodes 239 amino acids. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that RpGSTO1 belongs to the omega class of insect GSTs. RpGSTO1 gene was highly expressed in transformed Escherichia coli and the protein was purified by affinity chromatography...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707235/detecting-phenotype-driven-transitions-in-regulatory-network-structure
#15
Megha Padi, John Quackenbush
Complex traits and diseases like human height or cancer are often not caused by a single mutation or genetic variant, but instead arise from functional changes in the underlying molecular network. Biological networks are known to be highly modular and contain dense "communities" of genes that carry out cellular processes, but these structures change between tissues, during development, and in disease. While many methods exist for inferring networks and analyzing their topologies separately, there is a lack of robust methods for quantifying differences in network structure...
2018: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688595/tetrachlorinated-polycyclic-aromatic-dicarboximides-new-electron-poor-%C3%AF-scaffolds-and-nir-emitters-by-palladium-catalyzed-annulation-reaction
#16
Magnus Mahl, Kazutaka Shoyama, Jessica Rühe, Vincenzo Grande, Frank Würthner
Herein we report a palladium-catalyzed annulation reaction consisting of a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling and a C-H arylation cascade for the synthesis of tetrachlorinated polycyclic aromatic dicarboximides (PADIs). This convergent synthetic route afforded a broad series of hitherto unknown electron-deficient PADIs under optimized reaction conditions by coupling of a dibromo-tetrachloro-perylene dicarboximide with different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) boronic acid pinacol esters in up to 89 % yields...
July 2, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648668/widespread-enhancer-activation-via-er%C3%AE-mediates-estrogen-response-in-vivo-during-uterine-development
#17
Wendy N Jefferson, H Karimi Kinyamu, Tianyuan Wang, Adam X Miranda, Elizabeth Padilla-Banks, Alisa A Suen, Carmen J Williams
Little is known regarding how steroid hormone exposures impact the epigenetic landscape in a living organism. Here, we took a global approach to understanding how exposure to the estrogenic chemical, diethylstilbestrol (DES), affects the neonatal mouse uterine epigenome. Integration of RNA- and ChIP-sequencing data demonstrated that ∼80% of DES-altered genes had higher H3K4me1/H3K27ac signal in close proximity. Active enhancers, of which ∼3% were super-enhancers, had a high density of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) binding sites and were correlated with alterations in nearby gene expression...
June 20, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557098/challenges-in-profiling-australian-scuba-divers-through-surveys
#18
John Lippmann, David McD Taylor, Christopher Stevenson, Joanne W Williams
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to compare the results from three Australian scuba diver surveys. As the surveys differed in recruitment methods, the expectation was that respondents would differ in some important characteristics. METHODOLOGY: Anonymous, online, cross-sectional surveys of the demographics, health, diving practices and outcomes were distributed to: (1) Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) members; (2) Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI) Asia-Pacific members; and (3) divers who had received any PADI non-leadership certification within the previous four years...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554141/overexpression-of-the-aphid-induced-serine-protease-inhibitor-ci2c-gene-in-barley-affects-the-generalist-green-peach-aphid-not-the-specialist-bird-cherry-oat-aphid
#19
Aleksandra Losvik, Lisa Beste, Jennifer Stephens, Lisbeth Jonsson
Aphids are serious pests in crop plants. In an effort to identify plant genes controlling resistance against aphids, we have here studied a protease inhibitor, CI2c in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The CI2c gene was earlier shown to be upregulated by herbivory of the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) in barley genotypes with moderate resistance against this aphid, but not in susceptible lines. We hypothesized that CI2c contributes to the resistance. To test this idea, cDNA encoding CI2c was overexpressed in barley and bioassays were carried out with R...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544773/essential-role-of-ovarian-hormones-in-susceptibility-to-the-consequences-of-witnessing-social-defeat-in-female-rats
#20
Julie E Finnell, Brandon L Muniz, Akhila R Padi, Calliandra M Lombard, Casey M Moffitt, Christopher S Wood, L Britt Wilson, Lawrence P Reagan, Marlene A Wilson, Susan K Wood
BACKGROUND: Women are at greater risk than men of developing depression and comorbid disorders such as cardiovascular disease. This enhanced risk begins at puberty and ends following menopause, suggesting a role for ovarian hormones in this sensitivity. Here we used a model of psychosocial witness stress in female rats to determine the stress-induced neurobiological adaptations that underlie stress susceptibility in an ovarian hormone-dependent manner. METHODS: Intact or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were exposed to five daily 15-minute witness-stress exposures...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
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