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Qian Li, Jia Fan, Jingxuan Sun, Man-Qun Wang, Julian Chen
Hamiltonella defensa is mainly vertically transmitted, but evidence suggests that horizontal transmission may occur. Here, the first case of plant-mediated horizontal transmission of H. defensa between wheat aphids, Sitobion miscanthi, is reported. H. defensa was harbored in sheath cells, secondary bacteriocytes and hemolymph. After Hamiltonella-infected aphids fed on wheat leaves, H. defensa was observed in aphid stylets and plant phloem. H. defensa persisted in wheat leaves for at least 10 days. Most Hamiltonella-uninfected aphids became infected with H...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jun-Yu Cao, Kun Xing, Hui-Ping Liu, Fei Zhao
Most ectotherms are able to increase their tolerance to heat stress via the acclimation response. However, there is ongoing debate about whether the acclimation response is associated with fitness costs, and what factors can affect the consequences of acclimation are still unclear. To elucidate this, we sought to determine whether fitness costs varied with acclimation conditions in two cereal aphids, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi. Thus, the basal and inducible thermal tolerances (maximum critical temperature [CTmax ]) and fitness traits (proportion of adult emergence, adult longevity, fecundity, and population parameters) of adult aphids were measured under three conditions of developmental acclimation: 1) 22 °C constant temperature (no acclimation), 2) 22 °C + 34 °C for 2 h per day (low daytime temperature), and 3) 22 °C + 38 °C for 2 h per day (high daytime temperature)...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Reut Shavit, Zhaniya S Batyrshina, Nitsan Dotan, Vered Tzin
Aphids are major pests in cereal crops that cause direct and indirect damage leading to yield reduction. Despite the fact that wheat provides 20% of the world's caloric and protein diet, its metabolic responses to aphid attack, in general, and specifically its production of benzoxazinoid defense compounds are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to compare the metabolic diversity of durum wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) under attack by three different cereal aphids: i) the English grain aphid (Sitobion avenae Fabricius), ii) the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L...
2018: PloS One
Priyanka Sharma, Antonios Lioutas, Narcis Fernandez-Fuentes, Javier Quilez, José Carbonell-Caballero, Roni H G Wright, Chiara Di Vona, François Le Dily, Roland Schüller, Dirk Eick, Baldomero Oliva, Miguel Beato
The post-translational modification of key residues at the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (RNAP2-CTD) coordinates transcription, splicing, and RNA processing by modulating its capacity to act as a landing platform for a variety of protein complexes. Here, we identify a new modification at the CTD, the deimination of arginine and its conversion to citrulline by peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PADI2), an enzyme that has been associated with several diseases, including cancer. We show that, among PADI family members, only PADI2 citrullinates R1810 (Cit1810) at repeat 31 of the CTD...
November 6, 2018: Molecular Cell
Balachandar Balakrishnan, Sha Su, Cunhuan Zhang, Maohua Chen
The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is an insect pest that persistently attacks wheat crops worldwide. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are important detoxification enzymes that play roles in insecticide resistance. In this study, we identified two GST genes (RpGSTS1 and RpGSTS2) from R. padi. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genes are associated with the sigma class of insect GSTs. The RpGSTS1 and RpGSTS2 contain nine α-helices and five β-sheets connected by loops, and had 60 and 50% homology with the 3D structure of the Blattella germanica GST5...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Mathias Jaschhof, Voldemars Spungis
The taxonomy of Dicerura Kieffer, 1898, a genus of Porricondylinae now comprising 32 species in the Holarctic region, is revised. Three new species are described based on morphological characters of male adults: D. jakovlevi Jaschhof Spungis sp. nov. (from Finland), D. penttineni Jaschhof Spungis sp. nov. (Finland), and D. yezoensis Jaschhof Spungis sp. nov. (Japan). Dicerura padi Mamaev, 1975 syn. nov. is revealed to be a junior synonym of D. furculata Mamaev, 1968. Seven species, whose original descriptions are from a present-day perspective inadequate for the purpose of identification, are redescribed: D...
May 22, 2018: Zootaxa
Mary E Ferguson, Kristopher L Giles, Norman C Elliott, Mark E Payton, Tom A Royer
Winter canola Brassica napus L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) was introduced to U.S. Southern Great Plains (Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas) growers to manage some difficult-to-control grassy weeds in winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). Two braconid parasitoids, Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are active in this cropping landscape. Both wasps move between crops but D. rapae has a limited ability to develop in the main wheat aphid hosts, so L...
October 12, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Wenqiang Li, Zengbin Lu, Lili Li, Yi Yu, Song Dong, Xingyuan Men, Baohua Ye
The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is a major insect pest of cereal crops in many countries. Imidacloprid has been widely used for controlling piercing-sucking insect pests worldwide, but its sublethal effects on R. padi have not been well addressed. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on biological parameters and five enzyme activities of R. padi. The LC10, LC20, and LC25 of imidacloprid to adult aphids were 0.0053, 0.0329 and 0.0659 mg L-1, respectively. These concentrations significantly decreased pre-adult survival rate, but prolonged the development duration of 1st instar nymphs, pre-oviposition period, and adult longevity...
2018: PloS One
Rustinsyah Rustinsyah
This data article presents the information on stakeholders' power and interest indicators in agricultural irrigation management. The data were collected from a WUA (Water User Association) called Sekar padi which operates around Bengawan Solo river, East Java, Indonesia. This data article contains two major data. The first data consists of the power indicator from both primary and secondary stakeholders of WUAs. The second data is the stakeholders 'interest indicator of WUAs in agricultural irrigation management...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Jin H Song, Neha Singh, Libia A Luevano, Sathish K R Padi, Koichi Okumura, Virginie Olive, Stephen M Black, Noel A Warfel, David W Goodrich, Andrew S Kraft
Cancer resistance to PI3K inhibitor therapy can be in part mediated by increases in the PIM1 kinase. However, the exact mechanism by which PIM kinase promotes tumor cell resistance is unknown. Our study unveils the pivotal control of redox signaling by PIM kinases as a driver of this resistance mechanism. PIM1 kinase functions to decrease cellular ROS levels by enhancing nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)/antioxidant response element activity. PIM prevents cell death induced by PI3K-AKT-inhibitory drugs through a noncanonical mechanism of NRF2 ubiquitination and degradation and translational control of NRF2 protein levels through modulation of eIF4B and mTORC1 activity...
September 6, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Atsumi Tsuji-Hosokawa, Kenichi Kashimada, Tomoko Kato, Yuya Ogawa, Risa Nomura, Kei Takasawa, Rowena Lavery, Andrea Coschiera, David Schlessinger, Vincent R Harley, Shuji Takada, Tomohiro Morio
Peptidyl arginine deiminases (PADIs) are enzymes that change the charge of proteins through citrullination. We recently found Padi2 was expressed exclusively in fetal Sertoli cells. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of Padi2 and the role of PADI2 in testicular development. We showed SOX9 positively regulated Padi2 transcription and FOXL2 antagonized it in TM3 cells, a model of Sertoli cells. The responsive region to SOX9 and FOXL2 was identified within the Padi2 sequence by reporter assay...
September 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peter Thorpe, Carmen M Escudero-Martinez, Peter J A Cock, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Jorunn I B Bos
Aphids are a diverse group of taxa that contain agronomically important species, which vary in their host range and ability to infest crop plants. The genome evolution underlying agriculturally important aphid traits is not well understood. We generated draft genome assemblies for two aphid species: Myzus cerasi (black cherry aphid) and the cereal specialist Rhopalosiphum padi. Using a de novo gene prediction pipeline on both these, and three additional aphid genome assemblies (Acyrthosiphon pisum, Diuraphis noxia, and Myzus persicae), we show that aphid genomes consistently encode similar gene numbers...
October 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Kang Wang, Yanna Huang, Xinyu Li, Maohua Chen
Carboxylesterase (CarE) is an important class of detoxification enzymes involved in insecticide resistance. However, the molecular mechanism of CarE-mediated insecticide resistance in Rhopalosiphum padi , a problematic agricultural pest, remains largely unknown. In the present study, an isoprocarb-resistant (IS-R) strain and a cyhalothrin-resistant (CY-R) strain were successively selected from a susceptible (SS) strain of R. padi . The enzyme activity indicated that enhanced carboxylesterase activity contributes to isoprocarb and cyhalothrin resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Alva Curtsdotter, H Thomas Banks, John E Banks, Mattias Jonsson, Tomas Jonsson, Amanda N Laubmeier, Michael Traugott, Riccardo Bommarco
Most ecosystem functions and related services involve species interactions across trophic levels, for example, pollination and biological pest control. Despite this, our understanding of ecosystem function in multitrophic communities is poor, and research has been limited to either manipulation in small communities or statistical descriptions in larger ones. Recent advances in food web ecology may allow us to overcome the trade-off between mechanistic insight and ecological realism. Molecular tools now simplify the detection of feeding interactions, and trait-based approaches allow the application of dynamic food web models to real ecosystems...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Mitzy Porras, Consuelo M De Moraes, Mark C Mescher, Edwin G Rajotte, Tomás A Carlo
Pathogens and other parasites can have profound effects on biological communities and ecosystems. Here we explore how two strains of a plant virus - Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, BYDV - influence the foraging performance and fecundity of two aphid species: Rhopalosiphum maidis and R. padi. We found that pre-inhabitation by R. padi on plants facilitates the subsequent foraging of conspecifics and R. maidis. Without the virus, the occurrence of facilitation is asymmetric because it depends on the order of species arrival...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elena Arsevska, Sarah Valentin, Julien Rabatel, Jocelyn de Goër de Hervé, Sylvain Falala, Renaud Lancelot, Mathieu Roche
Since 2013, the French Animal Health Epidemic Intelligence System (in French: Veille Sanitaire Internationale, VSI) has been monitoring signals of the emergence of new and exotic animal infectious diseases worldwide. Once detected, the VSI team verifies the signals and issues early warning reports to French animal health authorities when potential threats to France are detected. To improve detection of signals from online news sources, we designed the Platform for Automated extraction of Disease Information from the web (PADI-web)...
2018: PloS One
Akram Sidhu, Vishal Diwan, Harsimran Kaur, Deepak Bhateja, Charan K Singh, Saurabh Sharma, Satyanarayana S V Padi
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by cognitive and psychiatric impairment caused by neuronal degeneration in the brain. Several studies have supported the hypothesis that oxidative stress is the main pathogenic factor in HD. The current study aims to determine the possible neuroprotective effects of nicotinamide on 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induced HD. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups. Group I was the vehicle-treated control, group II received 3-NP (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i...
December 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Milena Rusin, Janina Gospodarek, Aleksandra Nadgórska-Socha, Gabriela Barczyk, Elżbieta Boligłowa, Marzena Dabioch
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of various petroleum-derived substances (PDSs), namely petrol, diesel fuel, and spent engine oil, on life history traits of the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L., and on the growth and chemical composition of its host plant-winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. Each substance was tested separately, using two concentrations (9 and 18 g kg-1 ). Plants were cultivated in both control and contaminated soils. In early October 2013, soil was contaminated and after 1 week, winter wheat seeds, 'Batuta' cultivar, were sown...
September 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Amitabh Sharma, Arda Halu, Julius L Decano, Megha Padi, Yang-Yu Liu, Rashmi B Prasad, Joao Fadista, Marc Santolini, Jörg Menche, Scott T Weiss, Marc Vidal, Edwin K Silverman, Masanori Aikawa, Albert-László Barabási, Leif Groop, Joseph Loscalzo
Probing the dynamic control features of biological networks represents a new frontier in capturing the dysregulated pathways in complex diseases. Here, using patient samples obtained from a pancreatic islet transplantation program, we constructed a tissue-specific gene regulatory network and used the control centrality (Cc) concept to identify the high control centrality (HiCc) pathways, which might serve as key pathobiological pathways for Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). We found that HiCc pathway genes were significantly enriched with modest GWAS p -values in the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) study...
2018: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
Alois Honek, Zdenka Martinkova, Pavel Saska, Anthony F G Dixon
In Central Europe, the most abundant aphid infesting the leaves of small grain cereals is Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Annual variation in its seasonal dynamics was evaluated using a 25-yr series of standardized weekly censuses of winter wheat plots. M. dirhodum made up >50 % of the aphids on the foliage. Date of immigration (8 May-3 July), length of period of population increase (0-9 wk), and date of attaining maximum abundance (28 May-22 July) varied greatly. For the prediction, we regressed maximum numbers/tiller on numbers recorded in the first week after heading...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
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