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The China Study

Jinfeng Ding, Yunhe Zhao, Zhengqun Zhang, Chunmei Xu, Wei Mu
The black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has been considered a major insect pest in China that causes damage to corn at the seeding stage. The present study measured the lethal and sublethal effects of the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin on A. ipsilon. Clothianidin, incorporated using an artificial diet, exhibited signs of active toxicity on fourth-instar larvae of A. ipsilon, with a 50%-lethal concentration (LC50) of 27.77 µg/g. Clothianidin at the LC20 and LC40 levels impaired the normal development of A...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Hoi-Shing Lo, Chun-Yuen Wong, Nora Fung-Yee Tam, Siu-Gin Cheung
The spatial distribution, composition and source of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) of the sedimentary microplastics (0.25-5 mm) in Hong Kong were investigated. The concentration of ΣPAHs ranged between 70.8 and 1509 ng g-1 with inter-site differences although the regional difference was insignificant, indicating localised pyrolytic and petrogenic input of PAHs. The concentration of ΣPCBs (13-1083 ng g-1 ) varied with both study sites and regions with higher concentrations obtained in the western waters, possibly due to the input from Pearl River...
December 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Youqing Wang, Bin Dong, Yuxin Fan, Yuanyuan Hu, Xiaoyu Zhai, Chen Deng, Ying Xu, Danni Shen, Xiaohu Dai
Oilfield sludge is recognized as a hazardous solid waste in China because of its considerable hydrocarbon content and other toxic components. In this study, the nitrogen transformation during pyrolysis of typical oil sludge samples produced in the Daqing oilfield (the largest oilfield in China), was experimentally investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermos gravimetric (TG) were used in laboratory-scale experiments and batch pyrolysis experiments were conducted at 200-800 °C in a tubular reactor to obtain quantitative information on the change of nitrogen conversion in the char, tar, and gas fractions...
November 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Chenhui Sang, Wei An, Mingyi Han, Min Yang
In this study, a health risk assessment of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in drinking water and food was conducted using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in major cities of China. Considering the numerous non-detected values found in drinking water samples, a zero-inflated model was employed to obtain a more precise NDMA concentration distribution function in drinking water. With exogenous chronic daily intake of 1.20 × 10-6 mg/(kg*d), the lifetime cancer risk and disability-adjusted life years of NDMA are 4...
December 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Liang Liu, Juying Wang, Lijun Wang, Yingying Hu, Xindong Ma
In past decades, China has experienced substantial economic growth and industrialization. However, the effects of vast development of China on Hg input to the nearby oceans are still unclear. In this study, four representative 210Pb-dated sediment cores were collected in the central and southern part of Bohai sea to investigate vertical changes of Hg contents and explore the relationship between the Hg deposition and pollution history in this region utilizing a large amount of information available. The results indicated that Hg median concentrations of sediment core B62, B66, JQ17 and HZ24 were 0...
December 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Tianjiao Feng, Wei Wei, Liding Chen, Artemi Cerdà, Lei Yang, Yang Yu
In semiarid terrestrial ecosystems, optimized eco-rehabilitation strategies, such as land preparations and planting vegetation, are keys to achieve a successful ecological restoration. Land preparations and vegetation are supposed to have the coupled and respective impacts on soil ecosystem services, which are still unclear now. In this study, eighteen experimental plots with six different combinations and repetitions of land preparations and vegetation were built in the Chinese Loess Plateau in 2014 and soil moisture storages (SMS), soil carbon stocks (SCS) and other soil nutrient stocks were calculated at 0-100 cm, also the effects of land preparations and planting vegetation on soil eco-hydrological services are analyzed by mathematical methods...
December 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chengdong Xu, Xiangxue Zhang, Gexin Xiao
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) remains an increasing public health concern. The spatiotemporal variation of HFMD can be represented from multiple-perspectives, and it may be driven by different dominant factors. In this study, the HFMD cases in children under the age of five years in each county in Henan province, China, from 2009 to 2013 were assessed to explore the integrative spatiotemporal patterns of HFMD and investigate their driving factors. The empirical orthogonal function was applied to identify representative spatiotemporal patterns...
December 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Meng Bai, Xingguo Mo, Suxia Liu, Shi Hu
Significant increases in vegetation cover on the Loess Plateau since the early 2000s have been well documented. However, the relevant hydrological effects are still unclear. Here, we investigated the changes in actual evapotranspiration (ETa ) from 2000 to 2016 and related them to climate change and vegetation greening in Yanhe River basin (YRB), a typical hilly-gully basin on the Loess Plateau, by using the remote-sensing based VIP model. Results showed that the annual ETa in the YRB increased significantly with a trend of 3...
November 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jiali Liu, Jing Zheng, Ke Liu, Liming You
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of how work environments affect nurse outcomes and quality of care has not been studied in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. PURPOSE: The purpose was to investigate the effects of work environment on nurse outcomes and quality of care in ICUs, through the mediating effects of nursing care left undone. METHODS: This study used survey data from 459 nurses from 22 ICUs in 22 hospitals in China. Hierarchical logistic regression modeling was used to analyze the relationships and the mediating effects...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
Rui-Xian Yang, Shao-Wen Zhang, Dong Xue, Jun-Hao Xuan, Yuan-Bo Zhang, Biao-Biao Peng
Paeonia ostii is known for its excellent medicinal values as Chinese traditional plant. To date, the diversity of culturable endophytes associated with P. ostii is in its initial phase of exploration. In this study, 56 endophytic bacteria and 51 endophytic fungi were isolated from P. ostii roots in China. Subsequent characterization of 56 bacterial strains by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis revealed that nine families and 13 different genera were represented. All the fungal strains were classed into six families and 12 genera based on ITS gene sequence...
2018: Polish Journal of Microbiology
Sha-Li Wen, Juan Li, An-Ni Wang, Meng-Meng Lv, Hui-Yuan Li, Yan-Fang Lu, Jing-Ping Zhang
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of a transtheoretical model (TTM)-based intervention on patients with an ostomy and provide patient-centred, accessible assistance, and dynamic education to improve patient self-management. BACKGROUND: Proper self-management may promote the rehabilitation of patients with an ostomy. TTM-based interventions have resulted in positive health behavioural changes. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial performed according to the CONSORT guidelines...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Yinghui Li, Yingying Liu, Fengna Li, Ao Sun, Qian Lin, Xingguo Huang, Yulong Yin
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ramie (Boehmeria nivea, previously known as a fibre crop and also called "China grass") included in diets on growth performance, antioxidative capacity and muscular fatty acid profile of finishing pigs. A total of 180 Xiangcun Black pigs (initial body weight =70.71 ± 1.21 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with six pens of six pigs per pen. The pigs were provided a basal diet or a diet contained 3%, 6%, 9% or 12% of ramie powder during a 50-day experiment period...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Shanshan Wang, Daphne Sze Ki Cheung, Angela Y M Leung
OBJECTIVES: This paper provides an overview of the status of dementia care in Mainland China under the framework of the three-tier long-term care system proposed by the Chinese government, and gives the direction for service development. METHODS: Official documents, annual reports of related associations, and studies conducted in Mainland China from 2006 to 2017, published both in English and Chinese were reviewed. RESULTS: With the establishment of the three-tier long-term care system, the Government has invested a lot in long-term care, and improvements have been made...
December 13, 2018: Public Health Nursing
Michael I MacEntee, Sabrina T Wong, Iris Chi, Edward C M Lo, Victor Minichiello, Shimae Soheilipour, Rodrigo Mariño
AIMS: The aim of this study was to explain through the life-course and life-span perspectives of developmental regulation theory the controls on dental experiences and beliefs throughout the lives of older people in Guangzhou and Hong Kong. BACKGROUND: Dental diseases and disabilities among older people are serious public health concerns in China. METHODS: A facilitator conducted eight focus groups, three in Hong Kong and five in Guangzhou, involving a total of 51 participants...
December 14, 2018: Gerodontology
Yanfeng Liu, Lei Wu, Kai Li, Fengrui Liu, Li Wang, Dongling Zhang, Jing Zhou, Xuan Ma, Shengyu Wang, Shuanying Yang
The incidence and mortality of lung cancer ranked the first among all types of cancer in China, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer accounting for 85% of all lung cancers. Given that the survival rate of patients with advanced NSCLC is still poor nowadays, identification of novel therapeutic targets and the development of effective therapies are desired for the treatment of NSCLC in clinics. In this study, we reported the upregulation of ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) in NSCLC cells and clinical tumor samples as well as its association with the advanced TNM stage, metastasis, and poor tumor differentiation of lung cancer...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yangyang Xu, Peng Li, Shizhen Zhang, Yi Wang, Xiaoyan Zhao, Xin Wang, Wei Wang
OBJECTIVES: Data on the treatment of the vegetative state (VS) with cervical spinal cord stimulation (cSCS) are limited and prognostic factors are inconclusive. In this study, we present our experience of treating 12 VS patients with cSCS and discuss the prognostic factors. METHODS: Twelve VS patients were enrolled. Preoperative assessments included CT/MRI, PET, brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), and electroencephalogram (EEG)...
December 13, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Defang Zhou, Jingwen Xue, Ya Zhang, Guihua Wang, Yongsheng Feng, Liping Hu, Yingli Shang, Ziqiang Cheng
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was isolated in meat-type breeder chickens for the first time in 1988 in the United Kingdom. Due to the application of an eradication program, there were fewer reports related to myelocytomatosis or ALV-J in China after 2013. However, there was another breakout almost simultaneously in six provinces of China in February 2018. On-site, 15- to 20-week-old broiler breeder chickens showed depression, paralysis and weight loss. Mortality for certain flocks reached 15%. Sick chickens showed numerous yellow-white neoplasms growing in the sternum, rib and lumbar vertebra and had hepatic and renal metastasis...
December 12, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Yuxin Qi, Jiaqi Wang, Mingqi Sun, Chao Ma, Tianbo Jin, Yuan Liu, Yuju Cao, Jianzhong Wang
BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a refractory disease which frequently occurs in young and middle-aged people. Recent studies indicated that MMP-14 played an important role in the development of chondrocytes, metabolism of osteoblasts as well as fate decision of hypertrophic chondrocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between polymorphisms of MMP-14 and steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in the Chinese population. METHODS: We selected 7 SNPs (rs3751488, rs1003349, rs1042703, rs2236302, rs1042704, rs2236303, and rs2236304) on gene MMP-14...
December 12, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Qian Wang, Shumei Cui, Li Zhou, Keke He, Liya Song, Haiyan Liang, Congfen He
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Healthy skin harbors numerous microbes known to maintain its health and prevent attacks from external pathogens. The influence of chemical preservatives commonly used in cosmetic products on facial resident flora remains poorly characterized. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of five such preservatives on in vitro cultivated skin-resident bacteria. METHODS: Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were isolated on blood agar, tryptic soy agar, and nutrient agar; Gram-negative bacteria were then selected on Hank's balanced salt solution containing antibiotics and Reasoner's 2A...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Chichen Zhang, Mimi Li, Huining Zhao, Ruifang Zhu, Xiao Zheng, Jiao Lu, Yufeng Du, Lingwei Yu, Tingzhong Yang
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate anxiety status and its relationship with BMI among empty nesters in China, so as to improve their quality of life and provide direction for further research. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4901 empty nesters in Shanxi, China. Anxiety, weight, height, depression, socio-demographic variables, attention to daily nutritional health, social activities, and self-care ability were evaluated in the study...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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