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Seyit Uyar, Suheyla Gorar, Mehmet Kok, Hakan Ozer, Gokhan Koker, Feyzi Bostan, Ayhan H Cekin
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition results in functional changes in the liver and pancreas that negatively affect carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether insulin hormone and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) could serve as predictors of hunger-related malnutrition/undernutrition without disease in adults. METHODS: The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) was used to assess malnutrition in this single-center, cross-sectional study. The malnourished group (n = 67) comprised patients with a MUST score of ≥ 2, and the control group (n = 31) included subjects with a MUST score of 0 - 1...
October 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Teofana O Bizerea, Stefana G Dezsi, Otilia Marginean, Ramona Stroescu, Alexandru Rogobete, Otilia Bizerea-Spiridon, Constantin Ilie
BACKGROUND: The first line of defence against oxidative stress (OS) are the endogenous antioxidants, such as the Se containing compounds. During pregnancy, OS is caused by the intense growth activity of the fetus; therefore, the placenta is a key place for the activity of many seleno-compounds such as glutathione-peroxidase and thioredoxinreductase. METHODS: This review aims to establish the link between the type of selenium compounds, their concentration, their metabolic pathways, and their role in both physiologic and pathologic processes during pregnancy...
October 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Chuanyin Sun, Guanhua Xu, Jin Lin
BACKGROUND: It can be difficult to distinguish between IgG4-related lymphadenopathy and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) because these conditions cannot be differentially diagnosed using immunohistochemical staining alone. In this study, we analyzed the clinical features of IgG4-related lymphadenopathy and MCD patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 27 patients with MCD, including 20 with plasma cell-type (PC-type) and 7 with hyaline vascular (HV) features (mixed-type)...
October 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Yan L Ge, Cong H Liu, Jing Xu, Zi Y Cui, Wei C Guo, Hui L Li, Ai S Fu, Hong Y Wang, Hai F Zhang, Xiao Y Zhu
BACKGROUND: The CURB-65 scoring system is a simple tool in assessment and prognosis prediction for communityacquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. However, the variations in performance of CURB-65 in young and elderly patients, underestimation or overestimation of the severity, and mortality have often been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of serum high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) combined with CURB-65 in predicting ICU admission and 30-day mortality in CAP patients...
October 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Catherine M Worsley, Elizabeth S Mayne
BACKGROUND: Suitable laboratory testing prior to transplantation ensures that a patient's immunological risk is understood and allows the transplantation team to make the correct decisions on donor-recipient pairing. Preformed donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies mediate rejection in transplanted patients. Improved laboratory testing is needed to increase the chances of successful organ allocation. In this study, we show how Luminex™ single antigen assays are vital in determining immunological risk to transplantation and in predicting waiting time to transplantation...
October 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Aslı Suner, Brian I Carr, Hikmet Akkiz, Gökhan Karakülah, Oguz Üsküdar, Kendal Yalçın, Sedef Kuran, Yaman Tokat, Sezai Yilmaz, Ayşegül Özakyol, Salih Tokmak, Tuğsan Ballı, Mehmet Yücesoy, Halil İbrahim Bahçeci, Abdulalh Ülkü, Tolga Akçam, Kamil Yalçın Polat, Nazım Ekinci, Halis Şimşek, Necati Örmeci, Abdulalh Sonsuz, Mehmet Demir, Murat Kılıç, Ahmet Uygun, Ali Demir, Anıl Delik, Burcu Arslan, Figen Doran, Engin Altıntaş, Tuncer Temel, Ahmet Bektaş
The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is only elevated in about half of the HCC patients, limiting its usefulness in following the effects of therapy or screening. New markers are needed. It has been previously noted that the inflammation markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are prognostically important and may reflect HCC aggressiveness. We therefore examined these 2 markers in a low-AFP HCC cohort and found that for HCCs > 2 cm, both markers significantly rise with an increasing maximum tumor diameter (MTD)...
October 18, 2018: Oncology
Neha Sharma, Lisamarie Moore, Shravanthi Chidambaram, Nicholas W Colangelo, Sonia M de Toledo, Edouard I Azzam
Neural stem cells are attracting enormous attention in regenerative medicine due to their ability to self-renew and differentiate into the cell lineages that constitute the central nervous system. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the regulation of their redox environment, which is essential for homeostatic cellular functions. The redox-modulated c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) are a molecular switch in stress signal transduction and are involved in numerous brain functions. Using a selective but broad-spectrum inhibitor of JNK 1/2/3, we investigated the role of JNK in regulating the levels of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria, mitochondrial membrane potential, viability, proliferation and lineage alterations in human H9-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPs)...
October 18, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Tibor Hortobágyi, Azusa Uematsu, Lianne Sanders, Reinhold Kliegl, József Tollár, Renato Moraes, Urs Granacher
BACKGROUND: Dynamic balance keeps the vertical projection of the center of mass within the base of support while walking. Dynamic balance tests are used to predict the risks of falls and eventual falls. The psychometric properties of most dynamic balance tests are unsatisfactory and do not comprise an actual loss of balance while walking. OBJECTIVES: Using beam walking distance as a measure of dynamic balance, the BEAM consortium will determine the psychometric properties, lifespan and patient reference values, the relationship with selected "dynamic balance tests," and the accuracy of beam walking distance to predict falls...
October 18, 2018: Gerontology
Fiorenzo Laghi, Dora Bianchi, Sara Pompili, Antonia Lonigro, Roberto Baiocco
Binge drinking during adolescence is influenced by peer pressure and group norms as risk factors. Conversely, drinking refusal self-efficacy is a protective factor. Thus, adolescents with impaired social skills could be more vulnerable to binge drinking. However, there is still little research on impaired social abilities, such as low empathy, in adolescent binge drinkers. This study aimed to investigate the moderating roles of empathic concerns and perspective-taking in the relationship between self-efficacy in resisting peer pressure to drink (SRPPD) and binge drinking...
October 11, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Laura Hannemann, Calin Rares Lucaciu, Sapna Sharma, Thomas Rattei, Klaus F X Mayer, Alfons Gierl, Monika Frey
In the plant kingdom beta-glucosidases (BGLUs) of the glycosidase hydrolase family 1 have essential function in primary metabolism and are particularly employed in secondary metabolism. They are essential for activation in two-component defence systems based on stabilisation of reactive compounds by glycosylation. Based on de novo assembly we isolated and functionally characterised BGLUs expressed in leaves of Lamium galeobdolon (LgGLUs). LgGLU1 could be assigned to hydrolysis of the benzoxazinoid GDIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one glucoside)...
October 15, 2018: Phytochemistry
Yi-Ning Qiu, Guo-Hui Wang, Fen Zhou, Jin-Jin Hao, Li Tian, Long-Fei Guan, Xiao-Kun Geng, Yu-Chuan Ding, He-Wen Wu, Ke-Zhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: The increasing epidemic of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a serious threat to human health. It induces the occurrence of liver fibrosis, but its molecular mechanism is not yet clear. The molecular mechanisms of PM2.5 inducing liver fibrosis were investigated in this study. METHODS: The cell viability of LX-2 cells and primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was detected using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay...
October 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Husam A Babikir, Rayhaneh Afjei, Ramasamy Paulmurugan, Tarik F Massoud
p53 is a transcription factor that activates numerous genes involved in essential maintenance of genetic stability. P53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. One third of these mutations are structural, resulting in mutant p53 with a disrupted protein conformation. Here we review current progress in a relatively underexplored aspect of p53-targeted drug development, that is, strategies to reactivate wild-type function of misfolded mutant p53. Unfortunately, most p53-targeted drugs are still at early stages of development and many of them are progressing slowly toward clinical implementation...
September 20, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Aslihan Ugun-Klusek, Theodosis S Theodosi, Julia C Fitzgerald, Florence Burté, Christoph Ufer, David J Boocock, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, Lynn Bedford, E Ellen Billett
Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are located on the outer mitochondrial membrane and are drug targets for the treatment of neurological disorders. MAOs control the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain via oxidative deamination and contribute to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through their catalytic by-product H2 O2 . Increased ROS levels may modulate mitochondrial function and mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in a vast array of disorders. However, the downstream effects of MAO-A mediated ROS production in a neuronal model has not been previously investigated...
October 9, 2018: Redox Biology
Samaah Sullivan, Heval M Kelli, Muhammad Hammadah, Matthew Topel, Kobina Wilmot, Ronnie Ramadan, Brad D Pearce, Amit Shah, Bruno B Lima, Jeong Hwan Kim, Shakia Hardy, Oleksiy Levantsevych, Malik Obideen, Belal Kaseer, Laura Ward, Michael Kutner, Allison Hankus, Yi-An Ko, Michael R Kramer, Tené T Lewis, J Douglas Bremner, Arshed Quyyumi, Viola Vaccarino
Living in neighborhoods characterized by poverty may act as a chronic stressor that results in physiological dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system. No previous study has assessed neighborhood poverty with hemodynamic, neuroendocrine, and immune reactivity to stress. We used data from 632 patients with coronary artery disease. Patients' residential addresses were geocoded and merged with poverty data from the 2010 American Community Survey at the census-tract level. A z-transformation was calculated to classify census tracts (neighborhoods) as either having 'high' or 'low' poverty...
October 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Li-Zhi Huang, Mingtao Zhu, Zizheng Liu, Zongping Wang, Hans Christian B Hansen
In order to overcome the inefficiency of heterogeneous electro-Fenton process for water treatment at neutral pH, single sheet iron oxide (SSI) derived from layered Fe(II)-Fe(III) double hydroxides (green rusts) was fabricated on an indium tin oxide electrode via layer by layer assembly and used in an undivided electrolysis cell. Use of radical scavengers demonstrated the formation of oxygen radicals by electrochemical reduction of oxygen at the SSI electrode, and the key role of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and superoxide anion (O2 - ) radicals in degradation of the azo dye orange II...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Na Lu, Pu Wang, Yan Su, Hongtao Yu, Ning Liu, Xie Quan
Z-scheme photocatalyst g-C3 N4 /RGO/WO3 with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as the electron mediator was synthesized via a facile photoreduction method. According the results of photoluminescence (PL), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and photocurrent response, g-C3 N4 /RGO/WO3 presents more efficient separation of charges and enhanced electronic mobility than g-C3 N4 /WO3 , g-C3 N4 and WO3 , which benefits from the excellent electron transfer property of RGO. Reactive species trapping experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) test demonstrated that superoxide radical (O2 - ) and hydroxyl radical (OH) were produced because of the high redox capacities caused by the unique transfer behaviors of charges in Z-scheme photocatalyst g-C3 N4 /RGO/WO3 ...
October 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Pei Pei, Chunyang Sun, Wei Tao, Jie Li, Xianzhu Yang, Jun Wang
Minimizing drug leakage at off-target sites and triggering sufficient drug release in tumor tissue are major objectives for effective nanoparticle (NP)-based cancer therapy. The current covalent and cleavable drug-NP conjugation strategy is promising but lacks high controllability to realize tumor-specific release. As a proof-of-concept, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-activatable thioketal (TK) bond was explored as the linkage between doxorubicin (DOX) and polyphosphoester (PPE-TK-DOX). The Ce6@PPE-TK-DOX NPs constructed by co-self-coassembly of PPE-TK-DOX and the photosensitizer Ce6 efficiently prevented premature drug leakage in the off-target tissue and cells because of the high stability of the TK bond under physiological conditions...
October 11, 2018: Biomaterials
Weijun Xu, Junmin Qian, Guanghui Hou, Yaping Wang, Jinlei Wang, Tiantian Sun, Lijie Ji, Aili Suo, Yu Yao
Integration of multimodal therapies into one nanoplatform holds great promise to overcome the drawbacks of conventional single-modal therapy and pursues enhanced anticancer efficacy. Herein, we developed a PEGylated gold nanorods (GNRs)-based nanoplatform (GNRs-MPH-ALA/DOX -PEG) with pH-responsive drug release property for triple-combined chemotherapy (CT), photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) of breast cancer. GNRs were first decorated with mercaptopropionylhydrazide (MPH) and thiol-terminated monomethoxyl poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG-SH) via Au-thiol linkage, and subsequently conjugated with chemotherapeutant doxorubicin (DOX) and pro-photosensitizer 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) through acid-liable hydrazone bonds between drugs and MPH molecules...
October 15, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Ling Xue, Yaru Chen, Xiaowen Tang, Juan Yao, Huimin Huang, Min Wang, Shixin Ye, Meng Wang, Min-Xin Guan
Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been associated with deafness and their pathophysiology remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the pathogenic mechanism of deafness-associated 7505A > G variant in the mitochondrial tRNASer(UCN) . The m.7505A > G variant affected the highly conserved adenine at position 11 (A11), disrupted the highly conserved A11-U24 base-pairing of DHU stem of tRNASer(UCN) and introduced a tertiary base pairing (G11-C56) with the C56 in the TΨC loop...
October 15, 2018: Mitochondrion
Georgiana Amariei, Vanja Kokol, Vera Vivod, Karina Boltes, Pedro Letón, Roberto Rosal
The antimicrobial polypeptide ε-poly(L-lysine) (ε-PL) was electrostatically incorporated to poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) electrospun nanofibers. ε-PL loading and distribution was assessed by infrared spectra, ζ-potential measurements and the primary amino reactive dye fluorescamine. Functionalized fibers with 485 ± 140 nm diameter, could be loaded with 0.57-0.74 g ε-PL (g dressing)-1 that released at a constant rate of 5.4 ± 2.8 mg ε-PL (g dressing day)-1 . Such a dressings resulted in two orders of magnitude lower bacterial colonization than non-functionalized PAA-PVA after 14 days of incubation...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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