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Ryo Morishima, Kei Nakashima, Shinya Suzuki, Nobuo Yamami, Masahiro Aoshima
Immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE) is particularly associated with an excessive reaction to exercise and/or cold stress. IPE usually resolves without recompression therapy within a day or two. Herein we report a diver diagnosed with IPE, in whom symptoms persisted for five days. A 58-year-old man presented with sudden onset of dyspnoea, cough and haemoptysis after surfacing. He was an experienced diving instructor with a history of moderate mitral valve regurgitation. While IPE was diagnosed and oxygen administered, respiratory symptoms deteriorated, and serum C-reactive protein elevated...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Oana A Tatucu-Babet, Emma J Ridley
Outpatients who receive hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) may represent a group at significant risk of malnutrition owing to the underlying conditions that are often treated with HBOT (e.g., non-healing diabetic wounds and radiation-induced skin injury). In this issue, See and colleagues provide new, preliminary evidence of the prevalence of malnutrition in a small group of HBOT outpatients treated in an Australian hospital, reporting that approximately one-third of patients receiving HBOT were at risk of malnutrition...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Ana Clara Liberman, Emiliano Trias, Luana da Silva Chagas, Pablo Trindade, Marissol Dos Santos Pereira, Damian Refojo, Cecilia Hedin-Pereira, Claudio A Serfaty
An extensive microglial-astrocyte-monocyte-neuronal cross talk seems to be crucial for normal brain function, development, and recovery. However, under certain conditions neuroinflammatory interactions between brain cells and neuroimmune cells influence disease outcome and brain pathology. Microglial cells express a range of functional states with dynamically pleomorphic profiles from a surveilling status of synaptic transmission to an active player in major events of development such as synaptic elimination, regeneration, and repair...
December 5, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Isil Eser Simsek, Mujde Tuba Cogurlu, Metin Aydogan
BACKGROUND: Most children diagnosed with β-lactam allergy based only on history are not truly allergic, and mislabeling leads to use of less effective and more costly alternative broader-spectrum antibiotics, significantly increasing drug resistance. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and risk factors of confirmed allergy in patients with β-lactam allergy reported by parents or their doctors and evaluate cross-reactivity between β-lactams in children with confirmed allergy...
December 5, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Jonathan M Zuidema, Ryan J Gilbert, Manoj K Gottipati
Over several decades, biomaterial scientists have developed materials to spur axonal regeneration and limit secondary injury and tested these materials within preclinical animal models. Rarely, though, are astrocytes examined comprehensively when biomaterials are placed into the injury site. Astrocytes support neuronal function in the central nervous system. Following an injury, astrocytes undergo reactive gliosis and create a glial scar. The astrocytic glial scar forms a dense barrier which restricts the extension of regenerating axons through the injury site...
December 5, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Alexander J Martin, Christopher I Price
BACKGROUND: Early neurological deterioration (END) following acute stroke is associated with poorer long-term outcomes. Identification of patients at risk could assist early monitoring and treatment decisions. This review summarised the evidence describing non-radiological biomarkers for END. SUMMARY: Electronic searches from January 1990 to March 2017 identified studies reporting a blood/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/urine biomarker measurement within 24 h of acute stroke and at least 2 serial assessments of clinical neurological status (< 24 h and < 7 days)...
December 5, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Maria A Lilli, Nikolaos P Nikolaidis, George P Karatzas, Nicolas Kalogerakis
A laboratory study was conducted to assess the mobility and mechanisms of chromium release from soils obtained from an area of wide spread geogenic contamination. The agricultural soil sample used in this study was taken from the Schimatari area in Asopos River basin in Greece. In order to refine the isolation of minerals contained in the soil, two types of separation analysis were conducted. First, a size fractionation with hydrocyclone and second, a weight fractionation with heavy liquids. The separated fractions were characterized using chemical, mineralogical and surface analysis...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Zhaoli Dai, S Reza Jafarzadeh, Jingbo Niu, David T Felson, Paul F Jacques, Shanshan Li, Yuqing Zhang
Background: Dietary fiber reduces body weight and inflammation in clinical trials. It is unclear whether body mass index (BMI) and inflammation might explain the observed association between higher fiber intake and the lower risk of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (SXKOA). Objectives: We quantified the extent to which BMI and inflammation influenced the relation between dietary fiber and SXKOA. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and the Framingham Offspring Osteoarthritis Study...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Alexander J Michels, Scott W Leonard, Sandra L Uesugi, Gerd Bobe, Balz Frei, Maret G Traber
Background: Inadequate vitamin E and magnesium intakes are of concern for older adults owing to the associated incidence of age-related diseases. Objective: This study was designed to determine the extent to which a 16-wk intervention with hazelnuts alters vitamin E and magnesium status in a group of older men and women, and used a pre-post intervention design without a control group to adjust for temporal changes. Methods: Participants (n = 32 including 22 women; mean ± SD age: 63 ± 6 y) consumed hazelnuts (∼57 g/d) for 16 wk...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Nora Pisanic, Sarah-Blythe Ballard, Fabiola D Colquechagua, Ruthly François, Natalie Exum, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Kellogg J Schwab, Douglas A Granger, Barbara Detrick, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Holger Mayta, Gerardo J Sánchez, Robert H Gilman, Christopher D Heaney, Jan Vinjé, Margaret N Kosek
Background: Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Routine norovirus diagnosis requires stool collection. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a noninvasive method to diagnose norovirus to complement stool diagnostics and to facilitate studies on transmission. Methods: A multiplex immunoassay to measure salivary immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to 5 common norovirus genotypes (GI.1, GII.2, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.17) was developed...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ismael Martínez-Cortés, Naray A Acevedo-Domínguez, Roxana Olguin-Alor, Arimelek Cortés-Hernández, Violeta Álvarez-Jiménez, Marcia Campillo-Navarro, Héctor S Sumano-López, Lilia Gutiérrez-Olvera, Daniel Martínez-Gómez, José L Maravillas-Montero, Juan J Loor, Eduardo A García-Zepeda, Gloria Soldevila
Tilmicosin is an antimicrobial agent used to treat intramammary infections against S. aureus and has clinical anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanism by which it modulates the inflammatory process in the mammary gland is unknown. We evaluated the effect of tilmicosin treatment on the modulation of the mammary innate immune response after S. aureus infection and its effect on casein production in mammary epithelial cells. To achieve this goal, we used immortalized mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T), pre-treated for 12 h or treated with tilmicosin after infection with S...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Clarissa Cordeiro Alves Arrelias, Fernando Belissimo Rodrigues, Maria Teresa da Costa Gonçalves Torquato, Carla Regina de Souza Teixeira, Flávia Fernanda Luchetti Rodrigues, Maria Lucia Zanetti
OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis B and C in patients with diabetes mellitus and analyze potential associated factors. METHOD: a cross-sectional study with 255 patients with diabetes mellitus. Demographic, clinical, and risk behavior factors for hepatitis B and C were selected. The markers HBsAg, Anti-HBc IgG, Anti-HBc IgM, Anti-HBs, and Anti-HCV were investigated. A questionnaire and venous blood collection and inferential statistical analysis were used...
November 29, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Eline Almeida Rodrigues de Souza, Elaine Monalize Serafim de Castro, Glauber Meneses Barboza de Oliveira, Sérgio Santos Azevedo, Rodolfo de Moraes Peixoto, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Maurício Claudio Horta
Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic agent transmitted mainly by small ruminants. In Brazil the disease has been classified as a notifiable disease since 2013, when human cases were reported. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with the presence of anti- Coxiella burnetii antibodies in goats and sheep in a semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. Sera of 412 goats and 403 sheep from municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco, were examined by the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) against antigens of C...
October 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Gustavo Rosa Gameiro, Viktor Sinkunas, Gabriel Romero Liguori, José Otavio Costa Auler-Júnior
Health care has changed since the decline in mortality caused by infectious diseases as well as chronic and non-contagious diseases, with a direct impact on the cost of public health and individual health care. We must now transition from traditional reactive medicine based on symptoms, diagnosis and treatment to a system that targets the disease before it occurs and, if it cannot be avoided, treats the disease in a personalized manner. Precision Medicine is that new way of thinking about medicine. In this paper, we performed a thorough review of the literature to present an updated review on the subject, discussing the impact of the use of genetics and genomics in the care process as well as medical education, clinical research and ethical issues...
December 3, 2018: Clinics
P L da Luz, D Favarato, E H Moriguchi, W de Carli, N Bruscato, R I Mochiduky, P Schwartzman, C E Rochitte, F R Laurindo
Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is associated with atherosclerotic complications. However, elevated CAC may not always imply a worse prognosis. Herein, we report the clinical evolution of long-term red wine (RW) drinkers in relation to CAC. We followed 200 healthy male habitual RW drinkers and compared them to 154 abstainers for a period of 5.5 years. The initial evaluation included coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), clinical, demographics, and laboratory data. CAC was quantified by the Agatston score...
November 29, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Chen Li, Shuang Liu, Xin Sui, Jian Wang, Wei Song, Wenshuai Xu, Kai-Feng Xu, Xinlun Tian, Wen Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) pulmonary abnormalities in patients with synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome. METHODS: Pulmonary HRCT images were reconstructed from whole-spine computed tomography (CT) images of 67 patients with SAPHO syndrome. HRCT images of 58 healthy controls were also obtained and reviewed. Patients with pneumonia and tuberculosis were excluded. Demographic and clinical data such as gender, age, onset age, disease duration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) were collected from the SAPHO syndrome patients...
2018: PloS One
Olga A Ivanova, Vladimir A Andronov, Vladimir S Vasin, Alexey N Shumsky, Victor B Rybakov, Leonid G Voskressensky, Igor V Trushkov
Lewis-acid-induced domino transformations of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes, possessing a nucleophilic center embedded in a donor group, into functionalized 2,3-dihydrobenzo[ b]furans and 2,3-dihydrobenzo[ b]thiophenes are reported herein. An unusual switch of the electrophilic center in the three-membered ring, from the atom bearing a donor substituent to an unsubstituted carbon atom, was achieved by a judicious choice of Lewis acid, which induces the isomerization of a cyclopropane to an electrophilic alkene, and the length of linker, connecting a nucleophilic moiety and the small ring...
December 5, 2018: Organic Letters
Joseph C Deaton, Chelsea M Taliaferro, Catherine L Pitman, Rafał Czerwieniec, Elena Jakubikova, Alexander J M Miller, Felix N Castellano
Three series of pentamethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp*) Ir(III) complexes with different bidentate ligands were synthesized and structurally characterized, [Cp*Ir(tpy)L] n+ (tpy = 2-tolylpyridinato; n = 0 or 1), [Cp*Ir(piq)L] n+ (piq = 1-phenylisoquinolinato; n = 0 or 1), and [Cp*Ir(bpy)L] m+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; m = 1 or 2), featuring a range of monodentate carbon-donor ligands within each series [L = 2,6-dimethylphenylisocyanide; 3,5-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene (NHC); methyl)]. The spectroscopic and photophysical properties of these molecules and those of the photocatalyst [Cp*Ir(bpy)H]+ were examined to establish electronic structure-photophysical property relationships that engender productive photochemical reactivity of this hydride and its methyl analogue...
December 5, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Weston J Smith, Guankui Wang, Hanmant Gaikwad, Vivian P Vu, Ernest Groman, David W A Bourne, Dmitri Simberg
Long blood half-life is one of the advantages of antibodies over small molecule drugs. At the same time, prolonged half-life is a problem for imaging applications or in the case of antibody-induced toxicities. There is a substantial need for antidotes that can quickly clear antibodies from systemic circulation and peripheral tissues. Engineered nanoparticles exhibit intrinsic affinity for clearance organs (mainly liver and spleen). trans-Cyclooctene (TCO) and methyltetrazine (MTZ) are versatile copper-free click chemistry components that are extensively being used for in vivo bioorthogonal couplings...
December 5, 2018: ACS Nano
Lona Mary Alkhalaf, Sarah Barry, Dean Rea, Angelo Gallo, Daniel Griffiths, Jozef Lewandowski, Vilmos Fülöp, Gregory L Challis
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) catalyze various oxidative transformations in drug metabolism, xenobiotic degradation and natural product biosynthesis. Here we report biochemical, structural and theoretical studies of TxtC, an unusual bifunctional CYP in-volved in the biosynthesis of the EPA-approved herbicide thaxtomin A. TxtC was shown to hydroxylate two remote sites with-in the Phe residue of its diketopiperazine substrate thaxtomin D. The reactions follow a preferred order, with hydroxylation of the -carbon preceding functionalization of the phenyl group...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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