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Neurological biomarkers

Tomohisa Akamatsu, Takehiro Sugiyama, Yoshinori Aoki, Ken Kawabata, Masaki Shimizu, Kaoru Okazaki, Masatoshi Kondo, Kan Takahashi, Yoshiki Yokoyama, Naoto Takahashi, Yu-Ichi Goto, Akira Oka, Masayuki Itoh
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the soluble form of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) as a biomarker of severity staging and prognosis in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). STUDY DESIGN: We performed an observational study enrolling 27 infants with HIE and 45 control infants of gestational age ≥36 weeks and birth weight ≥1800 g. The HIE criteria were pH ≤7.0 or a base deficit ≥16 mmol/L within 60 minutes after birth, and a 10-minute Apgar score ≤5 or resuscitation time ≥10 minutes...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Alaa Kamnaksh, Noora Puhakka, Idrish Ali, Gregory Smith, Roxanne Aniceto, Jesse McCullough, Shalini Das Gupta, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Rhys Brady, Pablo Casillas-Espinosa, Matt Hudson, Cesar Santana-Gomez, Riikka Immonen, Pedro Andrade de Abreu, Nigel Jones, Sandy Shultz, Richard J Staba, Terence J O'Brien, Denes Agoston, Asla Pitkänen
The Epilepsy Bioinformatics Study for Antiepileptogenic Therapy (EpiBioS4Rx) is an international, multicenter, multidisciplinary study aimed at preventing epileptogenesis (EpiBioS4Rx: One of the study's major objectives is the discovery of diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive plasma protein and microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers that are sensitive, specific, and translatable to the human condition. Epilepsy due to structural brain abnormalities, secondary to neurological insults such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), currently represents ∼50% of all epilepsy cases...
November 26, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Gorka Fernández-Eulate, Ainhoa Alberro, Maider Muñoz-Culla, Miren Zulaica, Mónica Zufiría, Myriam Barandiarán, Igone Etxeberria, José Javier Yanguas, Maria Mercedes Gallardo, Nora Soberón, Ana María Lacosta, Virginia Pérez-Grijalba, Jesús Canudas, Noelia Fandos, Pedro Pesini, Manuel Sarasa, Begoña Indakoetxea, Fermin Moreno, Itziar Vergara, David Otaegui, Maria Blasco, Adolfo López de Munain
Many factors may converge in healthy aging in the oldest old, but their association and predictive power on healthy or functionally impaired aging has yet to be demonstrated. By detecting healthy aging and in turn, poor aging, we could take action to prevent chronic diseases associated with age. We conducted a pilot study comparing results of a set of markers (peripheral blood mononuclear cell or PBMC telomere length, circulating Aβ peptides, anti-Aβ antibodies, and ApoE status) previously associated with poor aging or cognitive deterioration, and their combinations, in a cohort of "neurologically healthy" (both motor and cognitive) nonagenarians ( n = 20) and functionally impaired, institutionalized nonagenarians ( n = 38) recruited between 2014 and 2015...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Andreas Hahn, Rupert Lanzenberger, Siegfried Kasper
In addition to the assessment of local alterations of specific brain regions, the investigation of entire networks with in vivo neuroimaging techniques has gained increasing attention. In general, connectivity analysis refers to the investigation of links between brain regions, with the aim to characterize their interactions and information transfer. These may represent or relate to different physiological characteristics (structural, functional or metabolic information) and can be calculated across different levels of granularity (two regions vs...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Yuzhen Wei, Haoxiao Chang, Xindi Li, Huabing Wang, Li Du, Heng Zhou, Wangshu Xu, Yuetao Ma, Linlin Yin, Xinghu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the contribution of several cytokines in the pathogenesis of first-onset neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and determined the differences between aquaporin 4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG)-positive and AQP4-IgG-negative subtypes. METHODS: We enrolled 18 NMOSD (10 AQP4-IgG-positive and 8 AQP4-IgG-negative) and 8 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, whose serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected during the acute phase of the first onset before immunotherapy...
December 13, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Fabian Maass, Isabel Schulz, Paul Lingor, Brit Mollenhauer, Mathias Bähr
In Parkinson's disease (PD), there is a wide field of recent and ongoing search for useful biomarkers for early and differential diagnosis, disease monitoring or subtype characterization. Up to now, no biofluid biomarker has entered the daily clinical routine. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is often used as a source for biomarker development in different neurological disorders because it reflects changes in central-nervous system homeostasis. This review article gives an overview about different biomarker approaches in PD, mainly focusing on CSF analyses...
December 10, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Saif Zaman, Boris Chobrutskiy I Chobrutskiy, Dhiraj Sikaria, George Blanck
The association of MAPT (Tau) with various tauopathies and other neurological disorders has long been established. However, the role of microtubule‑associated protein Tau (MAPT) expression in brain cancer is largely unknown. To determine whether MAPT expression is related to low‑grade glioma (LGG) survival rates, RNASeq data representing samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were assessed. Results revealed that high expression of the MAPT gene is very strongly associated with increased overall and disease‑free survival in LGG but not in breast cancer or melanoma...
November 28, 2018: Oncology Reports
Desiree Willkommen, Marianna Lucio, Franco Moritz, Sara Forcisi, Basem Kanawati, Kirill S Smirnov, Michael Schroeter, Ali Sigaroudi, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Bernhard Michalke
The underlying mechanisms of Parkinson´s disease are not completely revealed. Especially, early diagnostic biomarkers are lacking. To characterize early pathophysiological events, research is focusing on metabolomics. In this case-control study we investigated the metabolic profile of 31 Parkinson´s disease-patients in comparison to 95 neurologically healthy controls. The investigation of metabolites in CSF was performed by a 12 Tesla SolariX Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometer (FT-ICR-MS)...
2018: PloS One
Thomas G Liman, Eberhard Siebert, Matthias Endres
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiological syndrome characterized by acute cerebral endotheliopathy with consecutive disruption of the blood-brain barrier and vasogenic edema. Since its first description in 1996, PRES is increasingly recognized. However, many aspects of this syndrome with its wide spectrum of clinical and radiological features are still incompletely understood. In this review, possible pathophysiological mechanisms, approaches to diagnosis, recent study results on outcome, and future directions of research are described...
December 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Samyuktha R Melachuri, Jaspreet Kaur, Manasa K Melachuri, David Ninaci, Donald J Crammond, Jeffrey R Balzer, Parthasarathy D Thirumala
BACKGROUND: Lumbar interbody spinal fusion (LIF) surgeries are performed to treat or prevent back pain in patients with degenerated intervertebral discs and a variety of spinal diseases. However, post-operative neurological complications may ensue. Intraoperative monitoring techniques have been used to predict and potentially reduce the risk of complications. METHODS: This study examined the diagnostic accuracy of significant changes of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) to evaluate and predict post-operative neurological deficits after LIF...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Anna M Gruener, Ana M S Morley
The purpose of this study was to evaluate retinal thickness in different Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) complementation groups using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 40 patients with XP. All patients had healthy-looking retinae and optic nerves on slit lamp biomicroscopy, and subtle or no neurological deficits. Patients were divided into two groups based on the known tendency for neurodegeneration associated with certain XP complementation groups. A third control group was obtained from a normative database...
December 2018: Neuro-ophthalmology
Yi-Chen Li, Rong Wang, Man-Man Xu, Xiang-Ru Jing, Jiye Aa, Run-Bin Sun, Shi-Jie Na, Tao Liu, Xuan-Sheng Ding, Cui-Yun Sun, Wei-Hong Ge
Cerebral metabolism alterations influence cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition, and is sensitive to brain injury. In subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients, Fisher scale, Hunt-Hess scale and World Federation of Neurological Societies (WFNS) grading scales evaluating SAH severity are inadequate to predict long-term outcome; therefore, in an effort to determine metabolite pattern disparity and discover corresponding biomarkers, we designed an untargeted CSF metabolomic research covering a board range of metabolites of SAH patients with different severity and outcome...
December 6, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Alexander J Martin, Christopher I Price
BACKGROUND: Early neurological deterioration (END) following acute stroke is associated with poorer long-term outcomes. Identification of patients at risk could assist early monitoring and treatment decisions. This review summarised the evidence describing non-radiological biomarkers for END. SUMMARY: Electronic searches from January 1990 to March 2017 identified studies reporting a blood/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/urine biomarker measurement within 24 h of acute stroke and at least 2 serial assessments of clinical neurological status (< 24 h and < 7 days)...
December 5, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Daniela Gardiol, Federico Marziali, María Paula Dizanzo, Ana Laura Cavatorta
Human Disc large (DLG1) is a scaffolding protein that through the interaction with diverse cell partners participates in the control of key cellular processes such as polarity, proliferation and migration. Experimental data have mainly identified DLG1 as a tumor suppressor. An outstanding point for DLG1 protein is that altered DLG1 expression and DLG1 gene mutations were observed in different pathologies, including cancer and neurological and immunological disorders. Evident changes in DLG1 abundance and/or cell localization were identified in a number of studies suggesting its participation in molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of such illnesses...
December 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Sniya Valsa Sudhakar, Karthik Muthusamy, Manohar Shroff
Brain has been considered as an immune-privileged site for centuries owing to the presence of blood-brain barrier, absent lymphatic drainage, and antigen-presenting cells. However, the present prevailing concept is of immune surveillance where brain is continuously surveyed by immune cells. However, the presence of immune cells in central nervous system (CNS) brings the risk of inflammation and autoimmunity involving both T and B cell mediated pathways. These mechanisms form the underlying pathology in a wide spectrum of pediatric CNS diseases manifesting as acquired neurological deficits...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Sonia L Ramírez-Garza, Emily P Laveriano-Santos, María Marhuenda-Muñoz, Carolina E Storniolo, Anna Tresserra-Rimbau, Anna Vallverdú-Queralt, Rosa M Lamuela-Raventós
The effect of resveratrol (RV) intake has been reviewed in several studies performed in humans with different health status. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of clinical trials of the last decade, in which RV was determined in biological samples such as human plasma, urine, and feces. The topics covered include RV bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, effects on cardiovascular diseases, cognitive diseases, cancer, type 2 diabetes (T2D), oxidative stress, and inflammation states. The overview of the recent research reveals a clear tendency to identify RV in plasma, showing that its supplementation is safe...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Johann Steiner, Harald Prüss, Stephan Köhler, Thomas Frodl, Alkomiet Hasan, Peter Falkai
OBJECTIVES: Despite intensive research, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders continue to be theoretical constructs that describe clinical syndromes and no pathophysiologically defined diseases. Moreover, there are no clear biomarkers at hand. Therefore, these diagnoses are still set up based on clinical ICD-10 / DSM-5 criteria and the exclusion of alcohol- / drug-associated, systemic or other brain organic causes. METHODS: Recently, autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms caused by specific antineuronal antibodies has been identified as rare, but potentially treatable differential diagnosis...
December 4, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Shinji Oki
Reserch progresses in understanding the pathogenicity of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last couple of decade has enabled us to develop new drug entities available in the clinic. However, we still have not succeeded in preventing conversion from relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) to secondary progressive MS (SP-MS) and curing this intractable form of MS. Furthermore, diagnosis is usually retrospective and subjective, relying on gradual worsening of neurological signs/symptoms. This is obviously due to the lack of understanding for the pathogenicity driving disease progression in MS and of reliable biomarkers reflecting the progressive or stationary disease status...
November 30, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Amy E Lee, Poornima Pandiyan, Ming-Mei Liu, Monica A Williams, Allen D Everett, Gregory P Mueller, Michael Craig Morriss, Lakshmi Raman, Deborah Carlson, Joshua W Gatson
Neurologic injury is a known and feared complication of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Neurologic biomarkers may have a role in assisting with early identification of such. Axonal biomarker tau has not been investigated in the pediatric ECMO population. The objective of this study is to evaluate plasma levels tau in pediatric patients supported with ECMO. Eighteen patients requiring ECMO support in a quaternary pediatric intensive care unit at a university-affiliated children's hospital from October 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled...
November 28, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Udaysankar Chockanathan, Adora M DSouza, Anas Z Abidin, Giovanni Schifitto, Axel Wismüller
Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), coupled with advanced multivariate time-series analysis methods such as Granger causality, is a promising tool for the development of novel functional connectivity biomarkers of neurologic and psychiatric disease. Recently large-scale Granger causality (lsGC) has been proposed as an alternative to conventional Granger causality (cGC) that extends the scope of robust Granger causal analyses to high-dimensional systems such as the human brain. In this study, lsGC and cGC were comparatively evaluated on their ability to capture neurologic damage associated with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)...
February 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
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