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Neurological biomarkers

Letizia Leocani, Simone Guerrieri, Giancarlo Comi
: ABSTRACT:: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, degenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by progressive neurological decline over time. The need for better "biomarkers" to more precisely capture and track the effects of demyelination, remyelination, and associated neuroaxonal injury is a well-recognized challenge in the field of MS. To this end, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) have a role in assessing the extent of demyelination along the optic nerve, as a functionally eloquent CNS region...
September 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Wei Z Yeh, Leigh Blizzard, Bruce V Taylor
OBJECTIVES: Population prevalence studies of migraine report prevalence rates of between 2.6 and 21.7%, with an average of ~12%. However, migraine prevalence among neurologists is reported to be significantly higher, between 27.6% and 48.6%. Increasing knowledge of the protean manifestations of migraine may explain this difference. Similarly, under-recognition of migraine in control groups may explain the lack of genetic and biomarker findings in this disorder. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence of migraine in an admixed group of individuals with varied knowledge of migraine symptomatology...
June 2018: Brain and Behavior
Albert M Anderson, Kirk A Easley, Nicole Kasher, Donald Franklin, Robert K Heaton, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Magnus Gisslen, Scott L Letendre
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) persists in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era and is associated with diminished quality of life. The disorder remains challenging to diagnose given the requirement for comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Blood biomarkers are needed to facilitate the diagnosis of HAND and to gauge neurological response to antiretroviral therapy. We performed a study of plasma neurofilament light chain (NFL) that included 37 HIV-infected and 54 HIV-negative adults...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Fiona Costello, Jodie M Burton
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by both inflammatory and degenerative components that affect genetically susceptible individuals. Currently, the cause of MS remains unclear, and there is no known cure. Commonly used therapies tend to target inflammatory aspects of MS, but may not halt disease progression, which may be governed by the slow, subclinical accumulation of injury to neuroaxonal structures in the central nervous system (CNS). A recognized challenge in the field of MS relates to the need for better methods of detecting, quantifying, and ameliorating the effects of subclinical disease...
2018: Eye and Brain
Jiangbiao Gong, Yu Zhu, Jianbo Yu, Jing Jin, Mantao Chen, Wenchao Liu, Renya Zhan
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is an inflammatory biomarker. We elucidated the relationship between serum IL-33 concentrations, severity and prognosis in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). METHODS: We prospectively recruited 175 controls and 175 aSAH patients. Serum IL-33 concentrations were gauged using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical and radiological severity was assessed by World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) scale and modified Fisher grading scale respectively...
August 10, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Kathleen A Trychta, Emily J Heathward, Agnieszka Sulima, Susanne Bäck, Mehdi Farokhnia, Christopher T Richie, Lorenzo Leggio, Kenner C Rice, Brandon K Harvey
CONTEXT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium depletion is associated with diverse diseases, including cardiac, hepatic, and neurologic diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize an endogenous protein that could be used to monitor ER calcium depletion comparably to a previously described exogenous reporter protein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The use of a selective esterase-fluorescein diester pair allowed for carboxylesterase activity in extracellular fluid to be measured using a fluorescent readout...
August 10, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Hagen H Kitzler, Hannes Wahl, Judith C Eisele, Matthias Kuhn, Henning Schmitz-Peiffer, Simone Kern, Brian K Rutt, Sean C L Deoni, Tjalf Ziemssen, Jennifer Linn
We performed a longitudinal case-control study on patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) with the aid of quantitative whole-brain myelin imaging. The aim was (1) to parse early myelin decay and to break down its distribution pattern, and (2) to identify an imaging biomarker of the conversion into clinically definite Multiple Sclerosis (MS) based on in vivo measurable changes of myelination. Imaging and clinical data were collected immediately after the onset of first neurological symptoms and follow-up explorations were performed after 3, 6, and, 12 months...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Zaher Armaly, Jimmy E Jadaon, Adel Jabbour, Zaid A Abassi
Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy where it affects 5-8% of all pregnancies. It increases the morbidity and mortality of both the fetus and pregnant woman, especially in developing countries. It deleteriously affects several vital organs, including the kidneys, liver, brain, and lung. Although, the pathogenesis of preeclampsia has not yet been fully understood, growing evidence suggests that aberrations in the angiogenic factors levels and coagulopathy are responsible for the clinical manifestations of the disease...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Kristin Leifsdottir, Huseyin Mehmet, Staffan Eksborg, Eric Herlenius
BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemia generates neuroinflammation that can induce neural cell death. This cohort study assessed whether Fas-ligand (FasL) and interleukin (IL)-6 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can serve as biomarkers of hypoxic brain injury in neonates. METHODS: Term infants (> 37-week gestational age) who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Karolinska University Hospital in years 2002 to 2004 with perinatal asphyxia were enrolled prospectively...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Samuel Iddi, Dan Li, Paul S Aisen, Michael S Rafii, Irene Litvan, Wesley K Thompson, Michael C Donohue
Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurological disease and affects about 1% of persons over the age of 60 years. Due to the lack of approved surrogate markers, confirmation of the disease still requires postmortem examination. Identifying and validating biomarkers are essential steps toward improving clinical diagnosis and accelerating the search for therapeutic drugs to ameliorate disease symptoms. Until recently, statistical analysis of multicohort longitudinal studies of neurodegenerative diseases has usually been restricted to a single analysis per outcome with simple comparisons between diagnostic groups...
August 8, 2018: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Hailong Li, Nehal A Parikh, Lili He
Early diagnosis remains a significant challenge for many neurological disorders, especially for rare disorders where studying large cohorts is not possible. A novel solution that investigators have undertaken is combining advanced machine learning algorithms with resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to unveil hidden pathological brain connectome patterns to uncover diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Recently, state-of-the-art deep learning techniques are outperforming traditional machine learning methods and are hailed as a milestone for artificial intelligence...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Lewis J Haddow, Claudia Godi, Magdalena Sokolska, M Jorge Cardoso, Ruth Oliver, Alan Winston, Wolfgang Stöhr, Amanda Clarke, Fabian Chen, Ian G Williams, Margaret Johnson, Nick Paton, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Xavier Golay, Hans Rolf Jäger
Background: Protease inhibitor monotherapy (PIM) for HIV may exert suboptimal viral control in the central nervous system. We determined whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) and regional brain volumes were associated with PIM, and whether specific cognitive domains were associated with imaging biomarkers. Methods: Cognitive assessment and brain MRI were performed after the final visit of a randomized HIV treatment strategy trial. Participants were virologically suppressed on triple therapy at trial entry and followed for 3-5 years...
July 31, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Xiang Li, Donglin Zeng, Karen Marder, Yuanjia Wang
Potential disease-modifying therapies for neurodegenerative disorders need to be introduced prior to the symptomatic stage in order to be effective. However, current diagnosis of neurological disorders mostly rely on measurements of clinical symptoms and thus only identify symptomatic subjects in their late disease course. Thus, it is of interest to select and integrate biomarkers that may reflect early disease-related pathological changes for earlier diagnosis and recruiting pre-sypmtomatic subjects in a prevention clinical trial...
August 1, 2018: Biostatistics
Zahida Taibi-Djennah, Marie-France Martin-Eauclaire, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
OBJECTIVE: Kaliotoxin2 (KTX2) is a highly selective blocker of voltage-dependent potassium channels Kv1.3 containing 37 amino acid residues. It is purified from Androctonus australis scorpion venom. The binding of KTX2 to its targets is able to alter the neuronal excitability leading to neurological disorders, accompanied by an inflammatory response. In brain, activation of insulin receptor signaling pathway by insulin induces current suppression and concomitant tyrosine phosphorylation of Kv1...
August 6, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Nuha Al Zaabi, Anoud Kendi, Fatma Al-Jasmi, Shigeo Takashima, Nobuyuki Shimozawa, Osama Y Al-Dirbashi
BACKGROUND: Mutations in PEX16 cause peroxisome biogenesis disorder (PBD). Zellweger syndrome characterized by neurological dysfunction, dysmorphic features, liver disease and early death represents the severe end of this clinical spectrum. Here we discuss the diagnostic challenge of atypical PEX16 related PBD in 3 patients from highly inbred kindred and describe the role of specific metabolites analyses, fibroblasts studies, whole-exome sequencing (WES) and metabolomics profiling to establish the diagnosis...
August 2, 2018: Brain & Development
Chiara Russo, Marina Isidori, Jessica A Deaver, Helen C Poynton
The use of anticancer drugs in chemotherapy is increasing, leading to growing environmental concentrations of imatinib mesylate (IMA), cisplatinum (CDDP), and etoposide (ETP) in aquatic systems. Previous studies have shown that these anticancer drugs cause DNA damage in the crustacean Daphnia magna at low, environmentally relevant concentrations. To explore the mechanism of action of these compounds and the downstream effects of DNA damage on D. magna growth and development at a sensitive life stage, we exposed neonates to low level concentrations equivalent to those that elicit DNA damage (IMA: 2000 ng/L, ETP: 300 ng/L, CDDP: 10 ng/L) and performed transcriptomic analysis using an RNA-seq approach...
July 19, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Steve Casha, Tiffany Rice, David P Stirling, Claudia Silva, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Gavin Giovannoni, R John Hurlbert, V Wee Yong
Inflammatory changes after spinal cord injury (SCI) have been reported in animal models, but human studies are relatively limited. We examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from subjects enrolled in a phase II placebo-controlled trial of minocycline for evidence of inflammatory and structural changes after acute human SCI. CSF was collected from 29 subjects every 6 h for 7 days and investigated for eight molecules. CSF from 6 normal subjects (lumbar microdiscectomy patients without central nervous system pathology) was also examined for comparison...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Mostafa Farzaneh, Mohammad Sayyah, Hamid Reza Eshraghi, Negar Panahi, Hadi Mirzapour Delavar, Hamid Gholami Pourbadie
BACKGROUND: The trisynaptic circuit (entorhinal cortex--dentate gyrus--CA3--CA1) is a key uni-directional network in the hippocampus. Damages to the hippocampus interrupt this circuit and cause neurological disorders. Efficient delivery of therapeutic genes into this network is of great interest to treat the trisynaptic circuit pathologies. METHODS: We generated a lentivector system pseudotyped by a variant of rabies glycoprotein, FUG-B2. Efficiency of the vector in the retrograde transduction of the rat hippocampal neurons i...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Gene Medicine
Saim Ozdamar, Mine Islimye Taskin, Gozde Ozge Onder, Emin Kaymak, Munevver Baran, Arzu Yay
BACKGROUND: Apart from role of progesterone in reproductive physiology, the protective role of exogenously administered progesterone was observed in various injuries, such as neurologic defects and acute kidney injury. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of progesterone therapy on the immunoexpression of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and the number of apoptotic cells in ovarian damage induced with cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent, in an experimental rat model...
August 1, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Noboru Tanaka, Sachiho Kida, Masafumi Kinoshita, Hideto Morimoto, Tadao Shibasaki, Katsuhiko Tachibana, Ryuji Yamamoto
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), an enzyme that catabolizes glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) including heparan sulfate (HS) and dermatan sulfate (DS). GAG accumulation leads to severe neurological and somatic impairments. At present, the most common treatment for MPS II is intravenous enzyme replacement therapy; however, the inability of recombinant IDS to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts therapeutic efficacy for neurological manifestations...
July 23, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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