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Neurological biomarkers

Susan L Stevens, Tao Liu, Frances Rena Bahjat, Vladislav A Petyuk, Athena A Schepmoes, Ryan L Sontag, Marina A Gritsenko, Chaochao Wu, Sheng Wang, Anil K Shukla, Jon M Jacobs, Richard D Smith, Karin D Rodland, G Alexander West, Steven G Kohama, Christine Glynn, Mary P Stenzel-Poore
Each year, thousands of patients are at risk of cerebral ischemic injury, due to iatrogenic responses to surgical procedures. Prophylactic treatment of these patients as standard care could minimize potential neurological complications. We have shown that protection of brain tissue, in a non-human primate model of cerebral ischemic injury, is possible through pharmacological preconditioning using the immune activator D192935. We postulate that preconditioning with D192935 results in neuroprotective reprogramming that is evident in the brain following experimentally induced cerebral ischemia...
October 19, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Ellana Welsby, Michael Ridding, Susan Hillier, Brenton Hordacre
BACKGROUND: Stroke can have devastating consequences for an individual's quality of life. Interventions capable of enhancing response to therapy would be highly valuable to the field of neurological rehabilitation. One approach is to use noninvasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation, to induce a neuroplastic response. When delivered in combination with rehabilitation exercises, there is some evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation is beneficial...
October 18, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Dolores Rausell, Ana García-Blanco, Patricia Correcher, Isidro Vitoria, Máximo Vento, Consuelo Cháfer-Pericás
Despite a strict dietary control, patient with hyperphenylalaninemia or phenylketonuria may show cognitive and/or behavioral disorders. These comorbid deficits are of great concern to patients, families, and health organizations. However, biomarkers capable of detecting initial stages of neurological damage are not commonly employed. The pathogenesis of phenylketonuria is complex in nature. Increasingly, the role of oxidative stress has gained acceptance and biomarkers reflecting oxidative damage to the brain and easily accessible in peripheral biofluids have been validated using mass spectrometry techniques...
October 17, 2018: Pediatric Research
Ashish Kumar Gupta, Komal Rani, Surabhi Swarnkar, Gaurav Khunger Kumar, Mohd Imran Khan, Ruchika Pokhriyal, Domada Ratna Kumar, Vinay Goyal, Manjari Tripathi, Rishab Gupta, Rakesh Kumar Chadda, Perumal Vanamail, Gururao Hariprasad
Aim of the Study: Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia are disease end points of dopaminergic deficit and hyperactivity, respectively, in the mid brain. Accordingly, current medications aim to restore normal dopamine levels, overshooting of which results in adverse effects of psychosis and extra-pyramidal symptoms, respectively. There are currently no available laboratory tests to guide treatment decisions or help predict adverse side effects of the drugs. The aim was to therefore explore the possibility of using apolipoprotein E as a biomarker to monitor pharmacological intervention in dopamine dictated states of Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia for optimum therapy...
2018: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
Gouthami Nalakonda, Mimsa Islam, Vera E Chukwu, Ahmad Soliman, Rujina Munim, Inas Abukraa
The main purpose of this paper is to bring together all the antibodies and markers related to neurological and psychiatric manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus and also the pharmacology that could help treat these symptoms. Existing research data regarding specific antibodies involved in the disease process and drugs that were being studied was collected and analyzed. After reviewing the studies published by various authors, symptoms were shown to be mainly caused by antibodies against N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies, anti-endothelial, anti-ribosomal P, antiphospholipid antibodies, cytokines like interferons and chemokines...
August 3, 2018: Curēus
Habib Zaidi, Abass Alavi, Issam El Naqa
Quantitative image analysis has deep roots in the usage of positron emission tomography (PET) in clinical and research settings to address a wide variety of diseases. It has been extensively employed to assess molecular and physiological biomarkers in vivo in healthy and disease states, in oncology, cardiology, neurology, and psychiatry. Quantitative PET allows relating the time-varying activity concentration in tissues/organs of interest and the basic functional parameters governing the biological processes being studied...
November 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Thomas Keller, Francisco R López-Picón, Anna Krzyczmonik, Sarita Forsback, Anna K Kirjavainen, Jatta S Takkinen, Obada Alzghool, Johan Rajander, Simo Teperi, Fanny Cacheux, Annelaure Damont, Frédéric Dollé, Juha O Rinne, Olof Solin, Merja Haaparanta-Solin
INTRODUCTION: Neuroinflammation is associated with several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), due to its overexpression during microglial activation and relatively low levels in the brain under normal neurophysiological conditions, is commonly used as an in vivo biomarker for neuroinflammation. Reported here is the preclinical evaluation of [18 F]F-DPA, a promising new TSPO-specific radioligand, as a tool for the detection of activated microglia at different ages in the APP/PS1-21 mouse model of AD and a blocking study to determine the specificity of the tracer...
September 26, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Gustavo Noffs, Thushara Perera, Scott Camaron Kolbe, Camille Jessica Shanahan, Frederique Maria Christina Boonstra, Andrew Evans, Helmut Butzkueven, Anneke van der Walt, Adam Phillip Vogel
IMPORTANCE: Multiple sclerosis produces neurological impairments that are variable in duration, severity and quality. Speech is frequently impaired, resulting in decreased communication skills and quality of life. Advancements in technology now makes it possible to use quantitative acoustic assessment of speech as biomarkers of disease progression. OBSERVATIONS: Four domains of speech have been identified: articulation (slow articulation and imprecise consonants), voice (pitch and loudness instability), respiration (decreased phonatory time and expiratory pressure) and prosody (longer and frequent pauses, deficient loudness control)...
October 11, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Emma Macdonald-Laurs, Archana Koirala, Philip N Britton, William Rawlinson, Chee Chung Hiew, Jocelynne Mcrae, Russell C Dale, Cheryl Jones, Kristine Macartney, Brendan McMullan, Sekhar Pillai
PURPOSE: Neurological complications of influenza cause significant disease in children. Central nervous system inflammation, the presumed mechanism of influenza-associated encephalopathy, is difficult to detect. Characteristics of children presenting with severe neurological complications of influenza, and potential biomarkers of influenza-associated encephalopathy are described. METHODS: A multi-center, retrospective case-series of children with influenza and neurological complications during 2017 was performed...
September 28, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Kang Min Park, Ho-Joon Lee, Byung In Lee, Sung Eun Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare structural connectivity using graph theoretical analysis in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and healthy subjects. METHODS: Ten consecutive patients with iRBD were recruited from a single tertiary hospital. All patients had normal brain magnetic resonance imaging results on visual inspection. They did not have any other neurological disorder. Control subjects were also enrolled. All subjects underwent three-dimensional volumetric T1-weighted imaging...
October 12, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Neetu Soni, Girish Bathla, Ravishankar Pillenahalli Maheshwarappa
Purpose Spinal sarcoidosis, referring to involvement of the spine in sarcoidosis, is relatively rare and may mimic other neurological disease affecting the spine. The authors present a clinic radiological review of 18 spinal sarcoidosis patients who presented to a tertiary hospital, with emphasis on initial imaging and radiological response to treatment. Materials and methods We retrospectively reviewed our departmental imaging archives over a 15-year period and found 49 cases of neurosarcoidosis out of which 18 patients had spinal magnetic resonance imaging...
October 12, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Eirini Kanata, Ewa Golanska, Anna Villar-Piqué, Aikaterini Karsanidou, Dimitra Dafou, Konstantinos Xanthopoulos, Matthias Schmitz, Isidro Ferrer, André Karch, Beata Sikorska, Pawel P Liberski, Theodoros Sklaviadis, Inga Zerr, Franc Llorens
Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is the most common form of human prion disease. It is invariably fatal and displays a short clinical disease stage. The key event in sCJD is the propagation of a beta-sheet rich conformer of the physiological PrPC protein, known as PrPSc . Neuropathological disease characteristics include gliosis, neuronal loss and spongiform degeneration; disease clinical manifestations refer to mental and visual disabilities, cognitive impairment, gait or limb ataxia, myoclonus and mutism...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Elisa Cuadrado-Godia, Pratistha Dwivedi, Sanjiv Sharma, Angel Ois Santiago, Jaume Roquer Gonzalez, Mercedes Balcells, John Laird, Monika Turk, Harman S Suri, Andrew Nicolaides, Luca Saba, Narendra N Khanna, Jasjit S Suri
Cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) has a crucial role in lacunar stroke and brain hemorrhages and is a leading cause of cognitive decline and functional loss in elderly patients. Based on underlying pathophysiology, cSVD can be subdivided into amyloidal and non-amyloidal subtypes. Genetic factors of cSVD play a pivotal role in terms of unraveling molecular mechanism. An important pathophysiological mechanism of cSVD is blood-brain barrier leakage and endothelium dysfunction which gives a clue in identification of the disease through circulating biological markers...
September 2018: Journal of Stroke
Jack J Miller, James T Grist, Sébastien Serres, James R Larkin, Angus Z Lau, Kevin Ray, Katherine R Fisher, Esben Hansen, Rasmus Stilling Tougaard, Per Mose Nielsen, Jakob Lindhardt, Christoffer Laustsen, Ferdia A Gallagher, Damian J Tyler, Nicola Sibson
Hyperpolarised MRI with Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation overcomes the fundamental thermodynamic limitations of conventional magnetic resonance, and is translating to human studies with several early-phase clinical trials in progress including early reports that demonstrate the utility of the technique to observe lactate production in human brain cancer patients. Owing to the fundamental coupling of metabolism and tissue function, metabolic neuroimaging with hyperpolarised [1-13 C]pyruvate has the potential to be revolutionary in numerous neurological disorders (e...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jiwon Oh, Angela Vidal-Jordana, Xavier Montalban
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, predominantly immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system, and one of the most common causes of neurological disability in young adults globally. This review will discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, disease course, and prognosis of multiple sclerosis and will focus on recent evidence and advances in these aspects of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple sclerosis is increasing in incidence and prevalence globally, even in traditionally low-prevalence regions of the world...
October 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Odelya E Pagovich, Mary L Vo, Zijun Zhao, Ioannis N Petropoulos, Michelle Yuan, Buntitar Lertsuwanroj, Jessica Ciralsky, Edward Lai, Szilard Kiss, Donald J D'Amico, Jason G Mezey, Rayaz A Malik, Ronald G Crystal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Sara Palermo, Leonardo Lopiano, Rosalba Morese, Maurizio Zibetti, Alberto Romagnolo, Mario Stanziano, Mario Giorgio Rizzone, Giuliano Carlo Geminiani, Maria Consuelo Valentini, Martina Amanzio
Objectives: The detection of dyskinesias-reduced-self-awareness (DRSA), in Parkinson's disease (PD), was previously associated to executive and metacognitive deficits mainly due to dopaminergic overstimulation of mesocorticolimbic circuits. Response-inhibition dysfunction is often observed in PD. Apart from being engaged in response-inhibition tasks, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), is part of a functional system based on self-awareness and engaged across cognitive, affective and behavioural contexts. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between response-inhibition disabilities and DRSA using whole-brain event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), over the course of a specific executive task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Pedro D'Orléans-Juste, Oscar B Akide Ndunge, Louisane Desbiens, Herbert B Tanowitz, Mahalia S Desruisseaux
Endothelins were discovered more than thirty years ago as potent vasoactive compounds. Beyond their well-documented cardiovascular properties, however, the contributions of the endothelin pathway have been demonstrated in several neuroinflammatory processes and the peptides have been reported as clinically relevant biomarkers in neurodegenerative diseases. Several studies report that endothelin-1 significantly contributes to the progression of neuroinflammatory processes, particularly during infections in the central nervous system (CNS), and is associated with a loss of endothelial integrity at the blood brain barrier level...
October 3, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
A Abdelhak, A Huss, J Kassubek, H Tumani, M Otto
While neurofilament light chain (NfL) measurement in serum is a well-established marker of neuroaxonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS), data on astroglial markers in serum are missing. In our study, glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and NfL were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of MS patients and patients with other non-inflammatory neurological diseases (OND) using the Simoa technology. Clinical data like age, gender, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and MRI findings were correlated to neurochemical markers...
October 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Farzad Fatehi, Aude-Marie Grapperon, Davood Fathi, Emilien Delmont, Shahram Attarian
The need for a valid biomarker for assessing disease progression and for use in clinical trials on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has stimulated the study of methods that could measure the number of motor units. Motor unit number index (MUNIX) is a newly developed neurophysiological technique that was demonstrated to have a good correlation with the number of motor units in a given muscle, even though it does not necessarily accurately express the actual number of viable motor neurons. Several studies demonstrated the technique is reproducible and capable of following motor neuron loss in patients with ALS and peripheral polyneuropathies...
October 2018: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
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