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Renato Luis Tame Parreira, Eveline S Costa, Vladimir Constantino Gomes Heleno, Lizandra Guidi Magalhães, Julia M Souza, Patrícia M Pauletti, Wilson R Cunha, Ana H Januário, Guilherme V Símaro, Jairo K Bastos, Rosangela S Laurentiz, Tapas Kar, Giovanni F Caramori, Daniel Fábio Kawano, Márcio Luis Andrade E Silva
Six dibenzylbutyrolactonic lignans ((-)-hinokinin (1), (-)-cubebin (2), (-)-yatein (3), (-)-5-methoxy-yatein (4), dihydrocubebin (5) and dihydroclusin (6)) were isolated from Piper cubeba seed extract and evaluated against Schistosoma mansoni. All lignans, except 5, were able to separate the adult worm pairs and reduce the egg numbers during the 24 h of incubation. Lignans 1, 3 and 4 (containing a lactone ring) were the most efficient concerning anti-parasitary activity. Comparing structures 3 and 4, the presence of the methoxy group at position 5 appears to be important for this activity...
October 18, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Bridget W Kimani, Amos K Mbugua, Jimmy H Kihara, Murima Ng'ang'a, Doris W Njomo
BACKGROUND: The recommended strategy for control of schistosomiasis is preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ). Pre-school children (PSC) are excluded from population treatment programs. In high endemic areas, these children are also at risk, and require treatment with PZQ. The Government of Kenya initiated the National School-Based Deworming Programme (NSBDP) where PSC in Early Childhood Development Education (ECDE) Centers are only eligible for treatment with albendazole (ABZ) but not with PZQ...
October 17, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Christine F Markwalter, Paul L A M Corstjens, Claire M Mammoser, Garrett Camps, Govert J van Dam, David W Wright
Accurate and sensitive point-of-care diagnostic tools are critical for schistosomiasis control and elimination. The existing ultrasensitive lateral flow assay for the detection of Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen (CAA) has demonstrated excellent sensitivity but is time-consuming and requires significant laboratory infrastructure that limits its applicability at the point of care. To address this challenge, we sought to develop an alternative sample preparation method to concentrate CAA from large-volume urine samples requiring little-to-no laboratory equipment...
October 17, 2018: Analyst
Enru Wang, Zhengyuan Zhao, Changhong Miao, Zhongcai Wu
Based on annual parasitological data recently collected at county and village levels, this article presents a multiscale spatiotemporal analysis of transmission risk of schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province during 2001 to 2015 in a geographic information system environment. The study shows that the incidence and prevalence rate of human Schistosoma japonicum infection in Hunan Province decreased after 2001. A spatial autocorrelation analysis reveals the existence of spatial clusters of human Schistosoma japonicum infection and a growing tendency of spatial clustering over time...
September 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Abdulrahman Hamad Al-Abdulwahhab, Abdulaziz Mohammad Al-Sharydah, Sari Saleh Al-Suhibani, Saeed Ahmad Al-Jubran, Ali Khalaf Al-Haidey, Abdulkhaliq Ibrahim Al-Hifzi, Wissam Al-Issawi
Background: Spinal myelitis is an infrequent manifestation of spinal cord infection. It is caused by the Schistosoma species, which are endemic in South America, part of the Middle East, and Africa. Case presentation: We report the case of a 13-year-old male adolescent complaining of progressive lower back pain and weakness of the lower extremities for 3 days. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed typical transverse myelitis. Subsequently, parasite serology showed a markedly elevated level of Schistosoma antibody titers, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis yielded normal results...
2018: Patient Safety in Surgery
Kathryn M Dupnik, Mary Juliet Reust, Kaitlin M Vick, Benjamin Yao, Donald Miyaye, Eric Lyimo, Crispin Mukerebe, Julius Mngara, Samuel E Kalluvya, Claudia J de Dood, Paul L A M Corstjens, Govert J van Dam, Tuo Zhang, Jenny Xiang, Myung Hee Lee, Jennifer A Downs
Schistosome worms infect over 200 million people worldwide. They live in the host's bloodstream and alter host immunity. Epidemiological data suggest that males and females have different responses to schistosome infection, but the effect of sex on systemic response is undetermined. Our objective was to characterize differences in peripheral blood transcriptional profiles in people with or without active S. haematobium infection, and to determine whether this signature differs between males and females.Messenger RNA was isolated using poly(A) selection and sequenced on an Illumina Hi-Seq4000 platform...
October 15, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Hong You, Marina Harvie, Xiaofeng Du, Vanessa Rivera, Ping Zhang, Donald P McManus
There is a pressing need to develop vaccines for schistosomiasis given the current heavy dependency on praziquantel as the only available drug for treatment. We previously showed the ligand domain of the Schistosoma japonicum insulin receptor 1 and 2 (rSjLD1 and 2) fusion proteins conferred solid protection in mice against challenge infection with S. japonicum . To improve vaccine efficacy, we compared the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rSjLD1 on its own and in combination with S. japonicum triose-phosphate isomerase (SjTPI), formulated with either of two adjuvants (QuilA and montanide ISA 720VG) in murine vaccine trials against S...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Moses Adriko, Christina L Faust, Lauren V Carruthers, Arinaitwe Moses, Edridah M Tukahebwa, Poppy H L Lamberton
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends praziquantel mass drug administration (MDA) to control schistosomiasis in endemic regions. We aimed to quantify recent and lifetime praziquantel coverage, and reasons for non-treatment, at an individual level to guide policy recommendations to help Uganda reach WHO goals. Cross-sectional household surveys ( n = 681) encompassing 3208 individuals (adults and children) were conducted in 2017 in Bugoto A and B, Mayuge District, Uganda. Participants were asked if they had received praziquantel during the recent MDA (October 2016) and whether they had ever received praziquantel in their lifetime...
October 8, 2018: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Jonathan S Marchant, Wayne W Harding, John D Chan
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important regulator of numerous aspects of flatworm biology, ranging from neuromuscular function to sexual maturation and egg laying. In the parasitic blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, 5-HT targets several G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), one of which has been demonstrated to couple to cAMP and regulate parasite movement. This receptor, Sm.5HTRL , has been successfully co-expressed in mammalian cells alongside a luminescent cAMP-biosensor, enabling pharmacological profiling for candidate anti-schistosomal drugs...
September 28, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Jaspreet Toor, Hugo C Turner, James E Truscott, Marleen Werkman, Anna E Phillips, Ramzi Alsallaq, Graham F Medley, Charles H King, Roy M Anderson
Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) programmes are used to collect data which are required to assess the impact of current interventions on their progress towards achieving the World Health Organization (WHO) goals of morbidity control and elimination as a public health problem for schistosomiasis. Prevalence and intensity of infection data are typically collected from school-aged children (SAC) as they are relatively easy to sample and are thought to be most likely to be infected by schistosome parasites. However, adults are also likely to be infected...
October 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Zhuang-Long Xiao, Ke-Shu Xu, Yu-Hu Song
The descending duodenum is rarely involved in Schistosoma japonicum ( S. japonicum ) infection. Here, we report a case of acute Schistosoma infection, which presented with abdominal pain, abdominal distension and irregular fever. Tumor-like lesions were observed in the descending duodenum. Simultaneously, heterogeneity in hepatic perfusion was demonstrated by dynamic computed tomography scanning. Biopsy of the descending duodenum showed the deposition of Schistosoma eggs. Following administration of the antihelminthic drug praziquantel, the patient showed rapid clinical improvement...
October 6, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Martin Giera, Maria M M Kaisar, Rico J E Derks, Evelyne Steenvoorden, Yvonne C M Kruize, Cornelis H Hokke, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Bart Everts
Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitic helminth that infects millions of people mostly in tropical parts of the world. Different life cycle stages of S.mansoni, that infect or develop in the human host, promote distinct immune responses and are known for their ability to modulate host immune responses. However, the molecular mechanisms through which the parasites interact with, and modulate the host immune system remain incompletely understood. Despite the well-known ability of various lipids to modulate immune responses, a comprehensive analysis of the lipidome of the different life cycle stages has not been performed...
December 11, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Tadesse Kebede, Yohanis Negash, Berhanu Erko
Background & objectives: The transmission of schistosomiasis, caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma, relies on freshwater snails that act as an intermediate host while human and other mammalian act as the definitive hosts. Many non-human primates (NHPs) such as Chlorocebus aethiops (vervet) and Papio anubis (baboon) are reported to be infected with Schistosoma mansoni in Ethiopia, but the role they play in parasite maintenance and transmission is still not clear. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence of S...
April 2018: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
M A Moustafa, H S Mossalem, R M Sarhan, A A Abdel-Rahman, E M Hassan
Schistosomiasis seriously affects human health in tropical regions. Its prevention is more important than treatment, raising the need for effective control methods. Recently, the role of nanomaterials in medical science has been growing. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and Schistosoma mansoni cercariae in vitro and to assess their effects on the infectivity of cercariae in vivo. The in vitro study proved that Ag and Au NPs were effective in killing B...
October 3, 2018: Parasitology Research
Rufin K Assaré, Mathieu B I Tra, Mamadou Ouattara, Eveline Hürlimann, Jean T Coulibaly, Eliézer K N'Goran, Jürg Utzinger
The sensitivity of a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) urine cassette test for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni in low-endemicity settings is poorly understood. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 14 villages in western Côte d'Ivoire and diagnosed children aged 9-12 years for schistosomiasis. Two stool samples were subjected to triplicate Kato-Katz thick smears each for diagnosis of S. mansoni , whereas a single urine sample was examined by POC-CCA for S. mansoni, filtration for Schistosoma haematobium, and reagent strip for microhematuria...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Vinícius R D Pereira, Ismael J Alves Junior, Lígia S da Silveira, Reinaldo B Geraldo, Priscila de F Pinto, Fernanda S Teixeira, Maria C Salvadori, Marcos P Silva, Lara A Alves, Priscila V S Z Capriles, Ayla das C Almeida, Elaine S Coimbra, Pedro L S Pinto, Mara R C Couri, Josué de Moraes, Ademar Alves Da Silva Filho
In this study, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo schistosomicidal activities of chalcones against Schistosoma mansoni worms. In vitro assays revealed that chalcones 1 and 3 were the most active compounds, without affecting significantly mammalian cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies revealed reduction on the numbers of tubercles and morphological alterations in the tegument of S. mansoni worms after in vitro incubation with chalcones 1 and 3. In a mouse model of schistosomiasis, the oral treatment (400 mg/kg) with chalcone 1 or 3 significantly caused a total worm burden reduction in mice...
October 1, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Mohamed Badawy Abdel-Naser, Andreas Altenburg, Christos C Zouboulis, Uwe Wollina
Schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) is an endemic parasitic disease of a major source of morbidity and mortality for developing countries. It is caused by different species of blood flukes (trematode worms) of the genus Schistosoma, the most important of which are S. haematobium which infests the genitourinary tract and S. mansoni and S. japonicum which infest the gastrointestinal tract. The incidence of schistosome-induced male infertility is not known and probably underestimated being overshadowed by the more severe and often fatal urinary and gastrointestinal complications...
October 1, 2018: Andrologia
Harrison K Korir, Diana K Riner, Emmy Kavere, Amos Omondi, Jasmine Landry, Nupur Kittur, Eric M Ndombi, Bartholomew N Ondigo, W Evan Secor, Diana M S Karanja, Daniel G Colley
Parasitologic surveys of young adults in college and university settings are not commonly done, even in areas known to be endemic for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths. We have done a survey of 291 students and staff at the Kisumu National Polytechnic in Kisumu, Kenya, using the stool microscopy Kato-Katz (KK) method and the urine point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test. Based on three stools/two KK slides each, in the 208 participants for whom three consecutive stools were obtained, Schistosoma mansoni prevalence was 17...
September 5, 2018: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Damilare O Famakinde
Schistosomiasis remains the most important tropical snail-borne trematodiasis that threatens many millions of human lives. In achieving schistosomiasis elimination targets, sustainable control of the snail vectors represents a logical approach. Nonetheless, the ineffectiveness of the present snail control interventions emphasizes the need to develop new complementary strategies to ensure more effective control outcomes. Accordingly, the use of genetic techniques aimed at driving resistance traits into natural vector populations has been put forward as a promising tool for integrated snail control...
August 15, 2018: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Jean T Coulibaly, Mamadou Ouattara, Beatrice Barda, Jürg Utzinger, Eliézer K N'Goran, Jennifer Keiser
Over the past decade, a significant reduction in the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been achieved, partially explained by the large-scale administration of praziquantel. Yet, the burden of schistosomiasis remains considerable, and factors influencing intervention coverage are important. This study aimed to deepen the understanding of low treatment coverage rates observed in two schistosomiasis-endemic villages in Côte d'Ivoire. The research was conducted in August 2015, in Moronou and Bigouin, two villages of Côte d'Ivoire that are endemic for Schistosoma haematobium and S...
June 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
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