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Yuxiao Zhu, Yangyue Ni, Ran Liu, Min Hou, Bingya Yang, Jingwei Song, Hongzhi Sun, Zhipeng Xu, Minjun Ji
Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) γ plays critical roles in human metabolic disorders and has recently been implicated as a regulator of cellular proliferation and inflammatory responses. Regulatory T cells (Tregs), which express high levels of PPAR- γ protein, have the ability to maintain immune tolerance to self-antigens and regulate immune response to Schistosoma infection. However, mechanisms involved in the resolution of these responses are elusive...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Hong You, Chang Liu, Xiaofeng Du, Sujeevi Nawaratna, Vanessa Rivera, Marina Harvie, Malcolm Jones, Donald P McManus
To further investigate the importance of Schistosoma japonicum acetylcholinesterase (SjAChE) in cholinergic signaling for parasite growth and development, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock-down its expression in adults and eggs in vitro. This resulted in its reduced transcription but also expression of other important genes involved both in cholinergic signaling and glucose uptake were impacted substantially. Significant decreases in AChE protein expression, AChE enzymatic activity, and glucose uptake were observed in the SjAChE -knockdown parasites compared with luciferase controls...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kennedy Makola Mbanzulu, Josué Kikana Zanga, Jean Pierre Kambala Mukendi, Felly Mbaya Ntita, Junior Rika Matangila, Hypolite Mavoko Muhindo, Sylvain Mpoyi Wa Mpoyi, Michel Ntetani Aloni, Roger Wumba
Background: Malaria and schistosomiasis remain life-threatening public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. The infection pattern related to age indicates that preschool and school-age children are at the highest risk of malaria and schistosomiasis. Both parasitic infections, separately or combined, may have negative impacts on the haemoglobin concentration levels. The existing data revealed that artemisinin derivatives commonly used to cure malaria present also in antischistosomal activities...
2018: BioMed Research International
Victor F Oliveira, Lauro A G Moares, Ester A Mota, Liana K Jannotti-Passos, Paulo M Z Coelho, Ana C A Mattos, Flávia F B Couto, Brian E Caffrey, Annalisa Marsico, Renata Guerra-Sá
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts generally longer than 200 nucleotides with no or poor protein coding potential, and most of their functions are also poorly characterized. Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown that lncRNAs can be involved in various critical biological processes such as organism development or cancer progression. Little, however, is known about their effects in helminths parasites, such as Schistosoma mansoni . Here, we present a computational pipeline to identify and characterize lncRNAs from RNA-seq data with high confidence from S...
2018: BioMed Research International
Yao Deng, Chen Qiu, Huan Ding, Da-Bing Lu
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma japonicum, remains one of the most important parasitic diseases, and detection of S. japonicum infections in humans plays a crucial role in control and treatment. However, comparisons between the parasitological and the immunological examinations in the fields of China are lacking. Therefore we performed a meta-analysis to compare the seroprevalence of Schistosoma japonicum, as determined by IHA or ELISA, with coprological prevalence, as determined by Kato-Katz, and estimate the ratio of the serological to the egg-positive prevalence in order to evaluate the potential threat of egg-negative but worm-positive schistosomiasis...
August 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Shiyang Zhou, Gangliang Huang
A novel series of phenithionate analogues or derivatives were designed and synthesized using phenithionate as the lead compound, and their bioactivities were studied. Their structures were confirmed by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and elemental analysis, respectively. The results of in vitro inhibitory activity measurement proved that compounds 5a , 5c , 5g , 5i , 5m and 5o had a better inhibitory effect on larva and imago schistosoma. Among them, the inhibitory activity of compound 5i for larva schistosoma was IC50 = 5...
February 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Katja Obieglo, Martijn J Schuijs, Arifa Ozir-Fazalalikhan, Frank Otto, Yolanda van Wijck, Louis Boon, Bart N Lambrecht, Christian Taube, Hermelijn H Smits
Chronic helminth infection with Schistosoma (S.) mansoni protects against allergic airway inflammation (AAI) in mice and is associated with reduced Th2 responses to inhaled allergens in humans, despite the presence of schistosome-specific Th2 immunity. Schistosome eggs strongly induce type 2 immunity and allow to study the dynamics of Th2 versus regulatory responses in the absence of worms. Treatment with isolated S. mansoni eggs by i.p. injection prior to induction of AAI to ovalbumin (OVA)/alum led to significantly reduced AAI as assessed by less BAL and lung eosinophilia, less cellular influx into lung tissue, less OVA-specific Th2 cytokines in lungs and lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes, and less circulating allergen-specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies...
August 14, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Suellen B Morais, Barbara C Figueiredo, Natan R G Assis, Jane Homan, Fábio S Mambelli, Rodrigo M Bicalho, Cláudia Souza, Vicente P Martins, Carina S Pinheiro, Sergio C Oliveira
Current schistosomiasis control strategies are mainly based on chemotherapy, but the development of a vaccine against this parasitic disease would contribute to a long-lasting decrease in disease spectrum and transmission. When it comes to vaccine candidates, several genes encoding Schistosoma mansoni proteins expressed at the mammalian host-parasite interface have been tested. Among the most promising molecules are the proteins present on the tegument and digestive tract of the parasite. In this study, we evaluate the potential of Sm KI-1, the first Kunitz-type protease inhibitor functionally characterized in S...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Manal Elzoheiry, Akram A Da'dara, Rita Bhardwaj, Qiang Wang, Manar S Azab, El-Saeed I El-Kholy, Samar N El-Beshbishi, Patrick J Skelly
Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that infect the vasculature of >200 million people around the world. These long-lived parasites do not appear to provoke blood clot formation or obvious inflammation around them in vivo . Proteins expressed at the host-parasite interface (such as Schistosoma mansoni alkaline phosphatase, SmAP) are likely key to these abilities. SmAP is a glycoprotein that hydrolyses the artificial substrate p -nitrophenyl phosphate in a reaction that requires Mg2+ and at an optimal pH of 9...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Timothy P Jenkins, Laura E Peachey, Nadim J Ajami, Andrew S MacDonald, Michael H Hsieh, Paul J Brindley, Cinzia Cantacessi, Gabriel Rinaldi
In spite of the extensive contribution of intestinal pathology to the pathophysiology of schistosomiasis, little is known of the impact of schistosome infection on the composition of the gut microbiota of its mammalian host. Here, we characterised the fluctuations in the composition of the gut microbial flora of the small and large intestine, as well as the changes in abundance of individual microbial species, of mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni with the goal of identifying microbial taxa with potential roles in the pathophysiology of infection and disease...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrea L Araujo Navas, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães, Frank Osei, Raffy Jay C Fornillos, Lydia R Leonardo, Alfred Stein
BACKGROUND: Spatial modelling studies of schistosomiasis (SCH) are now commonplace. Covariate values are commonly extracted at survey locations, where infection does not always take place, resulting in an unknown positional exposure mismatch. The present research aims to: (i) describe the nature of the positional exposure mismatch in modelling SCH helminth infections; (ii) delineate exposure areas to correct for such positional mismatch; and (iii) validate exposure areas using human positive cases...
August 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Hallysson D A de Araújo, Ana M M A Melo, Williams N Siqueira, Mônica C B Martins, André L Aires, Mônica C P A Albuquerque, Nicácio H da Silva, Vera L M Lima
The snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector for Schistosoma mansoni. Control of this vector to prevent the spread of schistosomiasis is currently performed with the application of a niclosamide molluscicide, which is highly toxic to the environment. Screening of substances that show embryotoxic molluscicidal potential as well as have detrimental effects on cercariae is very relevant for the control of schistosomiasis, as the efficacy of prevention of the disease is increased if it acts as a molluscicide as well as on the cercariae of S...
August 8, 2018: Acta Tropica
Hyun Beom Song, Jiyoung Kim, Yan Jin, Jin Soo Lee, Hoo Gn Jeoung, Young Ha Lee, Abd Al Wahab Saeed, Sung-Tae Hong
Background: Schistosoma haematobium which causes urogenital schistosomiasis (UGS) is highly prevalent in African countries. Urine microscopy (UM) is the first-line diagnostic method of UGS. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a common method for screening many parasite infections primarily or alternatively. The present study established an in-house diagnostic system by ELISA and evaluated its diagnostic efficacy in comparison with UM for screening UGS in White Nile State, Republic of Sudan, 2011-2013...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Donald P McManus, David W Dunne, Moussa Sacko, Jürg Utzinger, Birgitte J Vennervald, Xiao-Nong Zhou
Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a neglected tropical disease caused by parasitic flatworms (blood flukes) of the genus Schistosoma, with considerable morbidity in parts of the Middle East, South America, Southeast Asia and, particularly, in sub-Saharan Africa. Infective larvae grow in an intermediate host (fresh-water snails) before penetrating the skin of the definitive human host. Mature adult worms reside in the mesenteric (Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum) or pelvic (Schistosoma haematobium) veins, where female worms lay eggs, which are secreted in stool or urine...
August 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Dandan Zhu, Chunzhao Yang, Pei Shen, Liuting Chen, Jinling Chen, Xiaolei Sun, Lian Duan, Li Zhang, Jinhua Zhu, Yinong Duan
Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the central event of the evolution of hepatic fibrosis. Schistosomiasis is one of the pathogenic factors which could induce hepatic fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that recombinant Schistosoma japonicum egg antigen P40 (rSjP40) can inhibit the activation and proliferation of HSCs. MicroRNA-155 is one of the multifunctional noncoding RNA, which is involved in a series of important biological processes including cell development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Alessandra Ricciardi, Nicholas H Zelt, Kittipos Visitsunthorn, John P Dalton, Momar Ndao
A vaccine against schistosomiasis would contribute to a long-lasting decrease in disease spectrum and transmission. Our previous protection studies in mice using Schistosoma mansoni Cathepsin B (Sm-Cathepsin B) resulted in 59 and 60% worm burden reduction with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and Montanide ISA720 VG as adjuvants, respectively. While both formulations resulted in significant protection in a mouse model of schistosomiasis, the elicited immune responses differed. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to decipher the mechanisms involved in Sm-Cathepsin B vaccine-mediated protection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Odin Goovaerts, Pauline N M Mwinzi, Erick M O Muok, Ann Ceulemans, Robert Colebunders, Luc Kestens
BACKGROUND: Among the different faces of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) developing in HIV-patients, no clinical definition has been reported for Schistosomiasis-IRIS (Schisto-IRIS). Although Schisto-IRIS remains largely uninvestigated, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) have previously been associated with S. mansoni infection and tuberculosis-IRIS. Here, we aimed to investigate the relevance of these markers in Schisto-IRIS...
August 8, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tom Pennance, Shaali M Ame, Armour Khamis Amour, Khamis Rashid Suleiman, Fiona Allan, David Rollinson, Bonnie L Webster
The causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis, Schistosoma haematobium, was thought to be the only schistosome species transmitted through Bulinus snails on Unguja and Pemba Island (Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania). For insights into the environmental risk of S. haematobium transmission on Pemba Island, malacological surveys collecting Bulinus globosus and B. nasutus, two closely related potential intermediate hosts of S. haematobium were conducted across the island in November 2016. Of 1317 B. globosus/B...
August 8, 2018: Parasitology
Jean Claude Dejon-Agobé, Jeannot Fréjus Zinsou, Yabo Josiane Honkpehedji, Ulysse Ateba-Ngoa, Jean-Ronald Edoa, Bayodé Roméo Adegbite, Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, Michael Ramharter, Peter Gottfried Kremsner, Bertrand Lell, Martin Peter Grobusch, Ayôla Akim Adegnika
BACKGROUND: Malaria burden remains high in the sub-Saharan region where helminths are prevalent and where children are often infected with both types of parasites. Although the effect of helminths on malaria infection is evident, the impact of these co-infections is not clearly elucidated yet and the scarce findings are conflicting. In this study, we investigated the effect of schistosomiasis, considering soil-transmitted helminths (STH), on prevalence and incidence of Plasmodium falciparum infection...
August 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Xiang Wang, Qiong Fu, Rui Song, Bowen Duan, Robert Bergquist, Jing Xu, Shizhu Li, Dongming Zhou, Zhiqiang Qin
Schistosomiasis poses a serious threat to public health and the infection will develop into chronic and advanced late-stage disease if not treated. Apart from the clinical signs due to immune reactions to schistosome eggs trapped in host tissues, it also increases the risk for the development of autoimmunity reflected by dysfunctional, auto-reactive antibodies. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) have been reported in schistosomiasis due to S. mansoni and S. haematobium. We demonstrate ANA in schistosomiasis japonica and explore the relationship between this infection and autoimmune disease by measuring ANA and interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12 and IL-17 responses in the sera of 125 Chinese patients with different stages of schistosomiasis japonica...
August 3, 2018: Parasite Immunology
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