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Kristin M Wall, William Kilembe, Bellington Vwalika, Cecile Dinh, Paul Livingston, Yeuk-Mui Lee, Shabir Lakhi, Debi Boeras, Htee Khu Naw, Ilene Brill, Elwyn Chomba, Tyronza Sharkey, Rachel Parker, Erin Shutes, Amanda Tichacek, W Evan Secor, Susan Allen
BACKGROUND: We examined relationships between schistosome infection, HIV transmission or acquisition, and all-cause death. METHODS: We retrospectively tested baseline sera from a heterosexual HIV-discordant couple cohort in Lusaka, Zambia with follow-up from 1994-2012 in a nested case-control design. Schistosome-specific antibody levels were measured by ELISA. Associations between baseline antibody response to schistosome antigens and incident HIV transmission, acquisition, and all-cause death stratified by gender and HIV status were assessed...
December 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ujjawal Khurana, Kaushik Majumdar, Neelkamal Kapoor, Deepti Joshi, Garima Goel, Tanya Sharma, Debasis Biswas
Detection of urinary parasites is relatively rare and incidental finding in routine urine examination. Common urinary parasitic infections as described in literature include Trichomonas, Schistosoma hematobium and Microfilaria. Trichomonas vaginalis is known to cause vaginitis and urethritis, and may be found in urine sediments. In this study, the spectrum of urinary parasitic infections that had been reported in the last one and a half year was evaluated, and point prevalence in this zone was estimated. Microbiologist opinion had been taken in the difficult cases...
December 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Lilian Da Silva Santos, Hans Wolff, François Chappuis, Pedro Albajar-Viñas, Marco Vitoria, Nguyen-Toan Tran, Stéphanie Baggio, Giuseppe Togni, Nicolas Vuilleumier, François Girardin, Francesco Negro, Laurent Gétaz
In Swiss prisons, more than 70% of detained people are foreigners and over one-third originate from sub-Saharan Africa or Latin America. These two regions are endemic for various tropical diseases and viral infections, which persist after migration to nonendemic countries. Parasitic infections (schistosomiasis; strongyloidiasis) and cooccurrent viral infections (HIV, hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV)) are especially of concern for clinical care but have been neglected in empirical research. These diseases often remain silent for years before causing complications, especially if they occur concomitantly...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Gilles Riveau, Anne-Marie Schacht, Jean-Pierre Dompnier, Dominique Deplanque, Modou Seck, Nawal Waucquier, Simon Senghor, Delphine Delcroix-Genete, Emmanuel Hermann, Noureddine Idris-Khodja, Claire Levy-Marchal, Monique Capron, André Capron
BACKGROUND: Urinary schistosomiasis, the result of infection by Schistosoma haematobium (Sh), remains a major global health concern. A schistosome vaccine could represent a breakthrough in schistosomiasis control strategies, which are presently based on treatment with praziquantel (PZQ). We report the safety and efficacy of the vaccine candidate recombinant 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase of Sh (rSh28GST) designated as Bilhvax, in a phase 3 trial conducted in Senegal. METHODS AND FINDINGS: After clearance of their ongoing schistosomiasis infection with two doses of PZQ, 250 children aged 6-9 years were randomized to receive three subcutaneous injections of either rSh28GST/Alhydrogel (Bilhvax group) or Alhydrogel alone (control group) at week 0 (W0), W4, and W8 and then a booster at W52 (one year after the first injection)...
December 7, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kenta Machida, Takanori Yamada, Eri Shimura, Masahiro Umemura, Shunya Onoue, Masanao Kaneko, Hiroyuki Mabuchi, Yurimi Takahashi, Yuzo Sasada, Yasuhiko Saida
A 37-year-old woman exhibited abnormal liver enzyme levels without any symptoms at a medical check-up. She was born and raised in Hubei, China, and had immigrated to Japan in her mid-thirties. Ultrasonography revealed an enlarged caudate lobe of the liver and a wide moniliform portal vein, whereas computed tomography revealed lined calcification on the surface of the liver and on the collateral vein of the portal vein. Although imaging studies provided no critical findings, the crucial information that led to diagnosis was gained through the interview with the patient...
2018: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
W R Correia do Nascimento, C G de Oliveira Nóbrega, V Barros Lorena, P Alves Dos Santos, E de Souza Fernandes, V Maria Assis Costa, C Simões Barbosa, D Medeiros, E Sávio Sarinho, D Solé, V Maria Oliveira de Souza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Silvain Pinaud, Anaïs Portet, Jean-François Allienne, Lucid Belmudes, Cécile Saint-Beat, Nathalie Arancibia, Richard Galinier, Louis Du Pasquier, David Duval, Benjamin Gourbal
Invertebrate immune response may be primed by a current infection in a sustained manner, leading to the failure of a secondary infection with the same pathogen. The present study focuses on the Schistosomiasis vector snail Biomphalaria glabrata, in which a specific genotype-dependent immunological memory was demonstrated as a shift from a cellular to a humoral immune response. Herein, we investigate the complex molecular bases associated with this genotype-dependant immunological memory response. We demonstrate that Biomphalaria regulates a polymorphic set of immune recognition molecules and immune effector repertoires to respond to different strains of Schistosoma parasites...
December 4, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yohann Le Govic, Julien Kincaid-Smith, Jean-François Allienne, Olivier Rey, Ludovic de Gentile, Jérôme Boissier
Schistosomiasis is frequently detected in persons entering Europe. In 2017, we detected a Schistosoma mansoni-Schistosoma haematobium hybrid parasite infection in a migrant boy from Côte d'Ivoire entering France. Because such parasites might be established in Europe, as illustrated by an outbreak on Corsica Island, vectors of these parasites should be investigated.
February 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
R E Tiongco, N A Paragas, M J Dominguez, S L Lasta, J K Pandac, M R Pineda-Cortel
Schistosomiasis or bilharzia is a widespread parasitic disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Some factors have been investigated previously regarding their effect on the pathophysiological mechanism of human schistosomiasis, but the possible influence of the ABO blood group on the severity of Schistosoma infection has been the most promising. Hence, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to further investigate the association of the ABO blood group with schistosomiasis susceptibility...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Mohamed R Habib, Shan Lv, Yun-Hai Guo, Wen-Biao Gu, Claire J Standley, Roberta L Caldeira, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease designated as a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. Schistosomiasis mansoni is a form of the disease that is caused by the digenean trematode Schistosoma mansoni, transmitted through Biomphalaria spp. as an intermediate host. Biomphalaria was introduced to Hong Kong, China in aquatic plants shipments coming from Brazil and the snail rapidly established its habitats in southern China. Earlier studies of Biomphalaria spp...
December 8, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Kosala Gayan Weerakoon, Catherine A Gordon, Gail M Williams, Pengfei Cai, Geoffrey N Gobert, Remigio M Olveda, Allen G Ross, David U Olveda, Donald P McManus
BACKGROUND: Co-parasitism is a frequent occurrence in impoverished communities in the tropics resulting in a considerable disease burden. While there are extensive reports of intestinal helminthiases, including schistosomiasis japonica, the occurrence and extent of diseases caused by intestinal protozoa (IP) have yet to be investigated in depth in the Philippines. We present a detailed analysis of polyparasitism in a rural community of Northern Samar, focusing on co-infections of IP with Schistosoma japonicum...
December 10, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Kit Riegels Jørgensen, Søren Høyer, Jakob Kristian Jakobsen, Thor Knak Jensen, Niels Marcussen, Gitte Wrist Lam, Thomas Hasselager, Peter Ole Thind, Birgitte Grønkær Toft, Torben Steiniche, Jørgen Bjerggaard Jensen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a potential association between Human Papillomavirus (H.P.V.) and squamous cell carcinoma (S.C.C.) urinary bladder cancer (B.C.). Furthermore, the relation between p16INK4a, H.P.V. and B.C. was examined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were included and divided into three groups based on the histological diagnosis of B.C. SPECIMENS: An extensive exclusion was performed, including accepted casual risk factors for S.C.C...
December 11, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
Erica de Souza Fernandes, Wheverton Ricardo Correia do Nascimento, Patrícia Alves Dos Santos, Cassia Gisele de Oliveira Nóbrega, Virginia Barros Lorena, Constança Simões Barbosa, Décio Medeiros, Silvia Wanick Sarinho, Vlaudia Maria Assis Costa, Valdênia Maria Oliveira de Souza
BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to antibodies, cytokines or parasitic antigens during gestation may alter the degree of immune competence of offspring. Here we describe the production of cytokines and chemokines, and the ability to activation of the immune response in infants from mothers sensitized to helminths. METHODS: It were selected five infants born to helminth-seropositive mothers but who were negative for current helminth infection. Whole blood was cultured without stimulus, with phytohemagglutinin mitogen (5 μg/ml, 24 h) or with purified protein derivative (PPD) (1 μg/ml, 24 h), and the supernatant was assessed for presence of Th1/Th2 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-5, IL-4 and IL-2) and chemokines (CXCL10, CCL2, CXCL9, CCL5 and CXCL8) by cytometric bead array...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Fabiana Letícia da Silva, Rodrigo Pimenta Del-Rei, Déborah Bittencourt Mothé Fraga, Leonardo Maia Leony, Alina Maria Gonzaga Carlos de Souza, Fred Luciano Neves Santos
INTRODUCTION: Portal hypertension and periportal fibrosis commonly occur in severe Schistosoma mansoni infection. Changes in lipid profile and elevated levels of circulating liver enzymes have also been described in infected individuals. The present study sought to assess the alterations in laboratory parameters associated with liver disorder in individuals infected by S. mansoni who visited a private routine laboratory service. Levels of circulating liver enzymes (gamma-glutamyl transferase [γ-GT], aspartate transaminase [AST], alanine transaminase [ALT], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) and a lipid panel (total cholesterol [COL], high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], very low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], and triglycerides [TRI]) were evaluated in both infected and non-infected individuals and relative risk was used to measure associations...
November 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Athena Mavridou, Olga Pappa, Olga Papatzitze, Chrysa Dioli, Anastasia Maria Kefala, Panagiotis Drossos, Apostolos Beloukas
A growing number of people undertake international travel, and yet faster growth of such travel is expected in the tropics. Information on the hazards presented by pool and hot spring waters in tropical countries is very limited. This review aims to collate available information on pool water quality, alongside data on cases and outbreaks associated with swimming in pools in tropical regions affecting both local populations and travellers. Bacteria species commonly causing cases and outbreaks in the tropics as well as elsewhere in the world were excluded, and the review focuses on studies related to pathogens that, with the exception of Cryptosporidium, are unusual in more temperate climates...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Biruk Gebreselassie Kassa, Claudia Mickael, Rahul Kumar, Linda Sanders, Dan Koyanagi, Daniel Hernandez-Saavedra, Rubin Tuder, Brian Graham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2018: Pulmonary Circulation
Vanessa Ribeiro Figliuolo da Paz, Daniel Figueiredo-Vanzan, Alexandre Dos Santos Pyrrho
Parasites from genus Schistosoma currently infect more than 200 million people worldwide. Infection with Schistosoma mansoni causes intestinal schistosomiasis with geographical distribution across Africa, Middle East, Caribbean, Brazil, Venezuela and Suriname. People with schistosomiasis mansoni suffer from a chronic disease as result of an exacerbated immune response to the eggs deposited in hepatic tissue. The presence of eggs in the tissue triggers the recruitment and activation of immune cells to wall off and isolate them from the rest of the organism...
November 29, 2018: Immunology Letters
Alan R Wolfe, R Jeffrey Neitz, Mark Burlingame, Brian M Suzuki, K C Lim, Mark Scheideler, David L Nelson, Leslie Z Benet, Conor R Caffrey
Treatment of schistosomiasis relies precariously on just one drug, praziquantel (PZQ). In the search for alternatives, 15 S-[2-(alkylamino)alkane] thiosulfuric acids were obtained from a previous research program and profiled in mice for efficacy against both mature (>42-day-old) and juvenile (21-day-old) Schistosoma mansoni using a screening dose of 100 mg/kg PO QDx4. One compound, S-[2-(tert-butylamino)-1-phenylethane] thiosulfuric acid (TPT sulfonate), was the most effective by decreasing female and male worm burdens by ≥ 90% and ≥46% (mature), and ≥89% and ≥79% (juvenile), respectively...
November 20, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Simon Bonnefond, Lieselotte Cnops, Alexandre Duvignaud, Emmanuel Bottieau, Thierry Pistone, Jan Clerinx, Denis Malvy
Early schistosomiasis poses serious diagnostic challenges, because current standard diagnostic techniques based on serology and egg microscopy lack sensitivity at the initial presentation. We report spinal cord neuroschistosomiasis in a traveler developing six weeks after exposure. Diagnosis was confirmed by Schistosoma mansoni-targeting real-time polymerase chain reaction in blood and CSF, before results of conventional methods became positive. Molecular assays represent a paradigm shift for the difficult diagnosis of early schistosomiasis and related complications...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Hlumani Ndlovu, Justin Komguep Nono, Natalie Eva Nieuwenhuizen, Frank Brombacher
Development of IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα)-dependent cellular immunity regulates host protection against acute schistosomiasis. In this study, we investigated the importance of IL-4Rα-expressing CD11c+ cells in driving the development of optimal cellular responses to Schistosoma mansoni infection by using CD11ccre IL-4Rα-/lox BALB/c mice, which lacked IL-4Rα expression on dendritic cells and alveolar macrophages. Abrogation of IL-4Rα expression on CD11c+ cells affected activation of CD4+ T cells, resulting in reduced numbers of effector CD4+ T cells and impaired production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by CD4+ T cells ex vivo...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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