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Growth models

Alexandra Mailleur, Christophe Pirat, Olivier Pierre-Louis, Jean Colombani
We report on the observation of thin salt shells that form at the periphery of evaporating pure water drops on salt. Shell shapes range from rings of inclined walls to hollow toroidal rims. We interpret this phenomenon as a consequence of a molecular coffee-stain effect by which the dissolved salt is advected toward the pinned contact line where an increased evaporation takes place. The subsequent salt supersaturation in the vicinity of the triple line drives the crystallization of the shell at the liquid-air interface...
November 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Young Je Lee, Soo-Jung Kim, Matthew B Amrofell, Tae Seok Moon
Recent advances in our understanding of RNA folding and functions have facilitated the use of regulatory RNAs such as synthetic antisense RNAs (asRNAs) to modulate gene expression. However, despite the simple and universal complementarity rule, predictable asRNA-mediated repression is still challenging due to the intrinsic complexity of native asRNA-mediated gene regulation. To address this issue, we present a multivariate model, based on the change in free energy of complex formation (ΔGCF) and percent mismatch of the target binding region, which can predict synthetic asRNA-mediated repression efficiency in diverse contexts...
December 5, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Sara K Young-Baird, Byung-Sik Shin, Thomas E Dever
The heterotrimeric eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 2 plays critical roles in delivering initiator Met-tRNAiMet to the 40S ribosomal subunit and in selecting the translation initiation site. Genetic analyses of patients with MEHMO syndrome, an X-linked intellectual disability syndrome, have identified several unique mutations in the EIF2S3 gene that encodes the γ subunit of eIF2. To gain insights into the molecular consequences of MEHMO syndrome mutations on eIF2 function, we generated a yeast model of the human eIF2γ-I259M mutant, previously identified in a patient with MEHMO syndrome...
December 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Takashi Kido, Shigeru Miyagawa, Takasumi Goto, Katsuto Tamai, Takayoshi Ueno, Koichi Toda, Toru Kuratani, Yoshiki Sawa
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that systemic administration of high-mobility group box 1 fragment attenuates the progression of myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction in a hamster model of dilated cardiomyopathy by recruiting bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells thus causing enhancement of a self-regeneration system. METHODS: Twenty-week-old J2N-k hamsters, which are δ-sarcoglycan-deficient, were treated with systemic injection of high-mobility group box 1 fragment (HMGB1, n = 15) or phosphate buffered saline (control, n = 11)...
2018: PloS One
Min Zeng, Yulin Luo, Chunrong Xu, Rong Li, Ni Chen, Xin Deng, Dan Fang, Liqun Wang, Jianbo Wu, Mao Luo
Platelets (PLTs) - endothelial cells (ECs) interaction appears to contribute to phenotypic transition of VSMCs that play an important role in the physiological and pathological process of vascular complications in Type 2 diabetes (DM2). However, the precise mechanisms by which interactions between PLTs and ECs affect VSMCs phenotype, have largely remained unclear. We determined the effect of diabetic PLTs-ECs interaction to influence VSMCs migration, proliferation and phenotypic transformation in triple cell co-culture models using the qRT-PCR, western blot, fluorescence microscopy, wound scratch assays, CCK-8 assays, and gelatine zymography assays...
December 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Michael Duss, Jijo J Vallooran, Livia Salvati Manni, Nicole Kieliger, Stephan Handschin, Raffaele Mezzenga, Henning J Jessen, Ehud M Landau
Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs) can reduce Pd2+-salts to palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) of ~ 5 nm size in their confined water channels under mild conditions. The resulting PdNP-containing LCPs were used as nanoreactor scaffolds to catalyze Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reactions in the aqueous channels of the mesophase. To turn on catalysis, PdNP-containing LCPs are activated by swelling the aqueous channels of the lipidic framework, thereby enabling diffusion of the water-soluble substrates to the catalysts...
December 5, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Federico Panciera, Jerry Tersoff, Andrew D Gamalski, Mark C Reuter, Dmitri Zakharov, Eric A Stach, Stephan Hofmann, Frances M Ross
In situ transmission electron microscopy reveals that an atomically thin crystalline phase at the surface of liquid Au-Si is stable over an unexpectedly wide range of conditions. By measuring the surface structure as a function of liquid temperature and composition, a simple thermodynamic model is developed to explain the stability of the ordered phase. The presence of surface ordering plays a key role in the pathway by which the Au-Si eutectic solidifies and also dramatically affects the catalytic properties of the liquid, explaining the anomalously slow growth kinetics of Si nanowires at low temperature...
December 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
Cheuk-Ting Law, Lai Wei, Felice Ho-Ching Tsang, Cerise Yuen-Ki Chan, Iris Ming-Jing Xu, Robin Kit-Ho Lai, Daniel Wai-Hung Ho, Joyce Man-Fong Lee, Carmen Chak-Lui Wong, Irene Oi-Lin Ng, Chun-Ming Wong
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third lethal cancer worldwide. Increasing evidence showed that epigenetic alterations play an important role in human carcinogenesis. Deregulation of DNA methylation and histone modifications have recently been characterized in HCC, but the significance of chromatin remodeling in liver carcinogenesis remains to be explored. In this study, by systematically analyzing the expression of chromatin remodeling genes in human HCCs, we found that HELicase, Lymphoid-Specific (HELLS), a SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling enzyme, was remarkably overexpressed in HCC...
December 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Jennifer A Hutcheon, Olof Stephansson, Sven Cnattingius, Lisa M Bodnar, KariJ Johansson
BACKGROUND: Observational cohort studies have consistently shown that maternal weight gain in pregnancy is positively associated with fetal size, but it is unknown whether the association is causal. This study investigated the effect of pregnancy weight gain on fetal growth using a sibling comparison design to control for unmeasured confounding by genetic and shared environmental factors. METHODS: Our study population included 44,457 infants (21,680 women) with electronic medical records in the Stockholm-Gotland Obstetrical Database, 2008-2014...
December 3, 2018: Epidemiology
P Flis, V Filonenko, O Tsyzh
In orthodontic practice, removable orthodontic devices are used to treat anomalies and deformations of the dentoalveolar apparatus during the period of the transition occlusion. The creation of new orthodontic appliances or the modification of existing appliances is actual today. The aim is to create easy-to-use therapeutical-prophilaxis orthodontic appliances that can be used to treat open bite and anomalies of the individual teeth position. The mechanism of action of the proposed appliance by P. Flis - V...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Velma McBride Murry, Melissa A Lippold
This article explored the implications of diverse family structures on adolescents' adjustment, with an emphasis on whether and, if so, how diverse family structures influence and predict developmental outcomes. Family relationships within the family unit are a stronger predictor of adolescents' development than the particular family structure. Transitions in families that result in notable reductions in effective parenting practices and economic well-being will negatively affect youth, regardless of family structure...
September 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Fang Wang, Zhi-Fen Zhang, Yi-Ran He, Hong-Yan Wu, Shuang-Shuang Wei
AIM: Examine the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor Sitagliptin on the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signal transduction pathway in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rats with ovarian fibrosis. METHODS: Thirty rats were divided randomly into the PCOS model group, Sitagliptin treatment group and blank control group. Dehydroepiandrosterone was administered to the model group and treatment group to establish the models. Then, the phenotype of rats was recorded, and the serum sex hormone levels were measured...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Jianan Yang, Bin Wang, Han Chen, Xuhong Chen, Jing Li, Yanfei Chen, Daozhang Yuan, Shunsheng Zheng
OBJECTIVES: Thyrotroph embryonic factor (TEF) plays an important role in several different processes in normal human cells; however, its function in malignant cells has not been fully elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mRNA levels of TEF in 408 bladder cancer (BC) samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were analysed in depth. Next, the expression of TEF in 7 BC cell lines was compared to that in normal bladder epithelial cells. The cell count, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth assays as well as a nude mouse xenograft model were utilized to examine the effects of TEF on proliferation and tumorigenesis...
December 4, 2018: Cell Proliferation
Yi-Fang Tsai, Ling-Ming Tseng, Pei-Ju Lien, Chih-Yi Hsu, Yen-Shu Lin, Kuang-Liang King, Yu-Ling Wang, Ta-Chung Chao, Chun-Yu Liu, Jen-Hwey Chiu, Muh-Hwa Yang
AIMS: Invasive breast cancer patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemical (IHC) scores of 3+ or 2+ with reflex in situ hybridization (ISH) positivity are suitable for anti-HER2 therapies. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the prognoses between IHC 3+ patients and IHC 2+/ISH+ patients are different. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the clinicopathological information of 886 consecutive cases of HER2-positive early breast cancer...
December 4, 2018: Histopathology
Shan Huang, Yong Xu, Xiaoxu Ge, Bojin Xu, Wenfang Peng, Xiaohong Jiang, Lisha Shen, Lili Xia
Accumulating evidence has indicated the significant roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy (DN). LncRNA nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) has been reported to exert a key role in the progression of several diseases including diabetes. However, the role of NEAT1 in the regulation of DP progression remains barely known. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the role of NEAT1 in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model (DM) of rats and glucose-induced mouse mesangial cell models...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ying Yang, Bo Gong, Zheng-Zheng Wu, Ping Shuai, Dong-Feng Li, Ling-Lin Liu, Man Yu
Existing evidence has highlighted the effect of ultraviolet light radiation leading to corneal epithelium impairment. During this study, we aim to investigate the effect of microRNA-129-5p (miR-129-5p) on the wound healing process of corneal epithelial cells (CECs) induced by ultraviolet rays in mice by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). First, mouse models of ultraviolet ray-induced CEC injury were established and intrastromally injected with different mimic, inhibitor, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) to detect the effect of miR-129-5p on CEC injury...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Alex Dye, M Ross Alexander, Daniel Bishop, Daniel Druckenbrod, Neil Pederson, Amy Hessl
Modeling and forecasting forests as carbon sinks require that we understand the primary factors affecting productivity. One factor thought to be positively related to stand productivity is the degree of asymmetry, or the slope of the relationship between tree size and biomass growth. Steeper slopes indicate disproportionate productivity of big trees relative to small trees. Theoretically, big trees outcompete smaller trees during favorable growth conditions because they maintain better access to light. For this reason, high productivity forests are expected to have asymmetric growth...
December 4, 2018: Oecologia
Daniel F Gilbert, Sepideh Abolpour Mofrad, Oliver Friedrich, Joachim Wiest
In vitro culture models have become an indispensable tool for assessing a vast variety of biological questions in many scientific fields. However, common in vitro cultures are maintained under static conditions, which do not reflect the in vivo situation and create a non-physiological environment. To assess whether the growth characteristics of cells cultured at pulsed-perfused versus static conditions differ, we observed the growth of differentially cultured cells in vitro by life-cell time-lapse imaging of recombinant HEK293YFPI152L cells, stably expressing yellow fluorescent protein...
December 4, 2018: Cytotechnology
Qizhao Ma, Ling Gu, Shiping Liao, Yanjiang Zheng, Shu Zhang, Yueyan Cao, Ji Zhang, Yufang Wang
KRAS mutations are one of the most prevalent genetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC). Although directly targeting KRAS still is a challenge in anti-cancer therapies, alternatively inhibiting KRAS related signaling pathways has been approached effectively. Here we firstly reported that MAP kinase, transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), commonly expressed in CRC cell lines and significantly associated with KRAS mutation status. Inhibition of TAK1 by the small molecular inhibitor NG25 could inhibit CRC cells proliferation in vitro and in vivo, especially in KRAS-mutant cells...
December 4, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Deepmala Kamboj, M D Sharma
A mathematical model of the dynamics of the immune system is considered to illustrate the effect of its response to HIV infection, i.e. on viral growth and on T-cell dynamics. The specific immune response is measured by the levels of cytotoxic lymphocytes in a human body. The existence and stability analyses are performed for infected steady state and uninfected steady state. In order to keep infection under control, roles of drug therapies are analyzed in the presence of efficient immune response. Numerical simulations are computed and exhibited to illustrate the support of the immune system to drug therapies, so as to ensure the decay of infection and to maintain the level of healthy cells...
December 4, 2018: Acta Biotheoretica
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