keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Phytocannabinoids

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879006/allosteric-modulation-an-alternate-approach-targeting-the-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor
#1
REVIEW
Thuy Nguyen, Jun-Xu Li, Brian F Thomas, Jenny L Wiley, Terry P Kenakin, Yanan Zhang
The cannabinoid CB1 receptor is a G protein coupled receptor and plays an important role in many biological processes and physiological functions. A variety of CB1 receptor agonists and antagonists, including endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids, have been discovered or developed over the past 20 years. In 2005, it was discovered that the CB1 receptor contains allosteric site(s) that can be recognized by small molecules or allosteric modulators. A number of CB1 receptor allosteric modulators, both positive and negative, have since been reported and importantly, they display pharmacological characteristics that are distinct from those of orthosteric agonists and antagonists...
November 23, 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877130/cannabidiol-as-a-potential-new-type-of-an-antipsychotic-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence
#2
REVIEW
Cathrin Rohleder, Juliane K Müller, Bettina Lange, F M Leweke
There is urgent need for the development of mechanistically different and less side-effect prone antipsychotic compounds. The endocannabinoid system has been suggested to represent a potential new target in this indication. While the chronic use of cannabis itself has been considered a risk factor contributing to the development of schizophrenia, triggered by the phytocannabinoid delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), cannabidiol, the second most important phytocannabinoid, appears to have no psychotomimetic potential...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871898/the-cannabinoid-beta-caryophyllene-bcp-induces-neuritogenesis-in-pc12-cells-by-a-cannabinoid-receptor-independent-mechanism
#3
Neife Aparecida Guinaim Santos, Nádia Maria Martins, Flávia Malvestio Sisti, Laís Silva Fernandes, Rafaela Scalco Ferreira, Osvaldo de Freitas, Antônio Cardozo Santos
Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is a phytocannabinoid whose neuroprotective activity has been mainly associated with selective activation of cannabinoid-type-2 (CB2) receptors, inhibition of microglial activation and decrease of inflammation. Here, we addressed the potential of BCP to induce neuritogenesis in PC12 cells, a model system for primary neuronal cells that express trkA receptors, respond to NGF and do not express CB2 receptors. We demonstrated that BCP increases the survival and activates the NGF-specific receptor trkA in NGF-deprived PC12 cells, without increasing the expression of NGF itself...
November 18, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856160/anti-excitotoxic-effects-of-cannabidiol-are-partly-mediated-by-enhancement-of-ncx2-and-ncx3-expression-in-animal-model-of-cerebral-ischemia
#4
Sepideh Khaksar, Mohammad Reza Bigdeli
Excitotoxicity and imbalance of sodium and calcium homeostasis trigger pathophysiologic processes in cerebral ischemia which can accelerate neuronal death. Neuroprotective role of cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main non-psychoactive phytocannabinoids of the cannabis plant, has attracted attention of many researchers in the neurodegenerative diseases studies. The present investigation was designed to determine whether cannabidiol can alleviate the severity of ischemic damages and if it is able to exert its anti-excitotoxic effects through sodium and calcium regulation...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767974/experimental-cannabidiol-treatment-reduces%C3%A2-early-pancreatic-inflammation-in%C3%A2-type-1-diabetes
#5
Christian Lehmann, Nicholas B Fisher, Barna Tugwell, Anna Szczesniak, Mel Kelly, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is induced by invasion of immune cells causing pancreatic inflammation. Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid, derived from the plant, Cannabis sativa, was shown to lower the incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, an animal model of spontaneous T1D development. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of experimental CBD treatment on early pancreatic inflammation in T1D by intravital microscopy (IVM) in NOD mice...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737792/effects-of-alprazolam-and-cannabinoid-related-compounds-in-an-animal-model-of-panic-attack
#6
Luara A Batista, Andrea S Haibara, Luiz C Schenberg, Fabricio A Moreira
Selective stimulation of carotid chemoreceptors by intravenous infusion of low doses of potassium cyanide (KCN) produces short-lasting escape responses that have been proposed as a model of panic attack. In turn, preclinical studies suggest that facilitation of the endocannabinoid system attenuate panic-like responses. Here, we compared the effects of cannabinoid-related compounds to those of alprazolam, a clinically effective panicolytic, on the duration of the escape reaction induced by intravenous infusion of KCN (80μg) in rats...
October 11, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722705/phytocannabinoids-a-unified-critical-inventory
#7
Lumír Ondřej Hanuš, Stefan Martin Meyer, Eduardo Muñoz, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati, Giovanni Appendino
Covering up to January 2016Cannabis sativa L. is a prolific, but not exclusive, producer of a diverse group of isoprenylated resorcinyl polyketides collectively known as phytocannabinoids. The modular nature of the pathways that merge into the phytocannabinoid chemotype translates in differences in the nature of the resorcinyl side-chain and the degree of oligomerization of the isoprenyl residue, making the definition of phytocannabinoid elusive from a structural standpoint. A biogenetic definition is therefore proposed, splitting the phytocannabinoid chemotype into an alkyl- and a β-aralklyl version, and discussing the relationships between phytocannabinoids from different sources (higher plants, liverworts, fungi)...
October 10, 2016: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719666/cannabis-a-treasure-trove-or-pandora-s-box
#8
Katalin Solymosi, Attila Köfalvi
Cannabis is one of the earliest cultivated plants. Cannabis of industrial utility and culinary value is generally termed as hemp. Conversely, cannabis that is bred for medical, spiritual and recreational purposes is called marijuana. The female marijuana plant produces a significant quantity of bio- and psychoactive phytocannabinoids, which regained the spotlight with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system of the animals in the early 90's. Nevertheless, marijuana is surrounded by controversies, debates and misconceptions related to its taxonomic classification, forensic identification, medical potential, legalization and its long-term health consequences...
October 4, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696789/%C3%AE-caryophyllene-and-%C3%AE-caryophyllene-oxide-natural-compounds-of-anticancer-and-analgesic-properties
#9
Klaudyna Fidyt, Anna Fiedorowicz, Leon Strządała, Antoni Szumny
Natural bicyclic sesquiterpenes, β-caryophyllene (BCP) and β-caryophyllene oxide (BCPO), are present in a large number of plants worldwide. Both BCP and BCPO (BCP(O)) possess significant anticancer activities, affecting growth and proliferation of numerous cancer cells. Nevertheless, their antineoplastic effects have hardly been investigated in vivo. In addition, both compounds potentiate the classical drug efficacy by augmenting their concentrations inside the cells. The mechanisms underlying the anticancer activities of these sesquiterpenes are poorly described...
September 30, 2016: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695418/impact-of-cannabis-cannabinoids-and-endocannabinoids-in-the-lungs
#10
Caroline Turcotte, Marie-Renée Blanchet, Michel Laviolette, Nicolas Flamand
Since the identification of cannabinoid receptors in the 1990s, a research field has been dedicated to exploring the role of the cannabinoid system in immunity and the inflammatory response in human tissues and animal models. Although the cannabinoid system is present and crucial in many human tissues, studying the impact of cannabinoids on the lungs is particularly relevant because of their contact with exogenous cannabinoids in the context of marijuana consumption. In the past two decades, the scientific community has gathered a large body of evidence supporting that the activation of the cannabinoid system alleviates pain and reduces inflammation...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641813/%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-reverses-tnf%C3%AE-induced-increase-in-airway-epithelial-cell-permeability-through-cb2-receptors
#11
Valerie C M Shang, David A Kendall, Richard E Roberts
Despite pharmacological treatment, bronchial hyperresponsiveness continues to deteriorate as airway remodelling persists in airway inflammation. Previous studies have demonstrated that the phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reverses bronchoconstriction with an anti-inflammatory action. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of THC on bronchial epithelial cell permeability after exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNFα. Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells were cultured at air-liquid interface...
November 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633508/phyto-endo-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-promising-chemotherapeutic-agents-in-the-treatment-of-breast-and-prostate-carcinomas
#12
A I Fraguas-Sánchez, A Fernández-Carballido, A I Torres-Suárez
INTRODUCTION: The term "cannabinoids" designates a family of compounds with activity upon cannabinoid receptors. Cannabinoids are classified in three groups: phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and the synthetic analogues of both groups. They have become a promising tool in the treatment of cancer disease, not only as palliative agents, but also as antitumor drugs, due to their ability to inhibit the proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of tumour cells. Two of the cancers where they have shown high anticancer activity are breast and prostate tumours...
September 16, 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630175/from-phytocannabinoids-to-cannabinoid-receptors-and-endocannabinoids-pleiotropic-physiological-and-pathological-roles-through-complex-pharmacology
#13
REVIEW
Alessia Ligresti, Luciano De Petrocellis, Vincenzo Di Marzo
Apart from having been used and misused for at least four millennia for, among others, recreational and medicinal purposes, the cannabis plant and its most peculiar chemical components, the plant cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids), have the merit to have led humanity to discover one of the most intriguing and pleiotropic endogenous signaling systems, the endocannabinoid system (ECS). This review article aims to describe and critically discuss, in the most comprehensive possible manner, the multifaceted aspects of 1) the pharmacology and potential impact on mammalian physiology of all major phytocannabinoids, and not only of the most famous one Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and 2) the adaptive pro-homeostatic physiological, or maladaptive pathological, roles of the ECS in mammalian cells, tissues, and organs...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587196/from-cannabis-to-cannabidiol-to-treat-epilepsy-where-are-we
#14
Pellegrino Lippiello, Simona Balestrini, Antonio Leo, Antonietta Coppola, Rita Citraro, Maurizio Elia, Emilio Russo, Giovambattista De Sarro
BACKGROUND: Several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), about 25, are currently clinically available for the treatment of patients with epilepsy. Despite this armamentarium and the many recently introduced AEDs, no major advances have been achieved considering the number of drug resistant patients, while many benefits have been indeed obtained for other clinical outcomes (e.g. better tolerability, less interactions). Cannabinoids have long been studied for their potential therapeutical use and more recently phytocannabinoids have been considered a valuable tool for the treatment of several neurological disorders including epilepsy...
August 31, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573936/efficacy-and-safety-of-cannabidiol-and-tetrahydrocannabivarin-on-glycemic-and-lipid-parameters-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-parallel-group-pilot-study
#15
Khalid A Jadoon, Stuart H Ratcliffe, David A Barrett, E Louise Thomas, Colin Stott, Jimmy D Bell, Saoirse E O'Sullivan, Garry D Tan
OBJECTIVE: Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) are nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoids affecting lipid and glucose metabolism in animal models. This study set out to examine the effects of these compounds in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 subjects with noninsulin-treated type 2 diabetes were randomized to five treatment arms: CBD (100 mg twice daily), THCV (5 mg twice daily), 1:1 ratio of CBD and THCV (5 mg/5 mg, twice daily), 20:1 ratio of CBD and THCV (100 mg/5 mg, twice daily), or matched placebo for 13 weeks...
October 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557094/%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-decreases-willingness-to%C3%A2-exert-cognitive-effort-in-male-rats
#16
Mason M Silveira, Wendy K Adams, Maria Morena, Matthew N Hill, Catharine A Winstanley
BACKGROUND: Acceptance of cannabis use is growing. However, prolonged use is associated with diminished psychosocial outcomes, potentially mediated by drug-induced cognitive impairments. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, yet other phytocannabinoids in the plant, such as cannabidiol (CBD), have unique properties. Given that CBD can modulate the undesirable effects of THC, therapeutic agents, such as nabiximols, contain higher CBD:THC ratios than illicit marijuana...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552286/fabp1-a-novel-hepatic-endocannabinoid-and-cannabinoid-binding-protein
#17
Huan Huang, Avery L McIntosh, Gregory G Martin, Danilo Landrock, Sarah Chung, Kerstin K Landrock, Lawrence J Dangott, Shengrong Li, Ann B Kier, Friedhelm Schroeder
Endocannabinoids (ECs) and cannabinoids are very lipophilic molecules requiring the presence of cytosolic binding proteins that chaperone these molecules to intracellular targets. While three different fatty acid binding proteins (FABP3, -5, and -7) serve this function in brain, relatively little is known about how such hydrophobic ECs and cannabinoids are transported within the liver. The most prominent hepatic FABP, liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1 or L-FABP), has high affinity for arachidonic acid (ARA) and ARA-CoA, suggesting that FABP1 may also bind ARA-derived ECs (AEA and 2-AG)...
September 20, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535976/stratification-of-cannabinoid-1-receptor-cb1r-agonist-efficacy-manipulation-of-cb1r-density-through-use-of-transgenic-mice-reveals-congruence-between-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-assays
#18
T W Grim, A J Morales, M M Gonek, J L Wiley, B F Thomas, G W Endres, L J Sim-Selley, D E Selley, S S Negus, A H Lichtman
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are an emerging class of abused drugs that differ from each other and the phytocannabinoid ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in their safety and cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) pharmacology. As efficacy represents a critical parameter to understanding drug action, the present study investigated this metric by assessing in vivo and in vitro actions of THC, two well-characterized SCs (WIN55,212-2 and CP55,940), and three abused SCs (JWH-073, CP47,497, and A-834,735-D) in CB1 (+/+), (+/-), and (-/-) mice...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521533/simultaneous-determination-of-major-phytocannabinoids-their-main-metabolites-and-common-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-urine-samples-by-lc-ms-ms
#19
Xiaoru Dong, Liliang Li, Yonghong Ye, Lixing Zheng, Yan Jiang
Simultaneous determination of major phytocannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBN), their main metabolites (11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, THC-COOH-glucuronide) and common synthetic cannabinoids (HU-210, JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-250) remains an issue in forensic toxicology. The present study has developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to simultaneously detect the above 10 analytes in human urine samples. The chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC(®)BEH Phenyl 1.7μm (2.1×100mm) column, using a mobile phase consisting of 0...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503475/cannabigerol-is-a-novel-well-tolerated-appetite-stimulant-in-pre-satiated-rats
#20
Daniel I Brierley, James Samuels, Marnie Duncan, Benjamin J Whalley, Claire M Williams
RATIONALE: The appetite-stimulating properties of cannabis are well documented and have been predominantly attributed to the hyperphagic activity of the psychoactive phytocannabinoid, ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆(9)-THC). However, we have previously shown that a cannabis extract devoid of ∆(9)-THC still stimulates appetite, indicating that other phytocannabinoids also elicit hyperphagia. One possible candidate is the non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabigerol (CBG), which has affinity for several molecular targets with known involvement in the regulation of feeding behaviour...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
keyword
keyword
16937
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"