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Phytocannabinoids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022083/adolescent-cannabinoid-exposure-effects-on-natural-reward-seeking-and-learning-in-rats
#1
H Schoch, M Y Huerta, C M Ruiz, M R Farrell, K M Jung, J J Huang, R R Campbell, D Piomelli, S V Mahler
RATIONALE: Adolescence is characterized by endocannabinoid (ECB)-dependent refinement of neural circuits underlying emotion, learning, and motivation. As a result, adolescent cannabinoid receptor stimulation (ACRS) with phytocannabinoids or synthetic agonists like "Spice" cause robust and persistent changes in both behavior and circuit architecture in rodents, including in reward-related regions like medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (NAc). OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Here, we examine persistent effects of ACRS with the cannabinoid receptor 1/2 specific agonist WIN55-212,2 (WIN; 1...
October 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981597/effects-of-cannabidiol-interactions-with-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-and-ppar%C3%AE-on-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, in which the primary etiology remains unknown. AD presents amyloid beta (Aβ) protein aggregation and neurofibrillary plaque deposits. AD shows oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. In AD, canonical Wingless-Int (Wnt)/β-catenin pathway is downregulated, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is increased. Downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin, through activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) by Aβ, and inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling involve oxidative stress in AD...
October 1, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967368/is-cannabis-an-effective-treatment-for-joint-pain
#3
REVIEW
Richard J Miller, Rachel E Miller
Cannabis has been used to treat pain for thousands of years. However, since the early part of the 20th century, laws restricting cannabis use have limited its evaluation using modern scientific criteria. Over the last decade, the situation has started to change because of the increased availability of cannabis in the United States for either medical or recreational purposes, making it important to provide the public with accurate information as to the effectiveness of the drug for joint pain among other indications...
September 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941742/amorfrutin-type-phytocannabinoids-from-helichrysum-umbraculigerum
#4
Federica Pollastro, Luciano De Petrocellis, Aniello Schiano-Moriello, Giuseppina Chianese, Heino Heyman, Giovanni Appendino, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894217/the-faah-inhibitor-urb597-suppresses-hippocampal-maximal-dentate-afterdischarges-and-restores-seizure-induced-impairment-of-short-and-long-term-synaptic-plasticity
#5
Roberto Colangeli, Massimo Pierucci, Arcangelo Benigno, Giuseppe Campiani, Sefania Butini, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
Synthetic cannabinoids and phytocannabinoids have been shown to suppress seizures both in humans and experimental models of epilepsy. However, they generally have a detrimental effect on memory and memory-related processes. Here we compared the effect of the inhibition of the endocannabinoid (eCB) degradation versus synthetic CB agonist on limbic seizures induced by maximal dentate activation (MDA) acute kindling. Moreover, we investigated the dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell reactivity and synaptic plasticity in naïve and in MDA-kindled anaesthetised rats...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888984/cannabidiol-a-novel-inverse-agonist-for-gpr12
#6
Kevin J Brown, Alyssa S Laun, Zhao-Hui Song
GPR12 is a constitutively active, Gs protein-coupled receptor that currently has no confirmed endogenous ligands. GPR12 may be involved in physiological processes such as maintenance of oocyte meiotic arrest and brain development, as well as pathological conditions such as metastatic cancer. In this study, the potential effects of various classes of cannabinoids on GPR12 were tested using a cAMP accumulation assay. Our data demonstrate that cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, acted as an inverse agonist to inhibit cAMP accumulation stimulated by the constitutively active GPR12...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886910/challenges-towards-revitalizing-hemp-a-multifaceted-crop
#7
REVIEW
Craig Schluttenhofer, Ling Yuan
Hemp has been an important crop throughout human history for food, fiber, and medicine. Despite significant progress made by the international research community, the basic biology of hemp plants remains insufficiently understood. Clear objectives are needed to guide future research. As a semi-domesticated plant, hemp has many desirable traits that require improvement, including eliminating seed shattering, enhancing the quantity and quality of stem fiber, and increasing the accumulation of phytocannabinoids...
September 5, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885457/cannabis-constituent-synergy-in-a-mouse-neuropathic-pain-model
#8
Sherelle L Casey, Nicholas Atwal, Christopher W Vaughan
Cannabis and its psychoactive constituent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have efficacy against neuropathic pain, however, this is hampered by their side effects. It has been suggested that co-administration with another major constituent cannabidiol (CBD) might enhance the analgesic actions of THC and minimise its deleterious side effects. We examined the basis for this phytocannabinoid interaction in a mouse chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain. Acute systemic administration of THC dose-dependently reduced CCI-induced mechanical and cold allodynia, but also produced motor incoordination, catalepsy, and sedation...
September 1, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875990/clinical-and-pre-clinical-evidence-for-functional-interactions-of-cannabidiol-and-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
#9
Douglas L Boggs, Jacques D Nguyen, Daralyn Morgenson, Michael A Taffe, Mohini Ranganathan
The plant Cannabis sativa, commonly called cannabis or marijuana, has been used for its psychotropic and mind-altering side effects for millennia. There has been growing attention in recent years on its potential therapeutic efficacy as municipalities and legislative bodies in the United States, Canada, and other countries grapple with enacting policy to facilitate the use of cannabis or its constituents for medical purposes. There are over 550 chemical compounds and over 100 phytocannabinoids isolated from cannabis, including Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD)...
September 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870635/cannabidiol-inhibits-priming-induced-reinstatement-of-methamphetamine-in-rem-sleep-deprived-rats
#10
Saeideh Karimi-Haghighi, Abbas Haghparast
Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused and a severely addictive psychostimulant. Relapse is the main cause of concern when treating addiction. It could manifest after a long period of abstinence. Previous studies showed that there is a strong connection between sleep impairment and relapse. Also, it has been reported that cannabidiol might be a potential treatment for drug craving and relapse. In this study, we used conditioned place preference (CPP) to investigate whether Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid, can prevent METH-induced reinstatement in Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Deprived (RSD) rats...
September 1, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861510/cannabidiol-does-not-dampen-responses-to-emotional-stimuli-in-healthy-adults
#11
David L Arndt, Harriet de Wit
Introduction: Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive constituent of whole plant cannabis that has been reported to reduce anxiety-like behaviors in both pre-clinical and human laboratory studies. Yet, no controlled clinical studies have demonstrated its ability to reduce negative mood or dampen responses to negative emotional stimuli in humans. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of CBD on responses to negative emotional stimuli, as a model for its potential anxiety-reducing effects. Materials and Methods: The study used a double-blind, placebo (PLB)-controlled, within-subjects design in which 38 healthy, drug-free participants consumed oral CBD (300, 600, and 900 mg) or PLB before completing several behavioral tasks selected to assess reactivity to negative stimuli...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853159/tetrahydrocannabinolic-acid-is-a-potent-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-with-neuroprotective-activity
#12
Xavier Nadal, Carmen Del Río, Salvatore Casano, Belén Palomares, Carlos Ferreiro-Vera, Carmen Navarrete, Carolina Sánchez-Carnerero, Irene Cantarero, M Luz Bellido, Stefan Meyer, Gaetano Morello, Giovanni Appendino, Eduardo Muñoz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Phytocannabinoids are produced in Cannabis sativa L. in acidic form and are decarboxylated upon heating, processing, and storage. While the biological effects of decarboxylated cannabinoids such as Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9) -THC) have been extensively investigated, the bioactivity of Δ(9) -THCA is largely unknown, despite its occurrence in different Cannabis preparations. The aim of this study was to determine whether Δ(9) -THCA modulates the PPARγ pathway and has neuroprotective activity EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of six phytocannabinoids on PPARγ binding and transcriptional activity were investigated...
August 29, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826544/cannabis-pharmacology-the-usual-suspects-and-a-few-promising-leads
#13
Ethan B Russo, Jahan Marcu
The golden age of cannabis pharmacology began in the 1960s as Raphael Mechoulam and his colleagues in Israel isolated and synthesized cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol, and other phytocannabinoids. Initially, THC garnered most research interest with sporadic attention to cannabidiol, which has only rekindled in the last 15 years through a demonstration of its remarkably versatile pharmacology and synergy with THC. Gradually a cognizance of the potential of other phytocannabinoids has developed. Contemporaneous assessment of cannabis pharmacology must be even far more inclusive...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826543/cannabinoids-and-pain-sites-and-mechanisms-of-action
#14
Katarzyna Starowicz, David P Finn
The endocannabinoid system, consisting of the cannabinoid1 receptor (CB1R) and cannabinoid2 receptor (CB2R), endogenous cannabinoid ligands (endocannabinoids), and metabolizing enzymes, is present throughout the pain pathways. Endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists have antinociceptive effects in animal models of acute, inflammatory, and neuropathic pain. CB1R and CB2R located at peripheral, spinal, or supraspinal sites are important targets mediating these antinociceptive effects...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826542/cannabinoids-as-anticancer-drugs
#15
Robert Ramer, Burkhard Hinz
The endocannabinoid system encompassing cannabinoid receptors, endogenous receptor ligands (endocannabinoids), as well as enzymes conferring the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids has emerged as a considerable target for pharmacotherapeutical approaches of numerous diseases. Besides palliative effects of cannabinoids used in cancer treatment, phytocannabinoids, synthetic agonists, as well as substances that increase endogenous endocannabinoid levels have gained interest as potential agents for systemic cancer treatment...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826538/the-role-of-nuclear-hormone-receptors-in-cannabinoid-function
#16
Marco Pistis, Saoirse E O'Sullivan
Since the early 2000s, evidence has been accumulating that most cannabinoid compounds interact with the nuclear hormone family peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). This can be through direct binding of these compounds to PPARs, metabolism of cannabinoid to other PPAR-activating chemicals, or indirect activation of PPAR through cell signaling pathways. Delivery of cannabinoids to the nucleus may be facilitated by fatty acid-binding proteins and carrier proteins. All PPAR isoforms appear to be activated by cannabinoids, but the majority of evidence is for PPARα and γ...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826533/spicing-up-pharmacology-a-review-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-from-structure-to-adverse-events
#17
Colin Davidson, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry, Angel Arevalo-Martin, Daniel Garcia-Ovejero, Eduardo Molina-Holgado, Francisco Molina-Holgado
Recreational use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCB), a class of novel psychoactive substances is an increasing public health problem specifically in Western societies, with teenagers, young adults, and the prison population being the most affected. Some of these SCB are analogs of tetrahydrocannabinol, aminoalkylindoles, and other phytocannabinoid analogs have been detected in herbal preparations generically called "Spice." Spice, "K2" or "fake cannabis" is a general term used for variable herbal mixtures of unknown ingredients or chemical composition...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799512/modulation-of-gabaa-receptors-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#18
Eleonora Palma, Gabriele Ruffolo, Pierangelo Cifelli, Cristina Roseti, Erwin A van Vliet, Eleonora Aronica
BACKGROUND: A variety of evidence suggested that an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission could be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence and progression of seizures. Understanding the causes of this imbalance may provide essential insight into the basic mechanisms of epilepsy and may uncover novel targets for future drug therapies. Accordingly, GABA is the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS and its receptors (e.g., GABAARs) can still be relevant targets of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750806/new-methods-for-the-synthesis-of-cannabidiol-derivatives
#19
Ana Lago-Fernandez, Vanessa Redondo, Laura Hernandez-Folgado, Laura Figuerola-Asencio, Nadine Jagerovic
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the most abundant components isolated from Cannabis sativa. However, CBD is a nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid. In the last decade, there has been a growing interest in its therapeutic effects. This is why this natural product represents a lead structure for the development of new cannabinoid compounds. Even though chemistry of CBD has been explored for more than 30 years, the synthesis of only a few derivatives has been described. This chapter first reviews the synthetic methods for the preparation of CBD and derivatives...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738764/neuroprotection-by-endo-cannabinoids-in-glaucoma-and-retinal-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
Cinzia Rapino, Daniel Tortolani, Lucia Scipioni, Mauro Maccarrone
Emerging neuroprotective strategies are being explored to preserve the retina from degeneration, that occurs in eye pathologies like glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinitis pigmentosa. Incidentally, neuroprotection of retina is a defending mechanism designed to prevent or delay neuronal cell death, and to maintain neural function following an initial insult, thus avoiding loss of vision. Numerous studies have investigated potential neuroprotective properties of plant-derived phytocannabinoids, as well as of their endogenous counterparts collectively termed endocannabinoids (eCBs), in several degenerative diseases of the retina...
July 24, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
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