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Jun Chen, Jingna Xun, Junyang Yang, Yongjia Ji, Li Liu, Tangkai Qi, Zhenyan Wang, Renfang Zhang, Yinzhong Shen, Rosalie Ponte, Vikram Mehraj, Jean-Pierre Routy, Hongzhou Lu
Background: Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunoregulatory enzyme that metabolises tryptophan to immunosuppressive kynurenines. We investigated whether IDO activity is associated with the size of HIV reservoirs. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, total HIV DNA in PBMCs from 127 HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was quantified. Tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations, as well as microbial translocation markers were measured in plasma samples...
August 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Isabel Gallego, Josep Gregori, María Eugenia Soria, Carlos García-Crespo, Mónica García-Álvarez, Alfonso Gómez-González, Rosalie Valiergue, Jordi Gómez, Juan Ignacio Esteban, Josep Quer, Esteban Domingo, Celia Perales
Viral fitness quantifies the degree of virus adaptation to a given environment. How viral fitness can influence the mutant spectrum complexity of a viral quasispecies subjected to lethal mutagenesis has not been investigated. Here we document that two high fitness hepatitis C virus populations display higher resistance to the mutagenic nucleoside analogues favipiravir and ribavirin than their parental, low fitness HCV. All populations, however, exhibited a mutation transition bias indicative of active mutagenesis...
August 11, 2018: Virology
Linda D Mellby, Andreas P Nyberg, Julia S Johansen, Christer Wingren, Børge G Nordestgaard, Stig E Bojesen, Breeana L Mitchell, Brett C Sheppard, Rosalie C Sears, Carl A K Borrebaeck
Purpose Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival of < 10% because of diffuse symptoms leading to late-stage diagnosis. That survival could increase significantly if localized tumors could be detected early. Therefore, we used multiparametric analysis of blood samples to obtain a novel biomarker signature of early-stage PDAC. The signature was derived from a large patient cohort, including patients with well-defined early-stage (I and II) PDAC. This biomarker signature was validated subsequently in an independent patient cohort...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Paul Smokowski, Rosalie Corona, Martica Bacallao, Beverly L Fortson, Khiya J Marshall, Anna Yaros
Research has demonstrated the effectiveness of family-based programs for reducing adolescent risk behaviors and promoting adolescent health; however, parent engagement, specifically in terms of recruitment and retention, remains a consistent challenge. Recruitment rates for family-based prevention programs range from 3 to 35%, while, on average, 28% of caregivers drop out before program completion. Thus, engagement of parents in prevention programming is of utmost concern to ensure families and youth benefit from implementation of family-based programs...
September 2018: Journal of Child and Family Studies
Eva-Maria Gamper, Bernhard Holzner, Madeleine T King, Richard Norman, Rosalie Viney, Virginie Nerich, Georg Kemmler
BACKGROUND: Recently, a newly developed cancer-specific multiattribute utility instrument based on the widely used health-related quality of life instrument, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, was introduced: the QLU-C10D. For the elicitation of utility weights, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) was designed. Our aim was to investigate the DCE in terms of individual choice consistency and utility estimate consistency by applying a test-retest design...
August 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Rosalie Amanda Heller, Lisi Hu
Handover is widely identified by the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death, the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and Health Foundation as an area that can lead to shortcomings in patient care. We recognised that the current weekend handover process in the Trauma and Orthopaedics department at Frimley Park Hospital was dated, time-consuming and did not promote handover of sufficient patient details. The Royal College of Surgeons, British Medical Association and RCP have guidelines on handover...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
Rosalie E Lawrence, Kelvin F Cho, Ronja Rappold, Anna Thrun, Marie Tofaute, Do Jin Kim, Ofer Moldavski, James H Hurley, Roberto Zoncu
A key step in nutrient sensing is activation of the master growth regulator, mTORC1 kinase, on the lysosomal membrane. Nutrients enable mTORC1 scaffolding by a complex composed of the Rag GTPases (Rags) and Ragulator, but the underlying mechanism of mTORC1 capture is poorly understood. Combining dynamic imaging in cells and reconstituted systems, we uncover an affinity switch that controls mTORC1 lifetime and activation at the lysosome. Nutrients destabilize the Rag-Ragulator interface, causing cycling of the Rags between lysosome-bound Ragulator and the cytoplasm, and rendering mTORC1 capture contingent on simultaneous engagement of two Rag-binding interfaces...
July 30, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Thomas Reese, Noa Segall, Paige Nesbitt, Guilherme Del Fiol, Rosalie Waller, Brekk C Macpherson, Joseph E Tonna, Melanie C Wright
Introduction: Many electronic health records fail to support information uptake because they impose low-level information organization tasks on users. Clinical concept-oriented views have shown information processing improvements, but the specifics of this organization for critical care are unclear. Objective: To determine high-level cognitive processes and patient information organization schema in critical care. Methods: We conducted an open card sort of 29 patient data elements and a modified Delphi card sort of 65 patient data elements...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Serra E Favila, Rosalie Samide, Sarah C Sweigart, Brice A Kuhl
In studies of human episodic memory, the phenomenon of reactivation has traditionally been observed in regions of occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) involved in visual perception. However, reactivation also occurs in lateral parietal cortex (LPC), and recent evidence suggests that stimulus-specific reactivation may be stronger in LPC than in OTC. These observations raise important questions about the nature of memory representations in LPC and their relationship to representations in OTC. Here, we report two fMRI experiments that quantified stimulus feature information (color and object category) within LPC and OTC, separately during perception and memory retrieval, in male and female human subjects...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sebastian Scheich, Sarah Weber, Rosalie König, Anne C Wilke, Sarah Lindner, Claudia Reinheimer, Thomas A Wichelhaus, Michael Hogardt, Volkhard A J Kempf, Johanna Kessel, Hans Martin, Gesine Bug, Hubert Serve, Björn Steffen
BACKGROUND: In haematology and oncology, in particular in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), VRE colonization rates are high due to previous hospital stays and preceding antibiotic treatment and colonized patients have a lower overall survival (OS). OBJECTIVE: We reanalysed our previously published cohort, to unravel which colonization timepoints before and during allo-HSCT might be predictive for the subsequent outcome...
July 26, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
Rebecca L Mullin, John F Golding, Rebecca Smith, Victoria Williams, Mary Thomas, Rosalie E Ferner
Objectives: To determine intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of functional outcome measures in adults with neurofibromatosis 1 and to ascertain how closely objective and subjective measures align. Methods: A total of 49 ambulant adults with neurofibromatosis 1 aged 16 years and over were included in this observational study: median age 31 years (range: 16-66 years), 29 females, 20 males. Participants were video-recorded or photographed performing four functional outcome measures...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
Jodie M Dodd, Rosalie M Grivell, Andrea R Deussen, William M Hague
BACKGROUND: There has been considerable interest in providing antenatal dietary and lifestyle advice for women with obesity or who are overweight during pregnancy, as a strategy to limit gestational weight gain and improve maternal and infant health. However, such antenatal interventions appear to have a modest effect on gestational weight gain and other clinical pregnancy and birth outcomes and additional strategies are required.Metformin is an oral insulin-sensitising medication that acts to decrease blood glucose concentrations...
July 24, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ricardo Martins Araujo Pinho, Edson Mauro Santos, Juliana Silva de Oliveira, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho, Thiago Carvalho da Silva, Alberto Jefferson da Silva Macêdo, Yohana Rosaly Corrêa, Anderson de Moura Zanine
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of forage neutral detergent fiber (fNDF) levels on the voluntary feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and feeding behavior of goats fed diets with cactus pear. Five non-lactating ruminally cannulated goats fed ad libitum were randomly assigned to a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Treatments consisted of levels of fNDF at 0, 109, 222, 339 and 463 g/kg of dry matter (DM) in cactus pear-based diets. The intakes of DM and NDF were quadratically affected (p ≦ ...
July 23, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Sebastian Scheich, Rosalie Koenig, Anne C Wilke, Sarah Lindner, Claudia Reinheimer, Thomas A Wichelhaus, Michael Hogardt, Volkhard A J Kempf, Johanna Kessel, Sarah Weber, Hans Martin, Gesine Bug, Hubert Serve, Björn Steffen
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) offers potential cure to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. However, infections with commensal bacteria are an important cause for non-relapse mortality (NRM). We have previously described the impact of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) colonization on the survival of allo-HSCT patients. In the aforementioned publication, according to consensus, we there did not consider the opportunistic gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S...
2018: PloS One
Ammarah Mahmud, Justin W Timbie, Rosalie Malsberger, Claude M Setodji, Amii Kress, Liisa Hiatt, Peter Mendel, Katherine L Kahn
OBJECTIVES: We examined differences in patient outcomes associated with 3 patient-centered medical home (PCMH) recognition programs-National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) Level 3, The Joint Commission (TJC), and Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC)-among Medicare beneficiaries receiving care at federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). STUDY DESIGN: We used data from CMS' FQHC Advanced Primary Care Practice Demonstration, in which participating FQHCs received assistance to achieve NCQA Level 3 PCMH recognition...
July 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Gideon Lapidoth, Olga Khersonsky, Rosalie Lipsh, Orly Dym, Shira Albeck, Shelly Rogotner, Sarel J Fleishman
Automated design of enzymes with wild-type-like catalytic properties has been a long-standing but elusive goal. Here, we present a general, automated method for enzyme design through combinatorial backbone assembly. Starting from a set of homologous yet structurally diverse enzyme structures, the method assembles new backbone combinations and uses Rosetta to optimize the amino acid sequence, while conserving key catalytic residues. We apply this method to two unrelated enzyme families with TIM-barrel folds, glycoside hydrolase 10 (GH10) xylanases and phosphotriesterase-like lactonases (PLLs), designing 43 and 34 proteins, respectively...
July 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Clancy Read, Alison G Mitchell, Jessica L de Dassel, Clair Scrine, David Hendrickx, Ross S Bailie, Vanessa Johnston, Graeme P Maguire, Rosalie Schultz, Jonathan R Carapetis, Anna P Ralph
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease is a high-burden condition in Australian Aboriginal communities. We evaluated a stepped-wedge, community, randomized trial at 10 Aboriginal communities from 2013 to 2015. A multifaceted intervention was implemented using quality improvement and chronic care model approaches to improve delivery of penicillin prophylaxis for rheumatic heart disease. The trial did not improve penicillin adherence. This mixed-methods evaluation, designed a priori , aimed to determine the association between methodological approaches and outcomes...
July 17, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Jonathan M Eby, Angela R Smith, Timothy P Riley, Cormac Cosgrove, Christian M Ankney, Steven W Henning, Chrystal M Paulos, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Rosalie M Luiten, Michael I Nishimura, Brian M Baker, I Caroline Le Poole
To study the contribution of T-cell receptors (TCR) to resulting T cell responses, we studied three different human αβ TCRs, reactive to the same gp100-derived peptide presented in the context of HLA-A*0201. When expressed in primary CD8 T cells, all receptors elicited classic antigen-induced IFN-γ responses, which correlated with TCR affinity for peptide-MHC in the order T4H2>R6C12>SILv44. However, SILv44 elicited superior IL-17A release. Importantly, in vivo, SILv44-transgenic T cells mediated superior anti-tumor responses to 888-A2+ human melanoma tumor cells upon adoptive transfer into tumor-challenged mice while maintaining IL-17 expression...
July 15, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Jennifer E Baker, Michael D Goodman, Amy T Makley, Sabre M Stevens-Topie, Rosalie A Veile, Eric J Mahoney, Judy R Heyl, Daniel B Cox, Timothy A Pritts, Krishna P Athota
Introduction: Acute hemorrhage remains the leading cause of death in potentially survivable injuries. The use of topical hemostatic agents has increased over the last two decades with the evolution of damage control surgery. By 2008, the military widely adopted Combat Gauze as the hemostatic dressing of choice for compressible hemorrhage. The goal of this study was to compare the performance of a novel fibrin sealant patch to Combat Gauze in two clinically relevant models of hemorrhage...
July 11, 2018: Military Medicine
Yvonne Rosalie Elisabeth Skogsdal, Jan Åke Karlsson, Yang Cao, Helena Elisabeth Fadl, Tanja Adele Tydén
INTRODUCTION: Limited attention has been paid to the use of contraception in relation to women's family planning intentions. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of contraception during the most recent intercourse as well as the reproductive intentions of Swedish speaking women requesting contraceptive counseling. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional baseline survey in a randomized controlled trial regarding reproductive life planning (before randomization)...
July 14, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
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