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Intestinal lipid absorption

M Milard, F Laugerette, S Bugeat, P Plaisancié, M Létisse, E Meugnier, E Loizon, A Durand, C Buisson, A Géloën, S Serieye, M-C Michalski
Additives stabilize or improve the organoleptic or functional properties (or both) of many dairy products including whipping cream. Their influence on the metabolic effect of dairy cream is scarcely known. We tested the hypothesis that added emulsifier (lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides; MAG/DAG), thickener (carrageenan, CGN), or both, could modify the metabolic effect, notably in the intestine and liver. Nine-week-old male C57Bl/6J mice were fed UHT cream (indirect treatment) mixed with nonlipidic powder (final: 13% milkfat) for 1 or 4 wk...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M Milard, F Laugerette, S Bugeat, P Plaisancié, M Létisse, E Meugnier, E Loizon, A Durand, C Buisson, A Géloën, S Serieye, M-C Michalski
Although UHT heat treatment is being optimized to improve the stability and functional properties of dairy products, its metabolic effects remain scarcely known. As such, we studied the effect of the type of UHT process on lipid metabolism, intestinal barrier, and inflammation in mice. Nine-week-old male C57Bl/6J mice were fed a diet composed of nonlipidic powder mixed with different UHT dairy creams (final: 13% milkfat) for 1 or 4 wk. All creams contained 0.02% of thickener (carrageenan) and were treated via either (1) classical indirect heating process (Th), (2) indirect process at higher temperature (Th+), or (3) direct process by steam injection (ThD)...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Vieri Piazzini, Lorenzo Cinci, Mario D'Ambrosio, Cristina Luceri, Anna Rita Bilia, Maria Camilla Bergonzi
BACKGROUND: Silybin (Sb) is the major flavolignan of the extract of Silybum marianum. It is used for treatment of various acute and chronic liver toxicities, inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress. Many studies indicate that Sb is also active against different carcinomas and it has been very recently proposed to be beneficial in type 2 diabetes patients. However, Sb is a low water soluble and low permeable compound. OBJECTIVE: In this study, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were proposed to enhance the solubility and the intestinal absorption of Sb...
October 8, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Marcela Fuentes, Nicolás Santander, Víctor Cortés
The actions of insulin on intestinal cholesterol absorption and lipoprotein secretion are not well understood. Herein, we determined the effects of insulin on the levels of cholesterol transporter scavenger receptor, class B, type I (SR-BI), cellular cholesterol uptake, intracellular lipid accumulation, and lipoprotein secretion in a cellular model of human intestinal epithelium. METHODS: CaCo-2 cells were cultured to postconfluency in Transwell filters and stimulated with glucose (25 mM) in the presence or absence of insulin (100 nM) at their basolateral surface...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Khaled Athmouni, Khaoula Mkadmini Hammi, Abdelfattah El Feki, Habib Ayadi
The natural flavonoid (catechin) has been shown to possess a multitude of pharmacological activities. However, oral administrated catechin (CT) failed to fulfil its therapeutic potential due to poor absorption and low bioavailability. Thus, is a pressing need to develop a new approach from to increase its intestinal absorption and improved bioavailability. In this work, we intended the increase the bioavailability of CT by preparing catechin-phospholipid complex (CT-PH) and evaluate the protective effect of CT-PH complex against cadmium caused liver injuries in rats...
September 29, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Kenji Yoshida, Yoshihiro Kita, Suzumi M Tokuoka, Fumie Hamano, Maya Yamazaki, Kenji Sakimura, Masanobu Kano, Takao Shimizu
Excess energy intake causes obesity, which leads to insulin resistance and various other complications of metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although recent studies have depicted altered lipid metabolism as an underlying feature, the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. Here we describe a possible role in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity for monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), an enzyme that is also known to hydrolyze the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in brain...
September 28, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Rachel E Kopec, Catherine Caris-Veyrat, Marion Nowicki, Beatrice Gleize, Michel Carail, Patrick Borel
Background: Asymmetric β-apo-carotenoids (nonvitamin A-active metabolites) of provitamin A carotenoids have been observed in humans, but no study has investigated their formation during digestion. Objective: The aim of this study was to follow the formation and absorption of asymmetric β-apo-carotenoids during digestion. Design: Healthy men were intragastrically and intraduodenally intubated, and randomly assigned to consume a lipid-rich control meal (n = 3) or a lipid-rich test meal containing 20 mg [13C-10]-β-carotene (n = 7)...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Bingjing Zheng, Shengfeng Peng, Xiaoyun Zhang, David Julian McClements
In this study, nanoemulsion-based delivery systems fabricated using three different methods were compared with three commercially available curcumin supplements. Powdered curcumin was dispersed into the oil-in-water nanoemulsions using three methods: the conventional oil-loading method, the heat-driven method, and the pH-driven method. The conventional method involved dissolving powdered curcumin in the oil phase (60 °C, 2 h) and then forming a nanoemulsion. The heat-driven method involved forming a nanoemulsion and then adding powdered curcumin and incubating at an elevated temperature (100 °C, 15 min)...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Wataru Nihei, Masakazu Nagafuku, Hirotaka Hayamizu, Yuta Odagiri, Yumi Tamura, Yui Kikuchi, Lucas Veillon, Hirotaka Kanoh, Kei-Ichiro Inamori, Kenta Arai, Kazuya Kabayama, Koichi Fukase, Jin-Ichi Inokuchi
Intestinal cholesterol absorption is a key regulator of systemic cholesterol homeostasis. Excessive dietary cholesterol and its intestinal uptake lead to hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Intestinal cholesterol uptake is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), a transmembrane protein localized in membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) enriched in gangliosides and cholesterol. Roles of gangliosides, such as GM3 and its synthesizing enzyme GM3 synthase (GM3S), in NPC1L1-dependent cholesterol uptake have not been examined previously...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
E Tomaszewska, P Dobrowolski, S Muszyński, M Kwiecień, K Kasperek, S Knaga, A Tomczyk-Warunek, S Kowalik, G Jeżewska-Witkowska, E R Grela
1. The aim of study was to investigate whether the impact of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the histological structure of the intestine, innervation of the small intestine wall, and basal biochemical serum parameters in Japanese quail was sex dependent. 2. One-day-old healthy male and female Japanese quail were fed either a basal diet containing no yeast (control group) or the basal diet plus 1.5% (15 g/kg of diet) of yeast (S. cerevisiae inactivated by drying). Samples from the duodenum and jejunum were taken from each bird at the age of 42 days...
September 19, 2018: British Poultry Science
Zhiguang Huang, Menglu Zhang, Abigail A Plec, Sandi Jo Estill, Ling Cai, Joyce J Repa, Steven L McKnight, Benjamin P Tu
Acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) is a conserved nucleocytosolic enzyme that converts acetate to acetyl-CoA. Adult mice lacking ACSS2 appear phenotypically normal but exhibit reduced tumor burdens in mouse models of liver cancer. The normal physiological functions of this alternate pathway of acetyl-CoA synthesis remain unclear, however. Here, we reveal that mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in body weight and hepatic steatosis in a diet-induced obesity model. ACSS2 deficiency reduces dietary lipid absorption by the intestine and also perturbs repartitioning and utilization of triglycerides from adipose tissue to the liver due to lowered expression of lipid transporters and fatty acid oxidation genes...
October 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Heqian Kuang, Fang Yang, Yan Zhang, Tiannan Wang, Guoxun Chen
Nutrient deficiencies and excess are involved in many aspects of human health. As a source of essential nutrients, eggs have been used worldwide to support the nutritional needs of human societies. On the other hand, eggs also contain a significant amount of cholesterol, a lipid molecule that has been associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Whether the increase of egg consumption will lead to elevated cholesterol absorption and disruption of cholesterol homeostasis has been a concern of debate for a while...
2018: Cholesterol
Keshuai Li, Bjørg Egelandsdal, Rolf E Olsen
Some lipid digestion pathways in fish deviate from those in mammals, and many differences may also be species dependent. This report describes a pathway for monoacylglycerol (MAG) and lysophospholipid absorption by intestinal enterocytes in brown trout that may be of significance in salmonids. When culturing primary cells in a medium containing 1- and 2-MAG, we observed a massive hydrolysis of unesterified fatty acids. The hydrolysis activity was retained in the medium even after the removal of the cells. To further characterize these activities, both extracellular and isolated membrane proteins were tested for lipase activity toward triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), MAG, phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), and lysoPtdCho...
September 10, 2018: Lipids
Jingxin Gou, Yuheng Liang, LinLin Miao, Yanhui Chao, Yu Zhang, Tian Yin, Haibing He, Xing Tang
Enteric polymers have been found with absorption promotion effect on nanoparticles. To study the role of enteric polymers played in the process of oral nanoparticle delivery, Eudragit L100-55 (EU) and sodium alginate (SA) were selected as model enteric polymers and larotaxel (LTX) as model drug. Suspensions composed of LTX-loaded nanoparticles, HPMC and different enteric polymers (EU and SA) were prepared (NP@EU, NP@SA). And aspects like precipitate morphology upon contact with acid, nanoparticle encapsulation capability, in vitro drug release, intestinal residence and in vivo oral bioavailability were studied...
November 1, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Francesca Di Cara, Margret Bülow, Andrew J Simmonds, Richard A Rachubinski
The gut has a central role in digestion and nutrient absorption, but it also serves in defending against pathogens, engages in mutually beneficial interactions with commensals, and is a major source of endocrine signals. Gut homeostasis is necessary for organismal health, and changes to the gut are associated with conditions like obesity and diabetes and inflammatory illnesses like Crohn's disease. We report that peroxisomes, organelles involved in lipid metabolism and redox balance, are required to maintain gut epithelium homeostasis and renewal in Drosophila and for survival and development of the organism...
September 6, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Rima H Mistry, Fangjie Gu, Henk A Schols, Henkjan J Verkade, Uwe J F Tietge
Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates are perceived to improve health via gut microbiota-dependent generation of products such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). In addition, SCFA are also precursors for lipid and cholesterol synthesis potentially resulting in unwanted effects on lipid metabolism. Inulin is a widely used model prebiotic dietary fiber. Inconsistent reports on the effects of inulin on cholesterol homeostasis have emerged in humans and preclinical models. To clarify this issue, the present study aimed to provide an in-depth characterization of the effects of short-chain (sc)- and long-chain (lc)- inulin on cholesterol synthesis, absorption and elimination in mice...
September 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Asmaa Tazi, João Ricardo Araujo, Céline Mulet, Ellen T Arena, Giulia Nigro, Thierry Pédron, Philippe J Sansonetti
The gut microbiota contributes to nutrients absorption and metabolism by enterocytes, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood, and most conclusions are inferred from studies comparing germfree and conventional animals colonized with diverse bacterial species. We selected two model commensal microorganisms, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus paracasei , to assess the role of the small-intestinal microbiota in modulating lipid absorption and metabolism by the epithelium. Using an integrated approach encompassing cellular and murine models and combining metabolic parameters measurement, lipid droplet imaging, and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated that under homeostatic conditions, L...
September 4, 2018: MBio
Eyal Hallali, Fotini Kokou, Tapan Kumar Chourasia, Tali Nitzan, Pazit Con, Sheenan Harpaz, Itzhak Mizrahi, Avner Cnaani
Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is the world's most widely cultured fish species. Therefore, its nutritional physiology is of great interest from an aquaculture perspective. Studies conducted on several fish species, including tilapia, demonstrated the beneficial effects of dietary salt supplementation on growth; however, the mechanism behind these beneficial effects is still not fully understood. The fish intestine is a complex system, with functions, such as nutrient absorption, ion equilibrium and acid-base balance that are tightly linked and dependent on each other's activities and products...
2018: PloS One
Eugene B Chang, Kristina Martinez-Guryn
Our recently published paper "Small Intestine Microbiota Regulate Digestive and Absorptive Adaptive Responses to Dietary Lipids" in Cell Host & Microbe explored the neglected small intestine microbiota and demonstrated its critical role as a regulator of fat digestion and absorption. This work generated the following important take home messages: 1) small intestinal microbes are particularly sensitive to high fat diets and turn on host processes regulating fat digestion and transport, 2) this action is very likely orchestrated by a consortium of microbes, each having different specific effects and targets, and 3) the actions of this consortium appear to be mediated by bacteria-derived small molecules or bioactive components...
August 23, 2018: Gut Microbes
Rokaya O Amara, Alyaa A Ramadan, Riham M El-Moslemany, Maha M Eissa, Mervat Z El-Azzouni, Labiba K El-Khordagui
Purpose: Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) have shown potential to increase the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered drugs. However, their intestinal translocation to distal target sites and their implication in pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) relationships are yet to be elucidated. In this study, the effect of LNCs on the PD activity and pharmacokinetics of praziquantel (PZQ), the mainstay of schistosomiasis chemotherapy, was investigated. Materials and methods: The composition of LNCs was modified to increase PZQ payload and to enhance membrane permeability...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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