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Intestinal lipid absorption

Guangmang Liu, Wei Cao, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Xiaoling Chen, Jing Wang
The animal gut effectively prevents the entry of hazardous substances and microbes while permitting the transfer of nutrients, such as water, electrolytes, vitamins, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, minerals and microbial metabolites, which are intimately associated with intestinal homoeostasis. The gut maintains biological functions through its nutrient-sensing receptors, including the Ca-sensing receptor (CaSR), which activates a variety of signalling pathways, depending on cellular context. CaSR coordinates food digestion and nutrient absorption, promotes cell proliferation and differentiation, regulates energy metabolism and immune response, stimulates hormone secretion, mitigates secretory diarrhoea and enhances intestinal barrier function...
August 15, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Beibei Zhang, Zengpeng Lv, Zhui Li, Weiwei Wang, Guang Li, Yuming Guo
Our previous reports suggested that Dietary l-arginine supplementation attenuated gut injury of broiler chickens infected with Clostridium perfringens by enhancing intestinal immune responses, absorption and barrier function, but its effect on the gut microbiome of broiler chickens remains unclear. This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of Dietary l-arginine supplementation on the gut bacterial community composition and function of broiler chickens challenged with C. perfringens . In total, 105 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chickens were assigned to three groups: Control (CTL), C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bilal Houshaymi, Nadine Nasreddine, Mamdouh Kedees, Zeina Soayfane
The bioavailability of ivermectin is modulated by lipid-based formulations and membrane efflux transporters such as Breast Cancer Resistance Protein and P-glycoprotein (BCRP and P-gp). We have investigated the effect of oleic acid on the uptake of ivermectin in vitro using Caco-2 cells and in vivo in the intestines of wild-type mice. Complex micelles (M) with oleic acid induced a significant increase (e. g. for M3 was 7-fold, p≤0.001) in the uptake of the drug in a time-dependent manner with no involvement of cholesterol in the mechanism...
August 13, 2018: Drug Research
Guang-Hui Chen, Zhi Luo, Christer Hogstrand, Kun Wu, Shi-Cheng Ling
Cu could act as a modifier and influence lipid metabolism, but the potential mechanism was not explored. Juvenile yellow catfish were fed diet containing 0.71 (low Cu), 3.93 (intermediate Cu) and 88.81 (high Cu) mg Cu kg-1 , for 8 weeks to explore the modulation of intestinal lipid metabolism following dietary Cu addition. Using specific pathway inhibitors (Fatostatin for SREBP1, T0070907 for PPARG and Compound C for AMPK), primary enterocytes of yellow catfish were used to explore the molecular mechanisms of Cu reducing intestinal lipid deposition...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yawei Du, Longbing Ling, Muhammad Ismail, Wei He, Qing Xia, Wenya Zhou, Chen Yao, Xinsong Li
Camptothecin (CPT) is an important topoisomerase I enzyme (Topo I) targeting anti-cancer drug, but its oral administration is limited by poor bioavailability and severe side effects. In this study, a redox sensitive CPT prodrug loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) system for oral delivery was developed. First of all, CPT-palmitic acid conjugate via a cleavable disulfide bond linker (CPT-SS-PA) was synthesized and encapsulated into SLN. The drug release of SLN was evaluated in neutral environment, simulated gastrointestinal fluid and reductive DTT solution...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Yijun Pan, Kotaro Omori, Izna Ali, Masanori Tachikawa, Tetsuya Terasaki, Kim L R Brouwer, Joseph A Nicolazzo
Drug transporter expression and function at the blood-brain barrier is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the impact of AD on the expression of transporters and metabolizing enzymes in peripheral tissues has received little attention. The current study evaluated the expression of drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the small intestine and liver from 8-9-month-old female wild-type (WT) and APPswe/PSEN1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice, a widely-used AD model, using a quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP) approach...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Christina C Yildirimer, Kim H Brown
AIMS: This study focused on intestinal microbiome variation across the phylogeogrpahic divide of rainbow trout and its potential functional effects on ocean migration. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hindgut intestinal contents were analyzed using the 16S V4 hypervariable ribosomal gene region. Core microbiome taxonomies and overall microbial diversity were identified across the species phylogeographic divide with increased diversity found in Eastern Cascade fish. To determine potential functional differences between groups PICRUSt metagenomics analysis was utilized, revealing significant enrichment of lipid and fatty acid metabolism genes in Western Cascade fish microbiomes...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Mahima Mathur, Kusum Devi Vemula
Different nanoparticles namely solid lipid nanoparticles, nanocrystals and nanosponges loaded with atorvastatin were successfully fabricated with desirable technological properties which reckoned promising methods of their preparation. Further, suitable characterization and evaluation parameters for in-vitro and in-vivo studies were conducted which led to increase in drug's bioavailability, provided better in-vivo efficacy and reduced toxicity in treating hyperlipidemia systemically. Particle sizes were found to be less than 300nm, with minimal polydispersity indices and maximized entrapment efficiency which are pre requisites for their absorption in intestines...
August 3, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Tahnee J Dening, Nicky Thomas, Shasha Rao, Cis van Looveren, Filip Cuyckens, René Holm, Clive A Prestidge
Solid-state lipid-based formulations offer great potential for the improved oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. This study investigates the use of the high surface area clay materials, montmorillonite and laponite, as solid carriers for lipid-based formulations. The unique cation-exchange properties of clay platelets were exploited to preload the ionizable hydrophobic compound, blonanserin, prior to encapsulating a drug-loaded lipid solution. Thus, solid-state lipid-based formulations with dual-loading capabilities were developed and studied...
August 1, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Shing-Hwa Liu, Chen-Yuan Chiu, Ching-Ming Shi, Meng-Tsan Chiang
The present study examined and compared the effects of low- and high-molecular weight (MW) chitosan, a nutraceutical, on lipid metabolism in the intestine and liver of high-fat (HF) diet-fed rats. High-MW chitosan as well as low-MW chitosan decreased liver weight, elongated the small intestine, improved the dysregulation of blood lipids and liver fat accumulation, and increased fecal lipid excretion in rats fed with HF diets. Supplementation of both high- and low-MW chitosan markedly inhibited the suppressed phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase-α (AMPKα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) protein expressions, and the increased lipogenesis/cholesterogenesis-associated protein expressions [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and -2 (SREBP1c and SREBP2)] and the suppressed apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) protein expressions in the livers of rats fed with HF diets...
July 29, 2018: Marine Drugs
Angel Angelov, Teodora Yaneva-Marinova, Velitchka Gotcheva
Development of oat-based fermented beverages started in Europe in the past 30 years with the rise of the functional foods market. It is based on the increasing consumer demand for health drinks and value added foods and on the scientific insights on the nutrition composition of oats. The main health effects of oats are attributed to their high β-glucan content, which is proved to lower blood cholesterol and the intestinal absorption of glucose thus preventing diseases like cardiovascular injury, dyslipidemia, hypertension, inflammatory state and diabetes type 2...
July 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Ryosuke Makino, Kasumi Takano, Kazumi Kita, Megumi Nishimukai
This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary lipids and a long-term high-fat diet on lymphatic triglyceride and quercetin absorption in rats with a surgically implanted thoracic lymph cannula. Quercetin-3-O-β-glucoside reduced the lymphatic triglyceride output from the intestines; this reduction was prominent among rats fed a high-fat diet.
July 21, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Sunil Kamboj, Sheshank Sethi, Vikas Rana
The current investigation entails systematic development of EFV (Efavirenz) loaded isotropic mixture prepared with long chain triglycerides for obliterating food associated variability and minimizing the erratic absorption behavior. For this purpose, the optimized isotropic mixture (EF1) consists of Maisine 35-1 (20%), Transcutol HP (17.7% w/w) and Cremophor RH 40:Labrasol (1:1) (62.3% w/w) was formulated by employing D-optimal mixture design that after numerical optimization showed highest desirability of 0...
July 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Renuka Suresh Managuli, Sushil Yadaorao Raut, Meka Sreenivasa Reddy, Srinivas Mutalik
The major challenge of first pass metabolism in oral drug delivery can be surmounted by directing delivery toward intestinal lymphatic system (ILS). ILS circumvents the liver and transports drug directly into systemic circulation via thoracic duct. Lipid and polymeric nanoparticles are transported into ILS through lacteal and Peyer's patches. Moreover, surface modification of nanoparticles with ligand which is specific for Peyer's patches enhances the uptake of drugs into ILS. Bioavailability enhancement by lymphatic uptake is an advantageous approach adopted by scientists today...
July 26, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Charlotte Cuerq, Emilie Henin, Lioara Restier, Emilie Blond, Jocelyne Drai, Christophe Marcais, Mathilde Di Filippo, Christian Laveille, Marie-Caroline Michalski, Pierre Poinsot, Cyrielle Caussy, Agnes Sassolas, Philippe Moulin, Emmanuelle Reboul, Sybil Charriere, Emile Levy, Alain Lachaux, Noel Peretti
Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) and chylomicron retention disease (CMRD) are extremely rare recessive forms of hypobetalipoproteinemia characterized by intestinal lipid malabsorption and severe vitamin E deficiency. Vitamin E is often supplemented in the form of fat-soluble vitamin E acetate, but fat malabsorption considerably limits correction of the deficiency. In this crossover study, we administered two different forms of vitamin E - tocofersolan (a water-soluble derivative of RRR-α-tocopherol) and α-tocopherol acetate - to three patients with ABL and four with CMRD...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Pavel Živný, Helena Živná, Vladimír Palička, Lenka Žaloudková, Petra Mocková, Jolana Cermanová, Stanislav Mičuda
INTRODUCTION: The aim of study was to evaluate impact of long-term dietary cholesterol overload on the cholesterol homeostasis and liver regeneration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum lipid parameters, 14C-cholesterol incorporation, liver DNA synthesis and protein expression was determined in partially hepatectomized (PH) rats fed with a standard (SLD) or hypercholesterolemic (CHOL) diet. RESULTS: 29-day intake of CHOL diet before PH produced increase in serum total cholesterol, LDL lipoprotein, and triglyceride concentration...
2018: Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)
Helena Gylling, Piia Simonen, Leena Kaipiainen, Ingmar Wester
Phytosterol measurement has gained a lot of interest during the last two decades after foods and supplements with added 4-desmethyl phytosterols were recognized and used as effective and safe non-pharmacologic hypocholesterolemic agents, and also after the mechanisms of intestinal absorption and hepatic excretion of sterols were unraveled. In addition, the wide use of serum phytosterols as biomarkers of cholesterol absorption has increased the interest in their measurement. In this review the basic methods are discussed without going into details in the practical operations...
July 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
John P Kennelly, Jelske N van der Veen, Randal C Nelson, Kelly-Ann Leonard, Rick Havinga, Jean Buteau, Folkert Kuipers, Rene L Jacobs
De novo phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis via CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase-α (CTα) is required for very-low-density lipoprotein secretion. To determine the precise role of de novo PC synthesis in intestinal lipid metabolism, we deleted CTα exclusively in the intestinal epithelium of mice (CTαIKO mice). When fed a chow diet, CTαIKO mice showed normal fat absorption despite a ~30% decrease in intestinal PC concentrations relative to control mice, suggesting that biliary PC can fully support chylomicron secretion under these conditions...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Huizi Li, Yinghua Liu, Xinsheng Zhang, Qing Xu, Yong Zhang, Changyong Xue, Changjiang Guo
Background: Bile acids play a pivotal role in cholesterol metabolism via the enterohepatic circulation. This study investigated the effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs)/medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on the reduction of bile acid absorption in the small intestine and the mechanisms of action in vivo and partially verified in vitro. Methods: Thirty-six C57BL/6 J mice with hypercholesterolaemia were randomly divided into 3 groups: fed a cholesterol-rich diet (CR group), fed a cholesterol-rich and medium-chain triglyceride diet (CR-MCT group) and fed a cholesterol-rich and long-chain triglyceride diet (CR-LCT group)...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Ashish Baldi, Monika Chaudhary, Sheshank Sethi, Abhiav, Ramesh Chandra, Jitender Madan
Poor drug solubility and bioavailability remain a significant and frequently encountered concern for pharmaceutical scientists. Nanoscaled lipid drug delivery systems (NSLDDS) have exhibited great potentials in oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs, primarily for lipophilic drugs, with several successful clinical products. In the past few years, we have find out that optimized composition of drug in lipid, surfactant, or mixture of lipid and surfactant omits the solubility, permeability and bioavailability issues, which are potential limitations for oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs...
July 2, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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