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Intestinal lipid absorption

Nelson Andrade, Cláudia Silva, Fátima Martel
The pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal diseases, including gastrointestinal cancers and inflammatory bowel disease, is associated with increased oxidative stress levels. We aimed to investigate the effect of oxidative stress induced by tert -butylhydroperoxide (TBH) on the uptake of 3 H-deoxy-d-glucose (3 H-DG) and 14 C-fructose by the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. TBH (500 μM; 24 h) increased lipid peroxidation (TBARS) levels and was not cytotoxic. TBH (500 μM; 24 h) increased uptake of both low (SGLT1-mediated) and high concentrations (SGLT1- and GLUT2-mediated) of 3 H-DG, but did not affect absorption of 14 C-fructose (GLUT2- and GLUT5-mediated)...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Yan Yan Yeap, Jaclyn Lock, Sean Lerkvikarn, Tanner Semin, Nicholas Nguyen, Rebecca L Carrier
The utilization of polymers to stabilize drug supersaturation and enhance oral drug absorption has recently garnered considerable interest. The potential role of intestinal mucus in stabilizing drug supersaturation, however, has not been previously explored. The ability for intestinal mucus to stabilize drug supersaturation and delay drug precipitation is potentially useful in enhancing the absorption of orally dosed compounds from drug delivery systems that generate supersaturation within the gastrointestinal tract (e...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Stanzin Angmo, Shilpa Rana, Kamalendra Yadav, Rajat Sandhir, Nitin Kumar Singhal
Hepcidin, master regulator of iron homeostasis, causes anemia under infectious and inflammatory conditions by reducing intestinal absorption of iron with decreased release of iron from macrophages and liver despite adequate iron stores leading to Anemia of Inflammation (AI). Many therapeutic trials have been carried out but none have been effective due to its adverse effects. In present study, we discover that Guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP) encapsulated in lipid vesicle (NH+) was found to inhibit NF-ҝB activation by limiting phosphorylation and degradation of IҝBα, thus, attenuating IL-6 secretion from macrophage cells...
December 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mathilde Di Filippo, Mathilde Varret, Vanessa Boehm, Jean-Pierre Rabès, Latifa Ferkdadji, Laurent Abramowitz, Sabrina Dumont, Catherine Lenaerts, Catherine Boileau, Francisca Joly, Jacques Schmitz, Marie-Elisabeth Samson-Bouma, Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot
BACKGROUND: Abetalipoproteinemia, a recessive disease resulting from deleterious variants in MTTP (microsomal triglyceride transfer protein), is characterized by undetectable concentrations of apolipoprotein B, extremely low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the plasma, and a total inability to export apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins from both the intestine and the liver. OBJECTIVE: To study lipid absorption after a fat load and liver function in 7 heterozygous relatives from 2 abetalipoproteinemic families, 1 previously unreported...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Young-Chae Kim, Sangwon Byun, Sunmi Seok, Grace Guo, H Eric Xu, Byron Kemper, Jongsook Kim Kemper
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The nuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 2 (NR0B2, also called SHP) is expressed at high levels in liver and intestine. Postprandial fibroblast growth factor 19 (human FGF19, mouse FGF15) signaling increases the transcriptional activity of SHP. We studied the functions of SHP and FGF19 in intestines of mice, including their regulation of expression of the cholesterol transporter NPC1-like intracellular cholesterol transporter 1 (NPC1L1) and cholesterol absorption...
December 3, 2018: Gastroenterology
Arijit Nath, Máté András Molnár, Attila Csighy, Kornélia Kőszegi, Ildikó Galambos, Klára Pásztorné Huszár, András Koris, Gyula Vatai
Lactose-based prebiotics are synthesized by enzymatic- or microbial- biotransformation of lactose and have unique functional values. In this comprehensive review article, the biochemical mechanisms of controlling osteoporosis, blood-lipid, and glucose levels by lactose-based prebiotics and symbiosis with probiotics are reported along with the results of clinical investigations. Interaction between lactose-based prebiotics and probiotics reduces osteoporosis by (a) transforming insoluble inorganic salts to soluble and increasing their absorption to gut wall; (b) maintaining and protecting mineral absorption surface in the intestine; (c) increasing the expression of calcium-binding proteins in the gut wall; (d) remodeling osteoclasts and osteoblasts formation; (e) releasing bone modulating factors; and (f) degrading mineral complexing phytic acid...
December 3, 2018: Medicina
Masaru Ochiai, Tsutomu Nozaki, Masaki Kato, Ken-O Ishihara
As the seed extract from Camellia japonica (CJ) contains saponins, inhibitory effects of pancreatic lipase activity and body fat accumulation are expected. To investigate the anti-obesity effect of CJ seed extract, ICR mice were fed with a high-fat diet that was either supplemented or not with 1% CJ seed extract for 53 days. Including CJ seed extract in the high-fat diets of mice increased fecal fat excretion and decreased the body weight gain and lipid parameters in plasma and in the liver. In addition, lipid-induced hypertriglyceridemia was delayed by a single administration of CJ in ddY mice...
2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Yi Yan, Fei He, Zhonghao Li, Ruoting Xu, Ting Li, Jinyu Su, Xianyan Liu, Ming Zhao, Wei Wu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It has been well established that ezetimibe blocks cholesterol absorption to prevent the negative effects of a high-fat diet in atherosclerosis. However, the exact mechanism is unknown. Here we use a transgenic zebrafish, which expresses different fluorescent proteins on either endothelial cells or granulocytes and macrophages, to explore the specific mechanism of ezetimibe and its role in reducing atherosclerosis-related hypercholesteremia. METHODS: Zebrafish larvae were exposed to a control diet, high cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD with ezetimibe treatment...
November 16, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Cuiyuan Jin, Zhaoyang Zeng, Caiyun Wang, Ting Luo, Siyu Wang, Jicong Zhou, Yingchun Ni, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
Carbendazim (CBZ), a systemic, broad-spectrum benzimidazole fungicide, is widely used to control fungal diseases and has been regarded as an endocrine disruptor that causes mammalian toxicity in different target organs. Here, we discovered that chronic administrations of CBZ at 0.2, 1, and 5 mg/kg body weight for 14 weeks not only changed the composition of gut microbiota but also induced significant increases in body, liver, and epididymal fat weight in mice. At the biochemical level, the serum triglyceride (TG) and glucose levels also increased after CBZ exposure...
December 1, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Alyssa M Weinrauch, Chris N Glover, Greg G Goss
Hagfishes are ancient vertebrates, which have the ability to tolerate nearly a year of food deprivation with energy during fasting maintained using lipid stores. While lipid transporters are evolutionarily conserved, there are relatively few studies examining mechanisms of lipid acquisition in teleosts and no reports in the primitive and evolutionarily important agnathans. We examined tissue lipid droplet distribution and used gut sac preparations to characterize uptake mechanisms of the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid (OA; 18:1 cis-9), in the Pacific hagfish...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Marion Régnier, Arnaud Polizzi, Céline Lukowicz, Sarra Smati, Frédéric Lasserre, Yannick Lippi, Claire Naylies, Joelle Laffitte, Colette Bétoulières, Alexandra Montagner, Simon Ducheix, Pascal Gourbeyre, Sandrine Ellero-Simatos, Sandrine Menard, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Talal Al Saati, Jean-Marc Lobaccaro, Hester M Burger, Wentzel C Gelderblom, Hervé Guillou, Isabelle P Oswald, Nicolas Loiseau
Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a congener of fumonisins produced by Fusarium species, is the most abundant and most toxicologically active fumonisin. FB1 causes severe mycotoxicosis in animals, including nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and disruption of the intestinal barrier. However, mechanisms associated with FB1 toxicity are still unclear. Preliminary studies have highlighted the role of liver X receptors (LXRs) during FB1 exposure. LXRs belong to the nuclear receptor family and control the expression of genes involved in cholesterol and lipid homeostasis...
November 17, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Martin Kuentz
Self-emulsifying and other lipid-based drug delivery systems have drawn considerable interest from pharmaceutical scientists for managing oral delivery of poorly water-soluble compounds. Following administration, self-emulsifying systems exhibit complex aqueous dispersion and digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract. These processes generally result in drug supersaturation, which leads to enhanced absorption or the high drug concentrations may cause precipitation with erratic and variable oral bioavailability...
November 13, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Raquel Ana, Maria Mendes, João Sousa, Alberto Pais, Amílcar Falcão, Ana Fortuna, Carla Vitorino
Epilepsy is the most common chronic brain disorder and affects millions of people worldwide. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the first-line pharmacological therapy instituted to patients due to its wide spectrum of action. Although marketed for more than 30 years, CBZ efficacy is strongly limited by its lateral effects, and variable and slow intestinal absorption. This reality leads to resistance drug development, which compromises the patients' quality of life. Rethinking about CBZ oral delivery is required to achieve a more effective strategy for the treatment of epilepsy...
November 12, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Thi Thinh Nguyen, Trong Thuan Ung, Nam Ho Kim, Young Do Jung
Bile acids (BAs) are cholesterol derivatives synthesized in the liver and then secreted into the intestine for lipid absorption. There are numerous scientific reports describing BAs, especially secondary BAs, as strong carcinogens or promoters of colon cancers. Firstly, BAs act as strong stimulators of colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation by damaging colonic epithelial cells, and inducing reactive oxygen species production, genomic destabilization, apoptosis resistance, and cancer stem cells-like formation. Consequently, BAs promote CRC progression via multiple mechanisms, including inhibiting apoptosis, enhancing cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis...
November 6, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Celeste Alexander, Blake C Guard, Jan S Suchodolski, Kelly S Swanson
Absorption of dietary lipids in the small intestine is dependent on the emulsification by bile acids (BA) and the formation of chylomicrons. Cholestyramine is a common drug used in humans - and potentially dogs - to treat BA malabsorption associated with chronic diarrhea. It is known to bind BA to form insoluble complexes, preventing their reabsorption and possibly proper emulsification and absorption of dietary fats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cholestyramine on 1) macronutrient apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), and 2) fecal characteristics and metabolites of healthy adult dogs...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Naghmeh Dehghani, Mohsen Afsharmanesh, Mohammad Salarmoini, Hadi Ebrahimnejad, Ahmad Bitaraf
An experiment was conducted to show the effects of different levels of pennyroyal, thyme and savory essential oils dietary supplementation on performance, organs weight, intestinal morphology, and serum lipids in quails. A total of 550 day-old Japanese quail chicks were allocated into 11 dietary treatments of 5 replications (10 birds in each cage) under a randomized experimental design. The treatments were a basal diet (Control), or 3 levels (200, 300, and 400 ppm) of thyme essential oil (TO), or 3 levels (200, 300, and 400 ppm) of savory essential oil (SO), or 3 levels (200, 300, and 400 ppm) of pennyroyal essential oil (PO) added separately to the basal diet, or also the basal diet supplemented with 100 ppm of flavophospholipol...
October 2018: Heliyon
Fawen Yin, Xiaopei Hu, Dayong Zhou, Xiaochi Ma, Xiangge Tian, Xiaokui Huo, Kanyasiri Rakariyatham, Fereidoon Shahidi, Beiwei Zhu
Lipophenols such as palmitoyl esters of green-tea polyphenols (GTP) have been allowed for use as food additives for oxidation control. However, their digestive absorption remains unexplored. In this paper, the hydrolysis and transport characteristics of tyrosol acyl esters (TYr-Es) with various fatty acids (C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C18:2) were evaluated using the everted-rat-gut-sac model for the first time. HPLC-UV measurements demonstrated that TYr-Es were hydrolyzed to TYr, which contributed significantly to TYr transport across the sacs...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Koji Uchiyama, Hisashi Kishi, Wataru Komatsu, Masanori Nagao, Shuji Ohhira, Gen Kobashi
Crohn's disease is one of the systemic autoimmune diseases. It commonly affects the small intestine and colon but may involve any portion of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. The most affected area by Crohn's disease is the distal part of the small intestine, in which the bile acid molecules are most efficiently reabsorbed. Bile acids form mixed micelles together with fatty acids, which function as a transport vehicle to deliver fatty acids to the apical membrane of enterocytes for absorption...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Miki Igarashi, Kazuhide Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Tsuduki, Ikuo Kimura, Naoto Kubota
Oleoylethanolamide (OEA), a fatty acid ethanolamide (FAE), is a lipid mediator that controls food intake and lipid metabolism. Accumulating data imply the importance of intestinal OEA in controlling satiety in addition to gastrointestinal peptide hormones. Although the biochemical pathway of FAE production has been illustrated, the enzymes responsible for the cleavage of OEA from its precursor N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) must be identified among reported candidates in the gut. In this study, we assessed the involvement of NAPE-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), which can directly release FAEs from NAPE, in intestinal OEA synthesis and lipid metabolism...
November 6, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Kasirawat Sawangrat, Shugo Yamashita, Akiko Tanaka, Masaki Morishita, Kosuke Kusamori, Hidemasa Katsumi, Toshiyasu Sakane, Akira Yamamoto
Breast cancer resistance protein transporter (ABCG2/BCRP) is highly expressed on the intestinal epithelial membrane and has a significant impact on the oral absorption of topotecan. In this study, we examined 6 pharmaceutical excipients including BL-9EX, Brij97, Cremophor EL, Labrasol, Pluronic F68, and Tween 20 for their BCRP inhibitory effects. A bi-directional transport study using Caco-2 cells demonstrated that Tween 20 and Cremophor EL significantly increased the absorptive transport of topotecan, while simultaneously decreasing secretory transport...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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