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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001118/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine
#1
Lee E Dunlap, Anne M Andrews, David E Olson
Better known as "ecstasy", 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a small molecule that has played a prominent role in defining the ethos of today's teenagers and young adults, much like lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) did in the 1960s. Though MDMA possesses structural similarities to compounds like amphetamine and mescaline, it produces subjective effects that are unlike any of the classical psychostimulants or hallucinogens and is one of the few compounds capable of reliably producing prosocial behavioral states...
July 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847089/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-mescaline
#2
Bruce K Cassels, Patricio Sáez-Briones
Archeological studies in the United States, Mexico, and Peru suggest that mescaline, as a cactus constituent, has been used for more than 6000 years. Although it is a widespread cactus alkaloid, it is present in high concentrations in few species, notably the North American peyote ( Lophophora williamsii) and the South American wachuma ( Trichocereus pachanoi, T. peruvianus, and T. bridgesii). Spanish 16th century chroniclers considered these cacti "diabolic", leading to their prohibition, but their use persisted to our days and has been spreading for the last 150 years...
June 8, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593537/acute-pharmacological-effects-of-2c-b-in-humans-an-observational-study
#3
Esther Papaseit, Magí Farré, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Marta Torrens, Mireia Ventura, Mitona Pujadas, Rafael de la Torre, Débora González
2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B) is a psychedelic phenylethylamine derivative, structurally similar to mescaline. It is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ), 5-hydroxytryptamine-2B (5-HT2B ), and 5-hydroxytryptamine-2C (5-HT2C ) receptor partial agonist used recreationally as a new psychoactive substance. It has been reported that 2C-B induces mild psychedelic effects, although its acute pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics have not yet been fully studied in humans. An observational study was conducted to assess the acute subjective and physiological effects, as well as pharmacokinetics of 2C-B...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303006/key-interindividual-determinants-in-mdma-pharmacodynamics
#4
REVIEW
E Papaseit, M Torrens, C Pérez-Mañá, R Muga, M Farré
MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, is a synthetic phenethylamine derivative with structural and pharmacological similarities to both amphetamines and mescaline. MDMA produces characteristic amphetamine-like actions (euphoria, well-being), increases empathy, and induces pro-social effects that seem to motivate its recreational consumption and provide a basis for its potential therapeutic use. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to present the main interindividual determinants in MDMA pharmacodynamics...
February 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284138/psychiatry-the-psychedelic-drugs-past-present-future
#5
REVIEW
James J H Rucker, Jonathan Iliff, David J Nutt
The classical psychedelic drugs, including psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline, were used extensively in psychiatry before they were placed in Schedule I of the UN Convention on Drugs in 1967. Experimentation and clinical trials undertaken prior to legal sanction suggest that they are not helpful for those with established psychotic disorders and should be avoided in those liable to develop them. However, those with so-called 'psychoneurotic' disorders sometimes benefited considerably from their tendency to 'loosen' otherwise fixed, maladaptive patterns of cognition and behaviour, particularly when given in a supportive, therapeutic setting...
December 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209235/the-endless-trip-among-the-nps-users-psychopathology-and-psychopharmacology-in-the-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Laura Orsolini, Gabriele Duccio Papanti, Domenico De Berardis, Amira Guirguis, John Martin Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
Hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a syndrome characterized by prolonged or reoccurring perceptual symptoms, reminiscent of acute hallucinogen effects. HPPD was associated with a broader range of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)-like substances, cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin, mescaline, and psychostimulants. The recent emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) posed a critical concern regarding the new onset of psychiatric symptoms/syndromes, including cases of HPPD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987938/tcb-2-7r-3-bromo-2-5-dimethoxy-bicyclo-4-2-0-octa-1-3-5-trien-7-yl-methanamine-a-hallucinogenic-drug-a-selective-5-ht2a-receptor-pharmacological-tool-or-none-of-the-above
#7
REVIEW
Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
The development of 5-HT2A receptor agonists has been considerably marginalized since the demonstration that the tryptaminergic drugs, LSD and psilocybin, or the phenylakylamine drugs, mescaline and DOI, exert their hallucinogenic properties via the stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors. Nonetheless, the ability of drugs to stimulate 5-HT2A receptors is not necessarily associated with psychedelic experience and the hallucinogenic properties are still not understood. Several studies have increased interest in stimulating 5-HT2A receptors in various CNS diseases...
October 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947075/psychedelic-drugs-in-biomedicine
#8
REVIEW
Evan J Kyzar, Charles D Nichols, Raul R Gainetdinov, David E Nichols, Allan V Kalueff
Psychedelic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin, exert profound effects on brain and behavior. After decades of difficulties in studying these compounds, psychedelics are again being tested as potential treatments for intractable biomedical disorders. Preclinical research of psychedelics complements human neuroimaging studies and pilot clinical trials, suggesting these compounds as promising treatments for addiction, depression, anxiety, and other conditions. However, many questions regarding the mechanisms of action, safety, and efficacy of psychedelics remain...
November 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851034/mda-mdma-and-other-mescaline-like-substances-in-the-us-military-s-search-for-a-truth-drug-1940s-to-1960s
#9
REVIEW
Torsten Passie, Udo Benzenhöfer
This article describes the context in which 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and other mescaline-like compounds were explored as hallucinogens for military and intelligence purposes from the 1940s to the 1960s. Germans first tested mescaline as a "truth drug" in a military context. In the 1940s, the United States military started testing hallucinogenic substances as truth drugs for interrogation and behavior manipulation. After tests carried out using mescaline and other drugs in 1950, some derivatives of mescaline were synthesized by the Army for the exploration of possible "speech-inducing" effects...
January 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677096/hallucinogens-and-serotonin-5-ht-2a-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways
#10
Juan F López-Giménez, Javier González-Maeso
The neuropsychological effects of naturally occurring psychoactive chemicals have been recognized for millennia. Hallucinogens, which include naturally occurring chemicals such as mescaline and psilocybin, as well as synthetic compounds, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), induce profound alterations of human consciousness, emotion, and cognition. The discovery of the hallucinogenic effects of LSD and the observations that LSD and the endogenous ligand serotonin share chemical and pharmacological profiles led to the suggestion that biogenic amines like serotonin were involved in the psychosis of mental disorders such as schizophrenia...
2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631526/lifetime-experience-with-classic-psychedelics-predicts-pro-environmental-behavior-through-an-increase-in-nature-relatedness
#11
Matthias Forstmann, Christina Sagioglou
In a large-scale ( N = 1487) general population online study, we investigated the relationship between past experience with classic psychedelic substances (e.g. LSD, psilocybin, mescaline), nature relatedness, and ecological behavior (e.g. saving water, recycling). Using structural equation modeling we found that experience with classic psychedelics uniquely predicted self-reported engagement in pro-environmental behaviors, and that this relationship was statistically explained by people's degree of self-identification with nature...
August 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329723/analysis-of-synthetic-phenethylamine-street-drugs-using-direct-sample-analysis-coupled-to-accurate-mass-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#12
Maura K McGonigal, Joshua A Wilhide, Philip B Smith, Noelle M Elliott, Frank L Dorman
Serious health complications and fatal overdoses have brought phenethylamine, otherwise known as 2C, drug abuse to the public's attention. These compounds are 2C-X series analogs of mescaline. The name "2C" results from the two carbons in the ethyl chain. The substituents on these emerging drugs are constantly changed in order to avoid listing as controlled substances. These synthetic drugs are marketed as having affects similar to LSD and MDMA and are typically consumed sublingually via blotter paper...
June 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057187/challenges-in-laboratory-detection-of-unusual-substance-abuse-issues-with-magic-mushroom-peyote-cactus-khat-and-solvent-abuse
#13
REVIEW
A Dasgupta
Drug abuse is a worldwide problem. Although commonly abused drugs can be identified during routine urine drug testing, less commonly abused drugs may escape detection. These less commonly abused drugs not only include some designer drugs such as synthetic cannabinoid but also include abuse of psychedelic magic mushroom (active ingredients: psilocybin and psilocin), peyote cactus (active ingredient: mescaline), and khat plants (active ingredient: cathinone). Moreover, solvent and glue abuse is gaining popularity among teenagers and young adults which may even cause fatality...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992004/charcot-mitchell-and-lees-neurology-free-thinkers-and-their-experiences-of-psychoactive-drugs
#14
Hélio A G Teive, Francisco M B Germiniani, Pedro A Kowacs, Renato P Munhoz
Three world-famous neurologists, Charcot and Mitchell, in the 19th century, and Lees, in this century, all of whom had great scientific curiosity, experimented with the psychoactive drugs hashish, mescal and yagé, respectively, in an attempt to increase their knowledge of neurological diseases and how the brain works.
December 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882883/electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometric-study-of-protonated-and-alkali-cationized-%C3%AE-%C3%AE%C2%B5-hybrid-peptides-differentiation-of-a-pair-of-dipeptide-positional-isomers
#15
A Ramesh Babu, G Raju, C Purna Chander, B Shoban Babu, R Srinivas, G V M Sharma
A new class of Boc-N-protected hybrid peptides derived from L- Ala and ε(6)-Caa (L-Ala = L-Alanine, Caa = C-linked carboamino acid derived from D-xylose) have been studied by positive ion electrospray ionization (ESI) ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS(n) spectra of protonated and alkali-cationized hybrid peptides produce characteristic fragmentation involving the peptide backbone, the tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) group, and the side chain. The dipeptide positional isomers are differentiated by the collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the protonated and alkali-cationized peptides...
2016: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810345/classical-hallucinogens-and-neuroimaging-a-systematic-review-of-human-studies-hallucinogens-and-neuroimaging
#16
REVIEW
Rafael G Dos Santos, Flávia L Osório, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak
Serotonergic hallucinogens produce alterations of perceptions, mood, and cognition, and have anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antiaddictive properties. These drugs act as agonists of frontocortical 5-HT2A receptors, but the neural basis of their effects are not well understood. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of neuroimaging studies analyzing the effects of serotonergic hallucinogens in man. Studies published in the PubMed, Lilacs, and SciELO databases until 12 April 2016 were included using the following keywords: "ayahuasca", "DMT", "psilocybin", "LSD", "mescaline" crossed one by one with the terms "mri", "fmri", "pet", "spect", "imaging" and "neuroimaging"...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785123/thought-insertion-as-a-self-disturbance-an-integration-of-predictive-coding-and-phenomenological-approaches
#17
Philipp Sterzer, Aaron L Mishara, Martin Voss, Andreas Heinz
Current theories in the framework of hierarchical predictive coding propose that positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as delusions and hallucinations, arise from an alteration in Bayesian inference, the term inference referring to a process by which learned predictions are used to infer probable causes of sensory data. However, for one particularly striking and frequent symptom of schizophrenia, thought insertion, no plausible account has been proposed in terms of the predictive-coding framework. Here we propose that thought insertion is due to an altered experience of thoughts as coming from "nowhere", as is already indicated by the early 20th century phenomenological accounts by the early Heidelberg School of psychiatry...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27483442/transcriptome-modulation-during-host-shift-is-driven-by-secondary-metabolites-in-desert-drosophila
#18
Diego N De Panis, Julián Padró, Pedro Furió-Tarí, Sonia Tarazona, Pablo S Milla Carmona, Ignacio M Soto, Hernán Dopazo, Ana Conesa, Esteban Hasson
High-throughput transcriptome studies are breaking new ground to investigate the responses that organisms deploy in alternative environments. Nevertheless, much remains to be understood about the genetic basis of host plant adaptation. Here, we investigate genome-wide expression in the fly Drosophila buzzatii raised in different conditions. This species uses decaying tissues of cactus of the genus Opuntia as primary rearing substrate and secondarily, the necrotic tissues of the columnar cactus Trichocereus terscheckii...
September 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405021/identification-and-individualization-of-lophophora-using-dna-analysis-of-the-trnl-trnf-region-and-rbcl-gene
#19
Adrienne E Ng, Ernesto Sandoval, Terence M Murphy
Lophophora williamsii (peyote) is a small, spineless, greenish-blue cactus found in Mexico and the southwestern United States. Ingestion of the cactus can result in hallucinations due to its content of mescaline. In the United States, L. williamsii is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance. In this study, we use DNA analysis of the chloroplast trnL/trnF region and chloroplast rbcL gene to identify the individuals of Lophophora. Using the rbcL gene, Lophophora specimens could be distinguished from outgroups, but species within the genus could not be distinguished...
January 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216487/receptor-interaction-profiles-of-novel-psychoactive-tryptamines-compared-with-classic-hallucinogens
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Anna Rickli, Olivier D Moning, Marius C Hoener, Matthias E Liechti
The present study investigated interactions between the novel psychoactive tryptamines DiPT, 4-OH-DiPT, 4-OH-MET, 5-MeO-AMT, and 5-MeO-MiPT at monoamine receptors and transporters compared with the classic hallucinogens lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocin, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), and mescaline. We investigated binding affinities at human monoamine receptors and determined functional serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor activation. Binding at and the inhibition of human monoamine uptake transporters and transporter-mediated monoamine release were also determined...
August 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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