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Pressurized habitat

Oyunchimeg Namsrai, Altansukh Ochir, Oyungerel Baast, J L van Genderen, Andreas Muhar, Sanzheev Erdeni, Juanle Wang, Davaadorj Davaasuren, Sonomdagva Chonokhuu
The importance of management increases in the context of numerous and intensive inner and outer pressures on Protected Areas (PAs). The need to assess the management effectiveness (ME) in protected areas is increasing around the world. The ME assessment helps to improve the management of PAs and to develop a rational, long-term action plan. This study was conducted using the World Wildlife Fund for nature (WWF) Management Effectiveness Tracking Tools methodology (METT) to evaluate the ME of six PAs in central and eastern regions of Mongolia...
December 6, 2018: Environmental Management
Lara Van Niekerk, Susan Taljaard, Janine B Adams, Stephen J Lamberth, Piet Huizinga, Jane K Turpie, Tris H Wooldridge
This paper presents an environmental flow methodology that was developed to accommodate shallow, highly dynamic micro-tidal estuaries found along the wave-dominated coast of South Arica. This method differs to most other approaches that primarily focus on larger permanently open systems having unrestricted inlets. Following an adaptive, design science research approach, the 7-step method adopted both ecohydrological and ecosystem-based concepts, encapsulating key hydrologicalhydrodynamic-biogeochemical processes, as well as biotic responses...
November 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Judith Ilhan, Anne Kupczok, Christian Woehle, Tanita Wein, Nils F Hülter, Philip Rosenstiel, Giddy Landan, Itzhak Mizrahi, Tal Dagan
The ubiquity of plasmids in all prokaryotic phyla and habitats and their ability to transfer between cells marks them as prominent constituents of prokaryotic genomes. Many plasmids are found in their host cell in multiple copies. This leads to an increased mutational supply of plasmid-encoded genes and genetically heterogeneous plasmid genomes. Nonetheless, the segregation of plasmid copies into daughter cells during cell division is considered to occur in the absence of selection on the plasmid alleles. We investigate the implications of random genetic drift of multicopy plasmids during cell division - termed here segregational drift - to plasmid evolution...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Qinghao Song, Zhen Li, Rouke Chen, Xiaopan Ma, Xiang Xiao, Jun Xu
The discovery of hyperthermophiles has dramatically changed our understanding of the habitats in which life can thrive. However, the extreme high temperatures in which these organisms live have severely restricted the development of genetic tools. The archaeon Pyrococcus yayanosii A1 is a strictly anaerobic and piezophilic hyperthermophile that is an ideal model for studies of extreme environmental adaptation. In the present study, we identified a high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-inducible promoter (P hhp ) that controls target gene expression under HHP...
November 30, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Bette J Hecox-Lea, David B Mark Welch
BACKGROUND: Bdelloid rotifers are the oldest, most diverse and successful animal taxon for which males, hermaphrodites, and traditional meiosis are unknown. Their degenerate tetraploid genome, with 2-4 copies of most loci, includes thousands of genes acquired from all domains of life by horizontal transfer. Many bdelloid species thrive in ephemerally aquatic habitats by surviving desiccation at any life stage with no loss of fecundity or lifespan. Their unique genomic diversity and the intense selective pressure of desiccation provide an exceptional opportunity to study the evolution of diversity and novelty in genes involved in DNA repair...
November 28, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Susana Trivinho-Strixino, Fabio Laurindo Da Silva
A new species of Chironomus Meigen, C. rishii (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae) from Brazil, is described and figured as adults male and female, pupa and larva. Adults of C. rishii sp. n. can be recognized by the prominent scutal tubercle and the hypopygium with narrow, elongated and strongly hooked superior volsella. Pupae of this new species are indistinguishable from most of the described Neotropical species, while larvae may be separated by the mentum with deeply incised trifid median tooth and 7 pairs of lateral teeth and the absence of lateral and ventral tubules...
October 25, 2018: Zootaxa
Michał Glądalski, Adam Kaliński, Jarosław Wawrzyniak, Mirosława Bańbura, Marcin Markowski, Joanna Skwarska, Jerzy Bańbura
Most passerines use nests as the exclusive place to lay and incubate eggs and bring nestlings up to fledging. Nests of secondary cavity nesters, like tits, provide a moist, warm and protected habitat for reproduction of blood parasites. Offspring fitness depends on interactions between parental care and environmental constraints. Life-history theory suggests that macro- and micro-parasites may generate selection pressures by affecting host health. In the present study, we replaced natural great tit Parus major nests in two, structurally and floristically contrasting sites (an urban parkland and a rich deciduous forest, located 10 km apart in Łódź, central Poland), with fresh, sterilized, artificial moss-cotton wool nests, twice, on the fifth and tenth day of nestlings life...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Elisabeth S Bakker, Ciska G F Veen, Gerard J N Ter Heerdt, Naomi Huig, Judith M Sarneel
Reed ( Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) beds are important habitat for marsh birds, but are declining throughout Europe. Increasing numbers of the native marsh bird, the Greylag goose ( Anser anser L.), are hypothesized to cause reed bed decline and inhibit restoration of reed beds, but data are largely lacking. In this study, we experimentally tested the effect of grazing by Greylag geese on the growth and expansion of reed growing in belts along lake shorelines. After 5 years of protecting reed from grazing with exclosures, reed stems were over 4-fold denser and taller than in the grazed plots...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jia-Xin Li, Xiu-Hong Zhu, Yong Li, Ying Liu, Zhi-Hao Qian, Xue-Xia Zhang, Yue Sun, Liu-Yang Ji
BACKGROUND: The investigation of the genetic basis of local adaptation in non-model species is an interesting focus of evolutionary biologists and molecular ecologists. Identifying these adaptive genetic variabilities on the genome responsible can provide insight into the genetic mechanism of local adaptation. RESULTS: We investigated the spatial distribution of genetic variation in 22 natural populations of Pterocarya stenoptera across its distribution area in China to provide insights into the complex interplay between multiple environmental variables and adaptive genetic differentiation...
November 27, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Mark D Hunter, Mikhail V Kozlov
1.Animal populations vary in response to a combination of density dependent and density independent forces, which interact to drive their population dynamics. Understanding how abiotic forces mediate the form and strength of density dependent processes remains a central goal of ecology, and is of increasing urgency in a rapidly changing world. 2.Here, we report for the first time that industrial pollution determines the relative strength of rapid and delayed density dependence operating on an animal population...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Andrea J Reid, Andrew K Carlson, Irena F Creed, Erika J Eliason, Peter A Gell, Pieter T J Johnson, Karen A Kidd, Tyson J MacCormack, Julian D Olden, Steve J Ormerod, John P Smol, William W Taylor, Klement Tockner, Jesse C Vermaire, David Dudgeon, Steven J Cooke
In the 12 years since Dudgeon et al. (2006) reviewed major pressures on freshwater ecosystems, the biodiversity crisis in the world's lakes, reservoirs, rivers, streams and wetlands has deepened. While lakes, reservoirs and rivers cover only 2.3% of the Earth's surface, these ecosystems host at least 9.5% of the Earth's described animal species. Furthermore, using the World Wide Fund for Nature's Living Planet Index, freshwater population declines (83% between 1970 and 2014) continue to outpace contemporaneous declines in marine or terrestrial systems...
November 22, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Baogui Liu, Jinfu Liu, Erik Jeppesen, Yuwei Chen, Xia Liu, Wei Zhang
To evaluate the possible effects of habitat type on crustacean plankton (hereafter zooplankton) biomass and body size, a 5-year study (2011 to 2015) was conducted during wet seasons in three habitats in Lake Poyang, China. The lacustrine habitat with the most stable hydrologic regime had the highest zooplankton biomass coinciding with the highest phytoplankton biomass. The riverine habitat with the lowest Secchi depth overall had the largest zooplankton body size, but high zooplankton biomass only in high water level years...
November 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sujay Chattopadhyay, Peter B Chi, Vladimir N Minin, Douglas E Berg, Evgeni V Sokurenko
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a human stomach pathogen, naturally-competent for DNA uptake, and prone to homologous recombination. Extensive homoplasy (i.e., phylogenetically-unlinked identical variations) observed in H. pylori genes is considered a hallmark of such recombination. However, H. pylori also exhibits a high mutation rate. The relative adaptive role of homologous recombination and mutation in species diversity is a highly-debated issue in biology. Recombination results in homoplasy...
November 21, 2018: BMC Genomics
Richard K F Unsworth, Len J McKenzie, Catherine J Collier, Leanne C Cullen-Unsworth, Carlos M Duarte, Johan S Eklöf, Jessie C Jarvis, Benjamin L Jones, Lina M Nordlund
Seagrasses, flowering marine plants that form underwater meadows, play a significant global role in supporting food security, mitigating climate change and supporting biodiversity. Although progress is being made to conserve seagrass meadows in select areas, most meadows remain under significant pressure resulting in a decline in meadow condition and loss of function. Effective management strategies need to be implemented to reverse seagrass loss and enhance their fundamental role in coastal ocean habitats...
November 19, 2018: Ambio
Matthew A Boggie, Daniel P Collins, J Patrick Donnelly, Scott A Carleton
River ecosystems in semi-arid environments provide an array of resources that concentrate biodiversity, but also attract human settlement and support economic development. In the southwestern United States, land-use change, drought, and anthropogenic disturbance are compounding factors which have led to departures from historical conditions of river ecosystems, consequently affecting wildlife habitat, including important wintering areas for migratory birds. The Rio Grande (River) in central New Mexico is the lifeblood of the Middle Rio Grande Valley (MRGV), maintaining large urban and agricultural centers and riparian and wetland resources, which disproportionately support a diversity of wildlife...
2018: PloS One
Nathalie Smitz, Olivia Jouvenet, Fredrick Ambwene Ligate, William-George Crosmary, Dennis Ikanda, Philippe Chardonnet, Alessandro Fusari, Kenny Meganck, François Gillet, Mario Melletti, Johan R Michaux
The African lion (Panthera leo), listed as a vulnerable species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Appendix II of CITES), is mainly impacted by indiscriminate killing and prey base depletion. Additionally, habitat loss by land degradation and conversion has led to the isolation of some subpopulations, potentially decreasing gene flow and increasing inbreeding depression risks. Genetic drift resulting from weakened connectivity between strongholds can affect the genetic health of the species. In the present study, we investigated the evolutionary history of the species at different spatiotemporal scales...
2018: PloS One
Behi K Fodjo, Benjamin G Koudou, Emmanuel Tia, Jasmina Saric, Prisca B N'dri, Marius G Zoh, Christabelle S Gba, Alida Kropf, Nestor B Kesse, Mouhamadou S Chouaïbou
Background: Insecticide resistance monitoring of the malaria vectors to different classes of insecticides is necessary for resistance management. Malaria vector control management approaches are essentially based on IRS and LLINs. However, insecticide resistance is caused by several sources of selection and in case the selection pressure is from agricultural practices, then measures need to be taken to avoid a failure of the control methods put in place. The current study was undertaken to monitor the susceptibility of vectors to different classes of insecticides in areas of varying agrochemical use patterns...
2018: BioMed Research International
Martin Laporte, Patrick Berrebi, Julien Claude, Dolors Vinyoles, Quim Pou-Rovira, Jean-Claude Raymond, Pierre Magnan
Sexual selection is considered the major cause of sexual dimorphism, but recent observations suggest that natural selection may play a more important role in the evolution of sex differentiation than previously recognized. Therefore, studying the trade-offs between natural selection and sexual selection is crucial to a better understanding of the ecology underlying the evolution of sexual dimorphism. The freshwater blenny Salaria fluviatilis , a fish inhabiting lakes and rivers around the Mediterranean Sea, displays strong sexual dimorphism in size, shape, and behavior (i...
April 2018: Current Zoology
Beneharo Rodríguez, Airam Rodríguez, Felipe Siverio, Manuel Siverio
The specific spatial distribution and habitat association-strongly influenced by environmental factors or competitive interactions-are major issues in ecology and conservation. We located and georeferenced nesting sites of five cliff-nesting raptors (Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus [a locally extinct species], common buzzard Buteo buteo , osprey Pandion haliaetus , common kestrel Falco tinnunculus , Barbary falcon Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides ), and common raven Corvus corax on one of the most biodiverse hotspot within the Canary Islands (Teno, Tenerife)...
April 2018: Current Zoology
Sarah-Jo Paquette, Rahat Zaheer, Kim Stanford, James Thomas, Tim Reuter
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a subgroup of E. coli causing human diseases. Methods to control STEC in livestock and humans are limited. These and other emerging pathogens are a global concern and novel mitigation strategies are required. Habitats populated by bacteria are subjected to competition pressures due to limited space and resources but they use various strategies to compete in natural environments. Our objective was to evaluate non-pathogenic E. coli strains isolated from cattle feces for their ability to out-compete STEC...
November 2, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
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