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Pressurized habitat

Hanna Hajdukiewicz, Bartłomiej Wyżga
Changes in hydromorphological conditions in the mountainous Czarny Dunajec River over the last six decades were investigated through the analysis of archival aerial photos and contemporary orthophotos. The aerial images from 7 dates between 1954 and 2009 were used to evaluate changes in selected hydromorphological parameters in six reaches delimited along the river course. As a result of channelization works and in-stream gravel mining, most of the analysed river course experienced dramatic hydromorphological alterations in the active river zone: change from the multi-thread to a single-thread channel, river narrowing associated with a reduced occurrence or elimination of channel bars and islands, transformation of the gravelly bed to a bedrock-alluvial or bedrock bed, stabilization of river banks with engineering structures, and disruption of longitudinal river continuity by transverse hydraulic structures...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
E M A Strain, R L Morris, M J Bishop, E Tanner, P Steinberg, S E Swearer, C MacLeod, K A Alexander
Ecological engineering principles are increasingly being applied to develop multifunctional artificial structures or rehabilitated habitats in coastal areas. Ecological engineering initiatives are primarily driven by marine scientists and coastal managers, but often the views of key user groups, which can strongly influence the success of projects, are not considered. We used an online survey and participatory mapping exercise to investigate differences in priority goals, sites and attitudes towards ecological engineering between marine scientists and coastal managers as compared to other stakeholders...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
David R Bryan, Jeremiah Blondeau, Ashley Siana, Jerald S Ault
About nine years ago (circa 2009), Indo-Pacific lionfishes ( Pterois volitans and P. miles ) invaded the south Florida coral reef ecosystem. During the intervening period of time, there has been substantial research on their biology, life history, demography, and habitat preferences; however, little is known concerning their regional population status and trends in the region. Here, we use a large-scale fisheries independent reef fish visual survey to investigate lionfish population status among three south Florida regions: Dry Tortugas, Florida Keys, and southeast Florida...
2018: PeerJ
Leijiane F Sousa, Christina N Zdenek, James S Dobson, Bianca Op den Brouw, Francisco Coimbra, Amber Gillett, Tiago H M Del-Rei, Hipócrates de M Chalkidis, Sávio Sant'Anna, Marisa M Teixeira-da-Rocha, Kathleen Grego, Silvia R Travaglia Cardoso, Ana M Moura da Silva, Bryan G Fry
Lancehead pit-vipers ( Bothrops genus) are an extremely diverse and medically important group responsible for the greatest number of snakebite envenomations and deaths in South America. Bothrops atrox (common lancehead), responsible for majority of snakebites and related deaths within the Brazilian Amazon, is a highly adaptable and widely distributed species, whose venom variability has been related to several factors, including geographical distribution and habitat type. This study examined venoms from four B...
October 11, 2018: Toxins
Trishna Dutta, Sandeep Sharma, Ruth DeFries
Background: Maintaining and restoring connectivity between source populations is essential for the long term viability of wide-ranging species, many of which occur in landscapes that are under pressure to meet increasing infrastructure needs. Identifying barriers in corridors can help inform conservation and infrastructure development agencies so that development objectives can be achieved without compromising conservation goals. Here, we use the tiger landscape in central India as a case study to identify barriers, associate them with existing infrastructure, and quantify the potential improvement by restoring or mitigating barriers...
2018: PeerJ
Jingru Wang, Minghao Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Shan Sun, Aiping Zhang, Ning Chen, Changming Zhao
Homoploid hybrid speciation (HHS), characterized by hybrid speciation without a change in chromosome number and facilitated by ecological divergence, is well known in angiosperms but rare in gymnosperms. Picea purpurea as one of two demonstrably conifer diploid hybrid species in gymnosperms has been found to occupy colder alpine habitats than its parents. However, studies on whether leaf frost tolerance and hydraulic safety exhibit transgressive segregation and thus play a role in conifer HHS are still lacking...
October 2018: AoB Plants
John S Woods, Francesca Verones
Despite the high amount of pressure placed on benthic habitats by anthropogenic activities, particularly in coastal shelf areas, as yet, the impact of seabed damaging activities on ecosystem quality has not been included in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). We present a globally applicable impact characterisation approach, parameterized within 17 marine ecoregions in Europe. Our modelling approach includes two perspectives: the single-impact perspective and the repeated-impact perspective. The approach for the single-impact perspective is a function of the spatio-temporal scale and intensity of the anthropogenic disturbance, the initial benthic response, and an estimated ecological recovery period...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Priscila Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Alejandro G Fernández de Castro, Jaume Seguí, Anna Traveset, Pedro A Sosa
Background and Aims: Alpine oceanic ecosystems are considered amongst the most ephemeral and restricted habitats, with a biota highly vulnerable to climate changes and disturbances. As an example of an alpine insular endemic, the past and future population genetic structure and diversity, and the future distribution of Viola cheiranthifolia (Violaceae), endemic to Tenerife (Canary Islands), were estimated. The main goals were to predict distribution changes of this alpine oceanic plant under climate change, and to assist in actions for its conservation...
October 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
Kumud B Mishra, Anamika Mishra, Jiří Kubásek, Otmar Urban, Arnd G Heyer, Govindjee
Cold acclimation modifies the photosynthetic machinery and enables plants to survive at sub-zero temperatures, whereas in warm habitats, many species suffer even at non-freezing temperatures. We have measured chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) and CO2 assimilation to investigate the effects of cold acclimation, and of low temperatures, on a cold-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana accession C24. Upon excitation with low intensity (40 µmol photons m- 2 s- 1 ) ~ 620 nm light, slow (minute range) ChlF transients, at ~ 22 °C, showed two waves in the SMT phase (S, semi steady-state; M, maximum; T, terminal steady-state), whereas CO2 assimilation showed a linear increase with time...
October 10, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
Felix Liechti, Silke Bauer, Kiran L Dhanjal-Adams, Tamara Emmenegger, Pavel Zehtindjiev, Steffen Hahn
Background: Over the past decade, the miniaturisation of animal borne tags such as geolocators and GPS-transmitters has revolutionized our knowledge of the whereabouts of migratory species. Novel light-weight multi-sensor loggers (1.4 g), which harbour sensors for measuring ambient light intensity, atmospheric pressure, temperature and acceleration, were fixed to two long-distance migrant bird species - eurasian hoopoe ( Upupa epops ) and great reed warbler ( Acrocephalus arundinaceus )...
2018: Movement Ecology
D J Barshis, C Birkeland, R J Toonen, R D Gates, J H Stillman
Spatial heterogeneity in environmental characteristics can drive adaptive differentiation when contrasting environments exert divergent selection pressures. This environmental and genetic heterogeneity can substantially influence population and community resilience to disturbance events. Here, we investigated corals from the highly variable back reef habitats of Ofu Island in American Samoa that thrive in thermal conditions known to elicit widespread bleaching and mortality elsewhere. To investigate the relative importance of acclimation vs...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Leandro Abade, Jeremy Cusack, Remington J Moll, Paolo Strampelli, Amy J Dickman, David W Macdonald, Robert A Montgomery
Understanding large carnivore occurrence patterns in anthropogenic landscapes adjacent to protected areas is central to developing actions for species conservation in an increasingly human-dominated world. Among large carnivores, leopards (Panthera pardus) are the most widely distributed felid. Leopards occupying anthropogenic landscapes frequently come into conflict with humans, which often results in leopard mortality. Leopards' use of anthropogenic landscapes, and their frequent involvement with conflict, make them an insightful species for understanding the determinants of carnivore occurrence across human-dominated habitats...
2018: PloS One
Claudio P González, Mario Edding, Rodrigo Torres, Patricio H Manríquez
The effects of ocean warming and ocean acidification on developmental and reproductive traits of Lessonia trabeculata were evaluated. Meiospores were cultured for 35 days in an experimental mesocosm where temperature (~15 and 19 °C) and partial CO2 pressure (pCO2 , ~400 and 1300 μatm) were controlled. The results indicate that germination was reduced at 19 °C, whereas the increase of pCO2 only had effects at 15 °C. Likewise, the increase in temperature significantly affected the vegetative growth of female gametophytes...
October 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Hyun-Ju Yoon, Eun-Jin Joo, Dong-Soo Ha, Hyung-Kyu Nam, Jongmin Yoon
Some seabirds commonly use artificially reclaimed lands, which are frequently located next to mainland environments, for breeding. Nest predation risk caused by birds or mammals from the mainland has negative influence on fitness-related costs and distribution of seabirds. Here, we sought to link potential factors, specifically those related to nest predation and nest environment, with breeding performance and colony movements of the Saunders's gull (Saundersilarus saundersi), a vulnerable species, on a large reclaimed area (1350 ha) in Incheon in Republic of Korea...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Carlos Zapata, Araceli Puente, Andrés García, Javier Garcia-Alba, Jorge Espinoza
Tropical estuaries are one of the most valuable ecosystems on the planet because of the number of ecosystem services they provide. The increasing anthropogenic pressure to which these estuaries are subject has caused a reduction in their natural capital stock. Therefore, the application of a pragmatic and rational ecosystem-based management approach to sustainably manage the multiple ecosystem services provided by this ecosystem is necessary. The aim of our study is to present an approach that combines prospective scenarios with habitat-based perspective to assess the supply capacity of ecosystem services, plus determine the impact of protected areas in an urbanized tropical estuary...
2018: PloS One
Roschong Boonyarittichaikij, Elin Verbrugghe, Daan Dekeukeleire, Diederik Strubbe, Sarah Van Praet, Robbe De Beelde, Lieze Rouffaer, Frank Pasmans, Dries Bonte, Kris Verheyen, Luc Lens, An Martel
The hatching success of a bird's egg is one of the key determinants of avian reproductive success, which may be compromised by microbial infections causing embryonic death. During incubation, outer eggshell bacterial communities pose a constant threat of pathogen translocation and embryo infection. One of the parental strategies to mitigate this threat is the incorporation of maternal immune factors into the egg albumen and yolk. It has been suggested that habitat changes like forest fragmentation can affect environmental factors and life-history traits that are linked to egg contamination...
2018: PloS One
William S Symes, David P Edwards, Jukka Miettinen, Frank E Rheindt, L Roman Carrasco
Tropical forest diversity is simultaneously threatened by habitat loss and exploitation for wildlife trade. Quantitative conservation assessments have previously considered these threats separately, yet their impacts frequently act together. We integrate forest extent maps in 2000 and 2015 with a method of quantifying exploitation pressure based upon a species' commercial value and forest accessibility. We do so for 308 forest-dependent bird species, of which 77 are commercially traded, in the Southeast Asian biodiversity hotspot of Sundaland...
October 3, 2018: Nature Communications
Vikas Sharma, Fauzul Mobeen, Tulika Prakash
Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are found in a wide-range of habitats and are used as important probiotics. Thus, exploration of their functional traits at the genus level is of utmost significance. Besides, this genus has been demonstrated to exhibit an open pan-genome based on the limited number of genomes used in earlier studies. However, the number of genomes is a crucial factor for pan-genome calculations. We have analyzed the pan-genome of a comparatively larger dataset of 215 members of the genus Bifidobacterium belonging to different habitats, which revealed an open nature...
October 1, 2018: Genes
F Roth, F Saalmann, T Thomson, D J Coker, R Villalobos, B H Jones, C Wild, S Carvalho
The loss of coral cover is often accompanied by an increase of benthic algae, a decline in biodiversity and habitat complexity. However, it remains unclear how surrounding communities influence the trajectories of re-colonization between pulse disturbance events. Over a 12-month field experiment in the central Red Sea, we examined how healthy (hard-coral dominated) and degraded (algae-dominated) reef areas influence recruitment and succession patterns of benthic reef foundation communities on bare substrates...
September 20, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
David J Duffy, Christine Schnitzler, Lorraine Karpinski, Rachel Thomas, Jenny Whilde, Catherine Eastman, Calvin Yang, Aleksandar Krstic, Devon Rollinson, Bette Zirkelbach, Kelsey Yetsko, Brooke Burkhalter, Mark Q Martindale
Wildlife populations are under intense anthropogenic pressures, with the geographic range of many species shrinking, dramatic reductions in population numbers and undisturbed habitats, and biodiversity loss. It is postulated that we are in the midst of a sixth (Anthropocene) mass extinction event, the first to be induced by human activity. Further, threatening vulnerable species is the increased rate of emerging diseases, another consequence of anthropogenic activities. Innovative approaches are required to help maintain healthy populations until the chronic underlying causes of these issues can be addressed...
2018: Communications biology
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