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Pressurized habitat

Atsushi Ishimatsu, Hieu Van Mai, Karen L M Martin
Although fishes by nature are aquatic, many species reproduce in such a way that their embryos are exposed to air either occasionally or constantly during incubation. We examine the ecological context and review specific examples of reproduction by fishes at the air-water interface, including fishes that do and do not breathe air. Four modes of reproduction at the air-water interface are described across 18 teleost Orders, from fresh water, estuaries and sea water. Mode 1, the most common type of reproduction by fishes at the air-water interface, includes 21 Families of mostly marine teleosts that spawn in water onto a substrate surface, on vegetation, or into hollow objects such as shells that will later be continuously or occasionally exposed to air...
August 13, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Michael Salmon, Christina Coppenrath, Benjamin Higgins
In this study, we compare and contrast armoring strategies during early ontogeny among three related species of marine turtles: the hawksbill, a species that diverged about 29 mya from the loggerhead and Kemp's ridley, which diverged from one another about 16 mya. Our purpose was to determine whether there was a correlation between divergence time and the evolution of unique morphological armoring specializations among these species. To find out, we completed a more detailed analysis of shell morphology for all of the species that revealed the following patterns...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Antonio C de Andrade, Allana B de Sousa
Tool use and extractive foraging could be drivers for right hand use preference. The robust capuchins, Sapajus, are more specialized for destructive and extractive foraging than the gracile capuchins, Cebus. Thus, we predicted them to show right-hand preference and higher rates of extractive foraging when compared to the gracile capuchins. We hypothesized that capuchins that evolved in dry habitats are predisposed to show higher rates of extractive foraging and right-hand preference. We employed the tube task (152 individuals) and an extractive foraging task (212 individuals) in seven species of capuchins in captive settings...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Andreas Fahlman, Frants H Jensen, Peter L Tyack, Randall S Wells
Bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ) are highly versatile breath-holding predators that have adapted to a wide range of foraging niches from rivers and coastal ecosystems to deep-water oceanic habitats. Considerable research has been done to understand how bottlenose dolphins manage O2 during diving, but little information exists on other gases or how pressure affects gas exchange. Here we used a dynamic multi-compartment gas exchange model to estimate blood and tissue O2 , CO2 , and N2 from high-resolution dive records of two different common bottlenose dolphin ecotypes inhabiting shallow (Sarasota Bay) and deep (Bermuda) habitats...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ferran Sayol, Philip A Downing, Andrew N Iwaniuk, Joan Maspons, Daniel Sol
Theory and evidence suggest that some selective pressures are more common on islands than in adjacent mainland habitats, leading evolution to follow predictable trends. The existence of predictable evolutionary trends has nonetheless been difficult to demonstrate, mainly because of the challenge of separating in situ evolution from sorting processes derived from colonization events. Here we use brain size measurements of >1900 avian species to reveal the existence of one such trend: increased brain size in island dwellers...
July 31, 2018: Nature Communications
Wei Li, Brendan J Hicks, Mingli Lin, Chuanbo Guo, Tanglin Zhang, Jiashou Liu, Zhongjie Li, David A Beauchamp
Mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi, a valuable piscivorous fish, have been stocked into many lakes in China since the 1990s. This study did the first attempt to evaluate the ecological effects of hatchery-reared mandarin fish stocking in the Yangtze River basin lakes. Our study demonstrated a significant change in fish community composition after mandarin fish stocking, but no fish extinction was observed. No significant difference was observed in the total density of 13 forage fish before and after mandarin fish stocking, but the total biomass showed a significant decline after mandarin fish stocking...
July 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ke Li, Cory O Brant, Mar Huertas, Edward J Hessler, Gellert Mezei, Anne M Scott, Thomas R Hoye, Weiming Li
Olfactory cues provide critical information for spatial orientation of fish, especially in the context of anadromous migrations. Born in freshwater, juveniles of anadromous fish descend to the ocean where they grow into adults before migrating back into freshwater to spawn. The reproductive migrants, therefore, are under selective pressures to locate streams optimal for offspring survival. Many anadromous fish use olfactory cues to orient toward suitable streams. However, no behaviorally active compounds have been identified as migratory cues...
July 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jordan S Goetze, Tim J Langlois, Joe McCarter, Colin A Simpfendorfer, Alec Hughes, Jacob Tingo Leve, Stacy D Jupiter
Remote island nations face a number of challenges in addressing concerns about shark population status, including access to rigorously collected data and resources to manage fisheries. At present, very little data are available on shark populations in the Solomon Islands and scientific surveys to document shark and ray diversity and distribution have not been completed. We aimed to provide a baseline of the relative abundance and diversity of reef sharks and rays and assess the major drivers of reef shark abundance/biomass in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands using stereo baited remote underwater video...
2018: PloS One
A Mentzafou, E Dimitriou
The water quality of Koumoundourou Lake, a heavily modified, peri-urban, brackish and shallow lake near Athens, Greece, is under multiple stressors due to the industrial activities in the catchment area and natural pollution pressures. Although the broader area has undergone significant land use changes since the beginning of the 20th century converting it from rural to heavily industrialized, Koumoundourou Lake remained as one of the few habitats in Attica Region, for large numbers of aquatic birds. The water quality of the lake has been recently improved, which contributed to the increase of aquatic birds' population in the area and to the higher, in relation to the past, nitrogen inputs from natural sources...
July 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ronald C Estoque, Soe W Myint, Chuyuan Wang, Asif Ishtiaque, Toe T Aung, Lucy Emerton, Makoto Ooba, Yasuaki Hijioka, Myat S Mon, Zhe Wang, Chao Fan
Myanmar is one of the mangrove-richest countries in the world, providing valuable ecosystem services to people. However, due to deforestation driven primarily by agricultural expansion, Myanmar's mangrove forest cover has declined dramatically over the past few decades, while what remains is still under pressure. To support management planning, accurate quantification of mangrove forest cover changes on a national scale is needed. In this study, we quantified Myanmar's mangrove forest cover changes between 2000 and 2014 using remotely sensed data, examined the environmental impacts of such changes, and estimated the changes in the economic values of mangrove ecosystem services in the country...
July 27, 2018: Global Change Biology
Makiko Kosugi, Fumino Maruo, Takeshi Inoue, Norio Kurosawa, Akinori Kawamata, Hiroyuki Koike, Yasuhiro Kamei, Sakae Kudoh, Satoshi Imura
Background and Aims: All photosynthetic organisms are faced with photoinhibition, which would lead to death in severe environments. Because light quality and light intensity fluctuate dynamically in natural microenvironments, quantitative and qualitative analysis of photoinhibition is important to clarify how this environmental pressure has impacted ecological behaviour in different organisms. Methods: We evaluated the wavelength dependency of photoinactivation to photosystem II (PSII) of Prasiola crispa (green alga), Umbilicaria decussata (lichen) and Ceratodon purpureus (bryophyte) harvested from East Antarctica...
July 23, 2018: Annals of Botany
Maureen S McCarthy, Jack D Lester, Kevin E Langergraber, Craig B Stanford, Linda Vigilant
Habitat fragmentation is a leading threat to global biodiversity. Dispersal plays a key role in gene flow and population viability, but the impact of fragmentation on dispersal patterns remains poorly understood. Among chimpanzees, males typically remain in their natal communities while females often disperse. However, habitat loss and fragmentation may cause severe ecological disruptions, potentially resulting in decreased fitness benefits of male philopatry and limited female dispersal ability. To investigate this issue, we genotyped nearly 900 non-invasively collected chimpanzee fecal samples across a fragmented forest habitat that may function as a corridor between two large continuous forests in Uganda, and used the spatial associations among co-sampled genotypes to attribute a total of 229 individuals to 10 distinct communities, including 9 communities in the corridor habitat and 1 in continuous forest...
July 27, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Andrew M Boddicker, Annika C Mosier
Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) play a critical role in the mitigation of nitrogen pollution by metabolizing nitrite to nitrate, which is removed via assimilation, denitrification, or anammox. Recent studies showed that NOB are phylogenetically and metabolically diverse, yet most of our knowledge of NOB comes from only a few cultured representatives. Using cultivation and genomic sequencing, we identified four putative Candidatus Nitrotoga NOB species from freshwater sediments and water column samples in Colorado, USA...
July 26, 2018: ISME Journal
Andrés Link, Krista Milich, Anthony Di Fiore
Species-specific demographic parameters and life history variables are important for understanding how individual primate taxa have adapted to evolutionary and ecological pressures and for conducting interspecific comparisons as well as for conducting population viability analyses and for managing captive populations. Here, we describe results from a 12+ year study of the demographic dynamics of a wild group of white-bellied spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth belzebuth) living near the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in a largely pristine rainforest in western Amazonia...
July 26, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Hiroshi Ozaki, Riichi Oguchi, Kouki Hikosaka
The values of many plant traits are often different even within a species as a result of local adaptation. Here, we studied how multiple climate variables influence trait values in Arabidopsis thaliana grown under common conditions. We examined 9 climate variables and 29 traits related to vegetative growth rate in 44 global A. thaliana accessions grown at ambient or elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) and applied a multiple regression analysis. We found that genetic variations in the traits related to growth rates were associated with various climate variables...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Marni LaFleur, Lisa Gould, Michelle Sauther, Tara Clarke, Kim Reuter
As with many other species in the primate order, ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are threatened with extinction. Our articles documented declines in wild ring-tailed lemur populations and noted that fewer than 2,500 wild ring-tailed lemurs are known to persist in 32 [Gould and Sauther: Primate Conservation 2016; 30: 89-101] and 34 [LaFleur et al.: Folia Primatologica 2017; 87: 320-330] sites. A criticism of our articles [Murphy et al.: International Journal of Primatology 2017; 38: 623-628] suggested that we have inadequately sampled ring-tailed lemur populations and habitats, and misused the literature...
July 25, 2018: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Amruta Varudkar, Uma Ramakrishnan
Anthropophilic species ("commensal" species) that are completely dependent upon anthropic habitats experience different selective pressures particularly in terms of food than their noncommensal counterparts. Using a next-generation sequencing approach, we characterized and compared the gut microflora community of 53 commensal Rattus rattus and 59 noncommensal Rattus satarae captured in 10 locations in the Western Ghats, India. We observed that, while species identity was important in characterizing the microflora communities of the two Rattus hosts, environmental factors also had a significant effect...
July 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Heidi L Fuchs, Gregory P Gerbi, Elias J Hunter, Adam J Christman
Marine population dynamics often depend on dispersal of larvae with infinitesimal odds of survival, creating selective pressure for larval behaviors that enhance transport to suitable habitats. One intriguing possibility is that larvae navigate using physical signals dominating their natal environments. We tested whether flow-induced larval behaviors vary with adults' physical environments, using congeneric snail larvae from the wavy continental shelf ( Tritia trivittata ) and from turbulent inlets ( Tritia obsoleta )...
August 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
T Brendler, J A Brinckmann, U Schippmann
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. is a multiple-use tree species used for fodder, timber and is tapped for an oleo-resin known internationally as Indian frankincense or Indian olibanum. The main commercial uses of B. serrata oleo-resin are medicinal, religious, and in cosmetics and perfumery. B. serrata, like other frankincense species, is an important source of boswellic acid used in the pharmaceutical industry. India is the only producer of B. serrata oleo-resin, mainly from the states of Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Jharkhand...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Chaofang Zhong, Maozhen Han, Shaojun Yu, Pengshuo Yang, Hongjun Li, Kang Ning
Background: Shewanella strains are important dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria which are widely distributed in diverse habitats. Despite efforts to genomically characterize Shewanella , knowledge of the molecular components, functional information and evolutionary patterns remain lacking, especially for their compatibility in the metal-reducing pathway. The increasing number of genome sequences of Shewanella strains offers a basis for pan-genome studies. Results: A comparative pan-genome analysis was conducted to study genomic diversity and evolutionary relationships among 24 Shewanella strains...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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