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Pressure vessel

Jacques M Huyghe
Numerous researchers have found that capillary vessel haematocrit depends on the vasodilatory state of the arterioles. At rest, vessel haematocrit is down to 15 %, suggesting a red blood cell velocity three times higher than the plasma velocity. This finding is analysed in the context of present understanding of propulsion of red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma by means of the arteriovenous pressure gradient. Interfacial forces between the red blood cells and the plasma are proposed as a rational explanation of the observed red blood cell velocities...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Fernando Luis Bernal Páez, Miguel Alcaraz Baños, Jose Manuel Felices Abad, Ana Bernal Belmonte, Gabriel Gijon-Nogueron, Manuel Pardo Rios
To assess the quality of life (QoL) of treated patients in order to evaluate the success of peripheral transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and correlate physical parameters with clinical progress at 6 months post-PTA.According to TASC II classifications, 69 patients were selected for PTA. Clinical evaluation and diagnostic tests were performed before, after and after 6 months following PTA. The SF-36 QoL questionnaire was added as an additional parameter.Fifty one patients were included in the study. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) increased from 0...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Farhood Saremi, Cameron Hassani, Leah M Lin, Christopher Lee, Alison G Wilcox, Fernando Fleischman, Mark J Cunningham
Treatment of thoracic aortic dissection remains highly challenging and is rapidly evolving. Common classifications of thoracic aortic dissection include the Stanford classification (types A and B) and the DeBakey classification (types I to III), as well as a new supplementary classification geared toward endovascular decision making. By using various imaging techniques, the extent of the dissection, the location of the primary intimal tear, the shape of the aortic arch, and the zonal involvement of the aortic arch-factors that affect the treatment strategy-can easily be identified...
October 12, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Valérie E Stegehuis, Gilbert Wm Wijntjens, Tadashi Murai, Jan J Piek, Tim P van de Hoef
Fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention results in better long-term clinical outcomes compared with coronary angiography alone in intermediate stenoses in stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary physiology measurements have emerged for clinical decision making in interventional cardiology, but the focus lies mainly on epicardial vessels rather than the impact of these stenoses on the myocardial microcirculation. The latter can be quantified by measuring the coronary flow reserve (CFR), a combined pressure and flow index with a strong ability to predict clinical outcomes in CAD...
August 2018: European Cardiology
Kei Takayama, Hiroki Kaneko, Yasuki Ito, Keiko Kataoka, Takeshi Iwase, Tetsuhiro Yasuma, Toshiyuki Matsuura, Taichi Tsunekawa, Hideyuki Shimizu, Ayana Suzumura, Eimei Ra, Tomohiko Akahori, Hiroko Terasaki
The traditional classification of hypertensive retinopathy was based on the Keith-Wagener-Barker (KWB) grading, which is a subjective scaling system, and it is difficult to distinguish between the first and second grades. Retinal and choroidal vasculatures are affected by systemic hypertension, although retinal vasculature changes with age, axial length, intraocular pressure, and retinal diseases. It is necessary to establish a new objective method to assess hypertensive vascular changes. In the present study, we have examined the vasculature of the macular choriocapillaris in order to establish a new objective method to assess hypertensive vascular changes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA)...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Takahiro Nakajima, Ichiro Yoshino
Recent advance in bronchology and interventional pulmonology contributes to improve the quality of patient care in thoracic surgery. Narrow band imaging (NBI) combined with high definition bronchoscopy clearly visualize the aberrant tumor vessels on the mucosa of endobronchial malignancy. It helps the preoperative surgical planning for the clear bronchial margin during the surgery. The index of hemoglobin (IHb) show the approximate amount of hemoglobin within the mucosal surface and we use the IHb for the evaluation of local circulation of bronchial anastomosis after bronchoplasty...
September 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Yoko Azuma, Akira Iyoda
While the recent emergence of energy-based surgical techniques and soft coagulation has made surgical procedures less invasive, the safety and proper use of such advances have yet to be investigated. Herein we review the experimental and clinical use of ultrasonically-activated coagulating shears, a vessel sealing system, incorporating ultrasonic and vessel sealing technology, and a soft coagulation system in thoracic surgery. All energy devices have been reported to be safe for use on pulmonary vessels, and use in combination with a ligature appears to be adequate...
September 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Gilda Cennamo, Vittoria Lanni, Rosa Abbate, Nunzio Velotti, Federica Fossataro, Federica Sparnelli, Mario R Romano, Giuseppe de Crecchio, Giovanni Cennamo
AIM: Macular pigment density and microvascular density on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) were measured in a cohort of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients with retinopathy in the attempt to shed light on the pathophysiology of this condition. METHODS: Eighty-two consecutive eyes of 59 patients with diabetic retinopathy examined at the Eye Clinic of the University of Naples Federico II from November 2016 to April 2017 were enrolled in this prospective study...
October 11, 2018: Ophthalmic Research
Jing Liu, Bryan Yan, Yuanting Zhang, Xiao-Rong Ding, Su Peng, Ni Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To fight the "silent killer" hypertension, continuous blood pressure (BP) monitoring has been one of the most desired functions in wearable electronics. However, current BP measuring principles and protocols either involve a vessel occlusion process with a cuff or require multiple sensing nodes on the body, which makes it difficult to implement them in compact wearable electronics like smartwatches and wristbands with long-term wearability. METHODS: In this work, we proposed a highly-compact multi-wavelength photoplethysmography (MWPPG) module and a depth-resolved MWPPG approach for continuous monitoring of BP and systemic vascular resistance (SVR)...
October 9, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
S Magder
Measurement of arterial pressure is one of the most basic elements of patient management. Arterial pressure is determined by the volume ejected by the heart into the arteries, the elastance of the walls of the arteries, and the rate at which the blood flows out of the arteries. This review will discuss the three forces that determine the pressure in a vessel: elastic, kinetic, and gravitational energy. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of the distribution of arterial resistances, the elastance of the walls of the large vessels, and critical closing pressures in small arteries and arterioles...
October 11, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Stefan Gh Heinen, Wouter Huberts, Daniel Af van den Heuvel, Frans N van de Vosse, Jean-Paul Pm de Vries, Tammo Delhaas
Objectives To date, the ultimate decision to treat iliac artery stenoses in patients suffering from symptomatic peripheral arterial disease is based on the patient's symptoms and on visual inspection of angiographical images. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of geometry-based methods (i.e. visual inspection and quantitative vascular analysis (Viewforum version R7.2v1 Advanced vessel analysis, Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands) of 3D rotational angiography) to identify the severity of equivocal iliac artery stenosis in peripheral arterial disease patients with intra-arterial hyperemic pressure measurements (gold standard) as a reference...
October 10, 2018: Vascular
Lu Wang, Lijun Xie, Sufeng Zhou, Yuanyuan Wang, Juan Chen, Yanli Zhou, Yun Liu, Hongwen Zhang, Mingxue Tao, Ning Ou, Feng Shao
Tylerdipine hydrochloride is a novel L-type and T-type dual calcium channel antagonist that has the potential effects of expanding blood vessels and lowering blood pressure. It is expected to reduce the side effect of ankle edema observed with other drugs in the same class. A randomized, open-label, crossover phase 1 study was performed to evaluate the effect of food on the bioavailability of tylerdipine. Fourteen healthy male volunteers were enrolled. The administration of tylerdipine after a high-fat meal increased the bioavailability of tylerdipine...
October 10, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
Kumble S Madhusudhan, Ragini Kilambi, Shalimar, Sujoy Pal, Raju Sharma, Deep N Srivastava
Background/Aims: To compare splenic stiffness (SS) with intra-operative portal pressures (PPs) in patients of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO). Methods: Twenty-one patients (14 males; 7 females) of mean age 20.4 years with clinical and sonographic diagnosis of EHPVO were included in this approved prospective study. Endoscopy for esophageal varices (EV) was done in all patients followed by ultrasonographic 2D shear wave elastography (SWE) of spleen. Three values were taken at different areas of spleen avoiding major vessels and mean was calculated...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
David Ryan Chapman, Raymond Elliot Ho, Antonio Gangemi
INTRODUCTION: Compared to arterial aneurysms, venous pseudoaneurysms are rare and even more rare are external jugular vein aneurysms (EJV). To our knowledge, there are less than 10 well-documented cases of EJV aneurysms accessible. PRESENTATION OF CASE: Our patient is a 75 year old hispanic female who noticed a painless right neck mass two months prior. Ultrasound confirmed a cystic mass of unknown etiology containing doppler flow. Excisional biopsy revealed an EJV aneurysm with pathologic results of: blood, calcified debris, and a vessel wall consistent with EJV pseudoaneurysm...
September 14, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Takuya Nishikawa, Keita Saku, Takuya Kishi, Takeshi Tohyama, Kohtaro Abe, Yasuhiro Oga, Takahiro Arimura, Takafumi Sakamoto, Keimei Yoshida, Kenji Sunagawa, Hiroyuki Tsutsui
AIMS: Although pulmonary arterial remolding in pulmonary hypertension (PH) changes the mechanical properties of the pulmonary artery, most clinical studies have focused on static mechanical properties (resistance), and dynamic mechanical properties (compliance) have not attracted much attention. As arterial compliance plays a significant role in determining afterload of the right ventricle, we evaluated how PH changes the dynamic mechanical properties of the pulmonary artery using high-resolution, wideband input impedance (ZPA )...
October 6, 2018: Life Sciences
Dan-Feng Xu, Guo-Xin Qu, Shi-Gui Yan, Xun-Zi Cai
Microbubbles magnify the acoustic pressure of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and may enhance its bioeffect for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This study compared the effect of this novel microbubble-mediated ultrasound (MUS) with that of the traditional LIPUS on osteogenesis and neovascularization in a rabbit model of steroid-associated osteonecrosis. We hypothesized that MUS might outweigh LIPUS on promoting osteogenesis and neovascularization in steroid-associated osteonecrosis. The bilateral femoral head necrosis was induced by lipopolysaccharide and methylprednisolone in the rabbits...
2018: BioMed Research International
Doran S Mix, Michael C Stoner, Steven W Day, Michael S Richards
Ultrasound (US) elastography, or elasticity imaging, is an adjunct imaging technique that utilizes sequential US images of soft tissues to measure the tissue motion and infer or quantify the underlying biomechanical characteristics. For abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), biomechanical properties such as changes in the tissue's elastic modulus and estimates of the tissue stress may be essential for assessing the need for the surgical intervention. Abdominal aortic aneurysms US elastography could be a useful tool to monitor AAA progression and identify changes in biomechanical properties characteristic of high-risk patients...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yulu Shi, Michael J Thrippleton, Gordon W Blair, David A Dickie, Ian Marshall, Iona Hamilton, Fergus N Doubal, Francesca Chappell, Joanna M Wardlaw
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) contributes to 25% of ischemic strokes and 45% of dementias. We aimed to investigate the role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and intracranial pulsatility in SVD. We scanned 60 patients with minor ischemic stroke, representing a range of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). We rated WMH and perivascular spaces (PVS) using semi-quantitative scales and measured WMH volume. We measured flow and pulsatility in the main cerebral vessels and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using phase-contrast MRI...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Agnieszka Uryga, Magdalena Kasprowicz, Małgorzata Burzyńska, Leanne Calviello, Katarzyna Kaczmarska, Marek Czosnyka
The cerebral arterial blood volume changes (∆Ca BV) during a single cardiac cycle can be estimated using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) by assuming pulsatile blood inflow, constant, and pulsatile flow forward from large cerebral arteries to resistive arterioles [continuous flow forward (CFF) and pulsatile flow forward (PFF)]. In this way, two alternative methods of cerebral arterial compliance (Ca ) estimation are possible. Recently, we proposed a TCD-derived index, named the time constant of the cerebral arterial bed (τ), which is a product of Ca and cerebrovascular resistance and is independent of the diameter of the insonated vessel...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Holly C Williams, Jing Ma, Daiana Weiss, Bernard Lassègue, Roy L Sutliff, Alejandra San Martín
The dual specificity phosphatase slingshot homolog 1 (SSH1) contributes to actin remodeling by dephosphorylating and activating the actin-severing protein cofilin. The reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in chronic hypertension and the subsequent mechano-adaptive rearrangement of vessel wall components. Therefore, using a novel Ssh1-/- mouse model, we investigated the potential role of SSH1 in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension, and vascular remodeling. We found that loss of SSH1 did not produce overt phenotypic changes and that baseline blood pressures as well as heart rates were comparable between Ssh1+/+ and Ssh1-/- mice...
October 5, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
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