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Pressure vessel

Mohamed Geneid, Joonas Kettunen, Iida Nuuttila, Timo Lintonen, Janne-Joonas Uusitalo, Ville Saarela, M Johanna Liinamaa
PURPOSE: To study the normal relationship between retinal vessel diameter (RVD) with retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in a cohort of middle-aged Caucasians. METHODS: We investigated 3070 individuals (6140 eyes). Central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE) were measured in the right eye using a semi-automated computer-assisted program. Retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and ONH parameters were assessed with Heidelberg retinal tomography (HRT)...
December 10, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Minyoung Oh, Cheol Whan Lee, Jung-Min Ahn, Duk-Woo Park, Su-Jin Kang, Seung-Whan Lee, Young-Hak Kim, Dae Hyuk Moon, Seong-Wook Park, Seung-Jung Park
BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in promoting atherosclerotic plaque inflammation, which may be inhibited by angiotension-II receptor blockers. HYPOTHESIS: We investigated the effects of fimasartan and amlodipine therapy on carotid atherosclerotic plaque inflammation using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. METHODS: Fifty patients with acute coronary syndrome and at least one lesion with 18 FDG uptake in the carotid artery (target to background ratio (TBR) ≥ 1...
December 9, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Yimin Zhang, Su Zhang, Jelmer Westra, Daixin Ding, Qiuyang Zhao, Junqing Yang, Zhongwei Sun, Jiayue Huang, Jun Pu, Bo Xu, Shengxian Tu
To assess a novel approach for automatic flow velocity computation in deriving quantitative flow ratio (QFR) from coronary angiography. QFR is a novel approach for assessment of functional significance of coronary artery stenosis without using pressure wire and induced hyperemia. Patient-specific coronary flow is estimated semi-automatically by frame count method, which is subjective and inconvenient in the workflow of QFR analysis. The vascular structures were automatically delineated from coronary angiogram...
December 8, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Alexander M Saucedo, Jorge De La Cerda, Hiroo Suami, Rita E Serda
Beyond heterogeneous cancer cells, the tumor microenvironment includes stromal and immune cells, blood vessels, extracellular matrix and biologically active molecules. Abnormal signaling, uncontrolled proliferation and high interstitial pressure all contribute to a chaotic, non-hierarchical vascular organization. Using an immune competent 4T1 breast adenocarcinoma murine model, this study fully characterizes the architecture and immunocyte milieu of the tumor microenvironment. Heterogeneous vessel distribution, chaotic connectivity, limited perfusion, cancer cell density, immune phenotype, and biological responses to immune therapy are presented...
December 3, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
Diana Gherman, Cristiana Iulia Dumitrescu, Andra Ciocan, Carmen Stanca Melincovici
Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of non-traumatic amputations worldwide. Ulcer of the diabetic foot is one of the most prevalent lesions of diabetic patients and it occurs in the natural evolution of the disease as a tardive complication. Neuropathy is the main determinant of foot ulcer. A key role is played by the loss of sensitive nerves, which prove to be a protective barrier against high pressure applied otherwise on the foot. The morphopathological characteristics of neuropathic lesions in patients with diabetes show important improvement associated with the pressure relieving treatment strategies...
2018: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
A S Klinkova, O V Kamenskaya, A V Ashurkov, A A Karpenko, V V Lomivorotov
AIM: To evaluate long-term outcomes of spinal neurostimulation (SNS) in patients with critical lower limb ischemia (CLI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Long-term outcomes of SNS were assessed in 52 CLI patients. Changes of clinical status were considered by using of Rutherford R.B. et al. scale. Before and in 12 months after SNS percutaneous oxygen partial pressure (TO2 , mm Hg) was measured at the affected lower limb at rest and in orthostatic test. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) was also determined...
2018: Khirurgiia
Francesco Garzotto, Marta Zaccaria, Enrico Vidal, Zaccaria Ricci, Anna Lorenzin, Mauro Neri, Luisa Murer, Federico Nalesso, Alfredo Ruggeri, Claudio Ronco
OBJECTIVES: Renal replacement therapy in infants and small children is the treatment of choice for severe oligoanuric renal dysfunction, with an increasing consensus that early initiation might contribute to preventing acute kidney injury complications. Safer renal replacement therapy devices specifically designed for neonates may contribute to ameliorating outcomes and increasing chances of survival. One of the crucial factors to achieve an effective renal replacement therapy in small infants is adequate vascular access...
December 7, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
H M Haug, E Johnson, T Mala, D T Førland, T T Søvik, H O Johannessen
INTRODUCTION: About 1% of paraesophageal hernias (PEH) require emergency surgery due to obstruction or gangrene. We present two complicated cases of incarcerated PEH. Presentation of cases: A patient aged 18 with trisomy 21 was admitted after four days of vomiting and epigastric pain. CT scan revealed a large PEH. The stomach was massively dilated with compression of adjacent viscera and the celiac trunk. The stomach was repositioned laparoscopically and deflated by endoscopy in an attempt to avoid resection...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Yoshinori Maki, Etsuko Hattori, Takeshi Satow, Taro Komuro, Susumu Miyamoto
BACKGROUND: The surgical intervention in a case of internal carotid artery stenosis with Moyamoya vessels has not been well described. We present such a case with detailed description about its procedure and perioperative management. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 58-year-old man with symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis had concurrent moyamoya vessels intracranially. The patient had motor weakness and numbness in the left upper extremity. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an ischemic lesion in the right frontal lobe as well as right chronic subdural hematoma...
December 5, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Peter Petros, Burghard Abendstein
Part 3 briefly summarizes further development in midurethral sling (MUS) instruments and technique following the 1990 prototype operations, then critically examines the whole MUS surgical methodology, 1990 to present day. The aim is to identify positive and negative aspects of these methodologies which can be usefully applied to improve current MUS surgery. ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS: 1987-1988 proved that a collagenous neoligament could be formed by implantation of a tape. There was a wide variation in tissue reaction to implanted tapes...
December 7, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Dietmar Spengler, Elisa Loewe, Martin F Krause
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a frequent major damage to the brain of premature babies ≤32 weeks gestational age, and its incidence (20-25%) has not significantly changed lately. Because of the intrinsic fragility of germinal matrix blood vessels, IVH occurs following disruption of subependymal mono-layer arteries and is generally attributed to ischemia-reperfusion alterations or venous congestion, which may be caused by turn of the head. Therefore, supine position with the head in a midline position is considered a standard position for preterm infants during their first days of life...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Berend E Westerhof, Nico Westerhof
In hypertension research aortic pressure wave travel and wave shape play a central role. Presently the explanation of aortic pressure is mainly based on wave travel and reflection in tube models with a single distal reflection. Increased pulse pressure with age is assumed to result from increased magnitude of distal reflection (higher SVR), and earlier return of the reflected wave (higher PWV). However, recent in vivo data show that the reflected wave runs towards the periphery rather than towards the heart as tube models predict...
November 26, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Pengfei Zhao, Amulya Poudyal, Wenhua Zhu, Bruce Tatarchuk
Ingestion and accumulation of sea salt and other impurities is a major challenge for high speed vessels, turbine engines, and other air breathing systems. The performance and reliability of filters are anticipated to be improved significantly after the rate of performance degradation is reduced via enhanced filtration media and well-designed filtration approaches. This study proposes to apply anionic surfactant to disperse the nanofibers thoroughly and employ cationic surfactant to flocculate the dispersed nanofibers into numerous small groups of nanofiber flocs...
November 26, 2018: Nanotechnology
Xiuyun Liu, Lara L Zimmermann, Nhi Ho, Paul Vespa, Xiaoling Liao, Xiao Hu
OBJECTIVE: This study applied a new external ventricular catheter, which allows intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) drainage simultaneously, to study cerebral vascular responses during acute CSF drainage. METHODS: Six patients with 34 external ventricular drain (EVD) opening sessions were retrospectively analyzed. A published algorithm was used to extract morphological features of ICP recordings, and a template-matching algorithm was applied to calculate the likelihood of cerebral vasodilation index (VDI) and cerebral vasoconstriction index (VCI) based on the changes of ICP waveforms during CSF drainage...
December 6, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Kirk B Roberson, Joseph F Signorile, Carlos Singer, Kevin A Jacobs, Moataz Eltoukhy, Nicolette Ruta, Nicole Mazzei, Andrew Buskard
The presence of postganglionic sympathetic denervation is well established in Parkinson's disease (PD). Denervation at cardiac and blood vessel sites may lead to abnormal cardiovascular and hemodynamic responses to exercise. The aim of the present investigation was to examine how heart rate (HR) and hemodynamics are affected by an exercise test in PD patients without orthostatic hypotension. Fourteen individuals with PD and sixteen age-matched healthy controls performed an exercise test on a cycle ergometer...
December 6, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Alexander W Caulk, Jay Humphrey, Sae-Il Murtada
Vascular smooth muscle cells can regulate arterial mechanics via contractile activity in response to changing mechanical and chemical signals. Contractility is traditionally evaluated via uniaxial isometric testing of isolated rings despite the in vivo environment being very different. Most blood vessels maintain a locally preferred value of in vivo axial stretch while subjected to changes in distending pressure, but both of these phenomena are obscured in uniaxial isometric testing. Few studies have rigorously analyzed the role of in vivo loading conditions in smooth muscle function...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Ilaria Alice Crippa, Carles Subirà, Jean-Louis Vincent, Rafael Fernandez Fernandez, Silvia Cano Hernandez, Federica Zama Cavicchi, Jacques Creteur, Fabio Silvio Taccone
BACKGROUND: Sepsis-associated brain dysfunction (SABD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of SABD is multifactorial. One hypothesis is that impaired cerebral autoregulation (CAR) may result in brain hypoperfusion and neuronal damage leading to SABD. METHODS: We studied 100 adult patients with sepsis (July 2012-March 2017) (age = 62 [52-71] years; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score on admission = 21 [15-26])...
December 4, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Taylor S Harmon, James Cunningham, Abdur R Khan, Erik Soule, Jerry Matteo
Small branching veins that arise from the venous outflow of surgical arterial-venous fistulas (AVFs) are frequently seen during fistulograms performed to evaluate for poorly functioning AVFs. It is hypothesized that the presence of escape veins can decrease the performance of native AVFs during hemodialysis by diverting flow. Though interventional methods for exclusion of escape veins are effective, the mechanism of disruption these small branching vessels cause on flow through AVFs is unknown. Furthermore, an objective method for identifying escape veins that cause significantly diminished venous flow has not been defined...
September 24, 2018: Curēus
Yunlong Huo, Huan Chen, Ghassan S Kassab
Background: The differential effects of rapid cardiac pacing on small and large vessels have not been well-established. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pacing-induced acute tachycardia on hemodynamics and arterial stiffness. Methods: The pressure and flow waves in ascending aorta and femoral artery of six domestic swine were recorded simultaneously at baseline and heart rates (HR) of 135 and 155 beats per minutes (bpm) and analyzed by the models of Windkessel and Womersley types...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hsun Shuan Wang, Yajun Ruan, Lia Banie, Kai Cui, Ning Kang, Dongyi Peng, Tianshu Liu, Tianyu Wang, Bohan Wang, Guifang Wang, Alan W Shindel, Guiting Lin, Tom F Lue
BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction (ED) caused by pelvic neurovascular injury (PNVI) is often refractory to treatment. In many cases, erectogenic therapy is administered in a delayed fashion. AIM: To evaluate penile hemodynamic effects and histologic changes associated with delayed low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (Li-ESWT) after PNVI ED in a rat model. We visualized images using immunofluorescence and 3-dimensional imaging of solvent-cleared organs (3DISCO), a novel imaging technique...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
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