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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30313623/palaearctic-osmia-bees-of-the-subgenus-hoplosmia-megachilidae-osmiini-biology-taxonomy-and-key-to-species
#1
Andreas MÜller
Hoplosmia, a subgenus of the osmiine bee genus Osmia (Megachilidae), comprises 21 species restricted to the Palaearctic region. Analysis of female pollen loads and field observations indicate that probably all O. (Hoplosmia) species are specialized on Asteraceae except for one pollen generalist species, which exhibits a preference for the pollen of Cistaceae. Among the Asteraceae specialists, differences exist with respect to the three main Asteraceae subfamilies exploited for pollen, with some species exclusively visiting Carduoideae, others exploiting only Asteroideae and Cichorioideae and again others collecting pollen on Asteroideae, Carduoideae and Cichorioideae...
April 30, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311795/core-shell-multicellular-spheroids-on-chitosan-as-in-vitro-3d-coculture-tumor-models
#2
Ching-Wen Tsai, Jyh-Horng Wang, Tai-Horng Young
An ideal in vitro drug screening model is important for the drug development. In addition to monoculture systems, 3 dimensional (3D) coculture systems are extensively used to simulate the in vivo tumor microenvironment as cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions within the tumor tissues can be mimicked. In this study, in vitro 3D suspension coculture multicellular spheroids with core/shell cell distribution were developed on chitosan-coated surfaces. Based on the characteristic of chitosan inhibiting cell adhesion, SW620 (colon cancer cell line), 3A6 (mesenchymal stem-like cell line) and Hs68 (foreskin fibroblast line) cells could aggregate to form 3D coculture spheroids with intimate cell contacts...
October 12, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310559/enhanced-cell-dehydration-tolerance-and-photosystem-stability-facilitate-the-occupation-of-cold-alpine-habitats-by-a-homoploid-hybrid-species-picea-purpurea
#3
Jingru Wang, Minghao Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Shan Sun, Aiping Zhang, Ning Chen, Changming Zhao
Homoploid hybrid speciation (HHS), characterized by hybrid speciation without a change in chromosome number and facilitated by ecological divergence, is well known in angiosperms but rare in gymnosperms. Picea purpurea as one of two demonstrably conifer diploid hybrid species in gymnosperms has been found to occupy colder alpine habitats than its parents. However, studies on whether leaf frost tolerance and hydraulic safety exhibit transgressive segregation and thus play a role in conifer HHS are still lacking...
October 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305726/tumor-cell-secreted-pld-increases-tumor-stemness-by-senescence-mediated-communication-with-microenvironment
#4
Sandra Muñoz-Galván, Antonio Lucena-Cacace, Marco Perez, Daniel Otero-Albiol, Julian Gomez-Cambronero, Amancio Carnero
Cancer cells are in continuous communication with the surrounding microenvironment and this communication can affect tumor evolution. In this work, we show that phospholipase D2 (PLD2) was overexpressed in colon tumors and is secreted by cancer cells, inducing senescence in neighboring fibroblasts. This occurs through its lipase domain. Senescence induced by its product, phosphatidic acid, leads to a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) able to increase the stem properties of cancer cells. This increase in stemness occurs by Wnt pathway activacion...
October 10, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305725/il-8-induced-o-glcnac-modification-via-glut3-and-gfat-regulates-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties-in-colon-and-lung-cancer-cells
#5
Masahiro Shimizu, Nobuyuki Tanaka
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a pro-inflammatory chemokine that is associated with induction of chemotaxis and degranulation of neutrophils. IL-8 is overexpressed in many tumors, including colon and lung cancer, and recent studies demonstrated essential roles for IL-8 in tumor progression within the tumor microenvironment. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the functions of IL-8 in tumor progression is unclear. In this study, we found that IL-8 is overexpressed in colon and lung cancer cells with cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics and is required for CSC properties, including tumor-initiating abilities...
October 10, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303498/synthesis-cytotoxic-activity-and-dna-interaction-studies-of-new-dinuclear-platinum-ii-complexes-with-an-aromatic-1-5-naphthyridine-bridging-ligand-dna-binding-mode-of-polynuclear-platinum-ii-complexes-in-relation-to-the-complex-structure
#6
Bata Konovalov, Marija D Živković, Jelena Z Milovanović, Dragana B Djordjević, Aleksandar N Arsenijević, Ivana R Vasić, Goran V Janjić, Andjela Franich, Dragan Manojlović, Sandra Skrivanj, Marija Z Milovanović, Miloš I Djuran, SneŽana Rajković
The synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, cytotoxic activity and DNA binding evaluation of seven new dinuclear platinum(ii) complexes Pt1-Pt7, with the general formula [{Pt(L)Cl}2(μ-1,5-nphe)](ClO4)2 (1,5-nphe is 1,5-naphthyridine; while L is two ammines (Pt1) or one bidentate coordinated diamine: ethylenediamine (Pt2), (±)-1,2-propylenediamine (Pt3), trans-(±)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (Pt4), 1,3-propylenediamine (Pt5), 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propylenediamine (Pt6), and 1,3-pentanediamine (Pt7)), were reported...
October 10, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300394/muscle-regeneration-is-disrupted-by-cancer-cachexia-without-loss-of-muscle-stem-cell-potential
#7
Shoya Inaba, Atsushi Hinohara, Masashi Tachibana, Kazutake Tsujikawa, So-Ichiro Fukada
Cancer cachexia is a severe, debilitating condition characterized by progressive body wasting associated with remarkable loss of skeletal muscle weight. It has been reported that cancer cachexia disturbs the regenerative ability of skeletal muscle, but the cellular mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we investigated the skeletal muscle regenerative process in mouse colon-26 (C26) tumor cell-bearing mice as a C26 cancer cachexia model. Although the proliferation and differentiation abilities of muscle stem cells derived from the C26 tumor cell-bearing mice were sustained in vitro, the proliferation and differentiation were severely impaired in the cachexic mice...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297536/cdk1-interacts-with-sox2-and-promotes-tumor-initiation-in-human-melanoma
#8
Dinoop Ravindran Menon, Yuchun Luo, John J Arcaroli, Sucai Liu, Lekha Nair KrishnanKutty, Douglas G Osborne, Yang Li, Jenny Mae Samson, Stacey Bagby, Aik-Choon Tan, William A Robinson, Wells A Messersmith, Mayumi Fujita
Cancers are comprised of heterogeneous subpopulations with various tumor-initiating capacities, yet key stem cell genes associated with enhanced tumor initiating capacities and their regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Here we analyzed patient-derived xenografts from melanoma, colon, and pancreatic cancer tissues and identified enrichment of tumor-initiating cells in MHC class I-hi cells, where CDK1, a master regulator of the cell cycle, was upregulated. Overexpression of CDK1, but not its kinase-dead variant, in melanoma cells increased their spheroid forming ability, tumorigenic potential, and tumor-initiating capacity; inhibition of CDK1 with pharmacological agents reduced these characteristics, which was unexplained by the role of CDK1 in regulating the cell cycle...
October 8, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30290226/mesenchymal-stem-cell-driven-activatable-photosensitizers-for-precision-photodynamic-oncotherapy
#9
Xingshu Li, C-Yoon Kim, Jeong Min Shin, Dayoung Lee, Gyoungmi Kim, Hyung-Min Chung, Ki-Sung Hong, Juyoung Yoon
Precise targeting with minimal side effects is of particular interest for personalized medicine, although it remains a challenge. Herein, we demonstrate precision photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizing human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as cellular vehicles to deliver a new activatable photosensitizer (PcS). In vivo real-time optical imaging tests indicated that PcS-loaded MSCs possess excellent tumor-homing properties. More importantly, dye transfer assays confirm that MSCs precisely transfer PcS into human colon cancer cells (HCT116) via the "bystander effect...
September 28, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285809/membrane-associated-collagen-xiii-promotes-cancer-metastasis-and-enhances-anoikis-resistance
#10
Hui Zhang, Tricia Fredericks, Gaofeng Xiong, Yifei Qi, Piotr G Rychahou, Jia-Da Li, Taina Pihlajaniemi, Wei Xu, Ren Xu
BACKGROUND: Increased collagen expression and deposition are associated with cancer progression and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. However, function and regulation of membrane-associated collagen in breast cancer have not been determined. Collagen XIII is a type II transmembrane protein within the collagen superfamily. Experiments in tissue culture and knockout mouse models show that collagen XIII is involved in cell adhesion and differentiation of certain cell types. In the present study, we determined roles of collagen XIII in breast cancer progression and metastasis...
October 1, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284085/cell-biological-profiling-of-reprogrammed-cancer-stem-cell-like-colon-cancer-cells-maintained-in-culture
#11
Kanji Hirashima, Fengming Yue, Mikiko Kobayashi, Yuriko Uchida, Shunsuke Nakamura, Daihachiro Tomotsune, Ken Matsumoto, Sakiko Takizawa-Shirasawa, Tadayuki Yokoyama, Hiroyuki Kanno, Katsunori Sasaki
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are specific targets for therapeutic applications, but the rarity of CSCs within tumors makes the isolation of CSCs difficult. To overcome these problems, we generated CSCs in vitro using established reprogramming techniques. We transduced four previously established reprogramming factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and L-myc, into the colon cancer cell lines LoVo and OUMS-23, and investigated the biological characteristics of these lines. Tra-1-60+ cells were obtained from reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-like colonies and showed CSC properties, including colony formation, maintenance of colonies by repeated passages, and feeder cell dependency, as well as increased expressions of CSC markers such as CD133 and ALDH1...
October 3, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281419/verticillium-wilt-on-fiber-flax-symptoms-and-pathogen-development-in-planta
#12
Adrien Blum, Mélanie Bressan, Abderrakib Zahid, Isabelle Trinsoutrot-Gattin, Azeddine Driouich, Karine Laval
Fiber flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), an important crop in Normandy (France), is increasingly affected by Verticillium wilt caused by the soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae. This disease leads to nonnegligible yield losses and depreciated fibers that are consequently difficult to upgrade. Verticillium wilt is a major threat to a broad range of agriculture. In this study, susceptible fiber flax cultivar Adélie was infected by VdLu01 (isolated from fiber flax, this study) or green fluorescent protein-tagged VdLs17 (transformed and provided by the department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis)...
October 3, 2018: Plant Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273559/epithelial-rnase-h2-maintains-genome-integrity-and-prevents-intestinal-tumorigenesis-in-mice
#13
Konrad Aden, Kareen Bartsch, Joseph Dahl, Martin A M Reijns, Daniela Esser, Raheleh Sheibani-Tezerji, Anupam Sinha, Felix Wottawa, Go Ito, Neha Mishra, Katharina Knittler, Adam Burkholder, Lina Welz, Johan van Es, Florian Tran, Simone Lipinski, Nassim Kakavand, Christine Boeger, Ralph Lucius, Witigo von Schoenfels, Clemens Schafmayer, Lennart Lenk, Athena Chalaris, Hans Clevers, Christoph Röcken, Christoph Kaleta, Stefan Rose-John, Stefan Schreiber, Thomas Kunkel, Björn Rabe, Philip Rosenstiel
BACKGROUND & AIMS: RNase H2 is a holoenzyme comprising 3 subunits (ribonuclease H2 subunits A, B, and C) that cleaves RNA:DNA hybrids and removes misincorporated ribonucleotides from genomic DNA via ribonucleotide excision repair. Ribonucleotide incorporation by eukaryotic DNA polymerases occurs during every round of genome duplication and produces the most frequent type of naturally occurring DNA lesion. We investigated whether intestinal epithelial proliferation requires RNase H2 function and whether RNase H2 activity is disrupted during intestinal carcinogenesis...
September 28, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272331/characterisation-of-mesenchymal-colon-tumour-derived-cells-in-tumourspheres-as-a-model-for-colorectal-cancer-progression
#14
Mimmo Turano, Valeria Costabile, Andrea Cerasuolo, Francesca Duraturo, Raffaella Liccardo, Paolo Delrio, Ugo Pace, Daniela Rega, Concetta Anna Dodaro, Marco Milone, Paola Izzo, Marina De Rosa
Cellular plasticity, the ability of cells to switch from an epitheial phenotype to a mesenchymal one and vice versa, plays a crucial role in tumour progression and metastases development. In 20-25% of patients with colon cancer and in 18% of patients with rectal cancer, metastases are present at the time of the first diagnosis. They are the first cause of colorectal cancer (CRC)-related mortality, defining stage IV CRC, which is characterized by a relatively short overall survival. We previously isolated two primary colon adenocarcinoma cell cultures that had undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), one with a high microsatellite instability phenotype (T88) and one with a chromosomal instability phenotype (T93)...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270042/structural-remodeling-of-the-human-colonic-mesenchyme-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
James Kinchen, Hannah H Chen, Kaushal Parikh, Agne Antanaviciute, Marta Jagielowicz, David Fawkner-Corbett, Neil Ashley, Laura Cubitt, Esther Mellado-Gomez, Moustafa Attar, Eshita Sharma, Quin Wills, Rory Bowden, Felix C Richter, David Ahern, Kamal D Puri, Jill Henault, Francois Gervais, Hashem Koohy, Alison Simmons
Intestinal mesenchymal cells play essential roles in epithelial homeostasis, matrix remodeling, immunity, and inflammation. But the extent of heterogeneity within the colonic mesenchyme in these processes remains unknown. Using unbiased single-cell profiling of over 16,500 colonic mesenchymal cells, we reveal four subsets of fibroblasts expressing divergent transcriptional regulators and functional pathways, in addition to pericytes and myofibroblasts. We identified a niche population located in proximity to epithelial crypts expressing SOX6, F3 (CD142), and WNT genes essential for colonic epithelial stem cell function...
October 4, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269740/stk899704-inhibits-stemness-of-cancer-stem-cells-and-migration-via-the-fak-mek-erk-pathway-in-ht29-cells
#16
Hui-Ju Jang, Yesol Bak, Thu-Huyen Pham, Sae-Bom Kwon, Bo-Yeon Kim, JinTae Hong, Do-Young Yoon
Colon cancer is one of the most lethal and common malignancies worldwide. STK899704, a novel synthetic agent, has been reported to exhibit anticancer effects towards numerous cancer cells. However, the effect of STK899704 on the biological properties of colon cancer, including cancer cell migration and cancer stem cells (CSCs), remains unknown. Here, we examined the inhibitory effect of STK899704 on cell migration and CSC stemness. In the wound healing assay, STK899704 significantly inhibited the motility of colon cancer cells...
October 1, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265443/initiation-expansion-and-cryopreservation-of-human-primary-tissue-derived-normal-and-diseased-organoids-in-embedded-three-dimensional-culture
#17
James Clinton, Penney McWilliams-Koeppen
Organoids are primary patient-derived micro tissues grown within a three-dimensional extracellular matrix that better represents in vivo physiology and genetic diversity than existing two-dimensional cell lines. Organoids rely on the self-renewal and differentiation of tissue-resident stem cells that expand in culture and self-organize into complex three-dimensional structures. Depending on the tissue, organoids typically lack stromal, vascular, neural, and immune cells but otherwise can contain cells from all the respective tissue-specific cell lineages found in vivo...
September 28, 2018: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30261339/cellulose-based-scaffolds-for-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-assisted-tissue-engineering
#18
Neil O'Donnell, Irina A Okkelman, Peter Timashev, Tatyana I Gromovykh, Dmitri B Papkovsky, Ruslan I Dmitriev
Quantitative measurement of pH and metabolite gradients by microscopy is one of the challenges in the production of scaffold-grown organoids and multicellular aggregates. Herein, we used the cellulose-binding domain (CBD) of the Cellulomonas fimi CenA protein for designing biosensor scaffolds that allow measurement of pH and Ca2+ gradients by fluorescence intensity and lifetime imaging (FLIM) detection modes. By fusing CBD with pH-sensitive enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (CBD-ECFP), we achieved efficient labeling of cellulose-based scaffolds based on nanofibrillar, bacterial cellulose, and decellularized plant materials...
September 25, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258818/emt-and-stemness-in-tumor-dormancy-and-outgrowth-are-they-intertwined-processes
#19
REVIEW
Keren Weidenfeld, Dalit Barkan
Metastases are the major cause of cancer patients' mortality and can occur years and even decades following apparently successful treatment of the primary tumor. Early dissemination of cancer cells, followed by a protracted period of dormancy at distant sites, has been recently recognized as the clinical explanation for this very-long latency. The mechanisms that govern tumor dormancy at distant sites and their reactivation to proliferating metastases are just beginning to be unraveled. Tumor cells, that survive the immune surveillance and hemodynamic forces along their journey in the circulation and successfully colonize and adopt to the new and "hostile" microenvironment and survive in a quiescent dormant state for years before emerging to proliferative state, must display high plasticity...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258320/generating-human-organs-via-interspecies-chimera-formation-advances-and-barriers
#20
REVIEW
Alejandro De Los Angeles, Nam Pho, D Eugene Redmond
The shortage of human organs for transplantation is a devastating medical problem. One way to expand organ supply is to derive functional organs from patient-specific stem cells. Due to their capacity to grow indefinitely in the laboratory and differentiate into any cell type of the human body, patient-specific pluripotent stem (PS) cells harbor the potential to provide an inexhaustible supply of donor cells for transplantation. However, current efforts to generate functional organs from PS cells have so far been unsuccessful...
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
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