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F Hernández, N Calısto-Ulloa, C Gómez-Fuentes, M Gómez, J Ferrer, G González-Rocha, H Bello-Toledo, A M Botero-Coy, C Boıx, M Ibáñez, M Montory
The potential presence of introduced antibiotics in the aquatic environment is a hot topic of concern, particularly in the Antarctic, a highly vulnerable area protected under the Madrid protocol. The increasing presence of human population, especially during summer, might led to the appearance of pharmaceuticals in wastewater. The previous discovery of Escherichia coli strains resistant to antibiotics in sea water and wastewater collected in King George Island motivated our investigation on antibiotics occurrence in these samples...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Okay Nazlı, Tuba Baygar, Çiğdem Elif Demirci Dönmez, Özcan Dere, Ali İhsan Uysal, Alper Aksözek, Ceyhun Işık, Selçuk Aktürk
Microbial accumulation in materials used in sectors such as medical, textile and food can lead to serious diseases, infections and uncontrollable problems. Many of the materials used in the above-mentioned industries have highly sensitive surfaces for microorganisms and cause colonization and biofilm formation. Colonization and biofilm formation threaten human health and they cause many diseases that result in death every year. Antimicrobial materials have an important role in combating pathogens. This article is about a new material with antibiofilm and antimicrobial properties combining polyurethane and Hypericum perforatum extract (PHPE) together...
August 11, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
S Feuerbaum, N Saile, G Pohlentz, J Müthing, H Schmidt
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strain EDL933 encodes the single chromosomal 9-O-acetylesterase NanS, and several copies of prophage-encoded 9-O-acetylesterases (NanS-p). These enzymes have recently been shown to cleave 5-N-acetyl-9-O-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2 ) to yield de-O-acetylated Neu5Ac, the latter of which may serve as a carbon and/or nitrogen source. In the current study, we investigated the NanS- and NanS-p-mediated digestion of synthetic O-acetylated neuraminic acids and bovine submaxillary glands mucin (BSM)-derived O-acetylneuraminic acids by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and nano electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI MS)...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Nobuhiro Akuzawa, Masahiko Kurabayashi
BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis due to Escherichia coli is a rare disease but is increasing in frequency, especially among older women. In addition, its mortality rate is higher than that of endocarditis due to the HACEK-group gram-negative bacteria (Haemophilus spp., Aggregatibacter spp., Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingela spp.). CASE PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old Japanese woman with a history of alcohol abuse was admitted to our hospital because of a fever...
October 19, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Csaba Varga, Marina L Brash, Durda Slavic, Patrick Boerlin, Rachel Ouckama, Alexandru Weis, Mike Petrik, Cynthia Philippe, Melanie Barham, Michele T Guerin
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is the causative agent of colibacillosis in poultry, an economically important disease worldwide. In Ontario, Canada, early and late systemic bacterial infections due to APEC were the most commonly reported diseases in broiler chickens. In 2016, Ontario poultry veterinarians submitted samples from 331 cases of broiler and broiler breeder chickens with a high suspicion of colibacillosis to the Animal Health Laboratory (Guelph, Ontario, Canada) for bacterial culture. Escherichia coli isolates from those samples were tested with multiplex PCR to detect the presence of 13 virulence-associated genes...
September 2018: Avian Diseases
Surya Paudel, Beatrix Stessl, Carmen Fürst, Delfina Jandreski-Cvetkovic, Michael Hess, Claudia Hess
In laying and breeding chickens, pathomorphological signs of histomonosis often coincide with colibacillosis. Thus, we investigated the systemic spread of Escherichia coli in chickens affected with histomonosis and colibacillosis by characterizing their pheno- and genotypic profiles. For this, 29 birds from 11 affected flocks were necropsied and up to three E. coli isolates each from intestine, heart, and liver of the birds were isolated. A total of 251 isolates were characterized by serotyping, phylogenetic grouping, detection of virulence-associated genes (VAGs), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
September 2018: Avian Diseases
Rodrigo G Ducati, Rajesh K Harijan, Scott A Cameron, Peter C Tyler, Gary B Evans, Vern L Schramm
Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for food-borne gastroenteritis and associated with Guillain-Barré, Reiter, and irritable bowel syndromes. Antibiotic resistance in C. jejuni is common, creating a need for antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action. Menaquinone biosynthesis in C. jejuni uses the rare futalosine pathway, where 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase ( CjMTAN) is proposed to catalyze the essential hydrolysis of adenine from 6-amino-6-deoxyfutalosine to form dehypoxanthinylfutalosine, a menaquinone precursor...
October 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Sofia Ny, Roman Kozlov, Uga Dumpis, Petra Edquist, Kirsi Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela, Anna-Maria Kling, Danuta O Lis, Christoph Lübbert, Monika Pomorska-Wesołowska, Ivan Palagin, Aija Vilde, Jaana Vuopio, Jan Walter, Karin Tegmark Wisell
We investigated the faecal carriage prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase production in Escherichia coli (EP-EC) and/or Klebsiella pneumoniae (EP-KP) and risk factors associated with carriage among adult study subjects in Finland, Germany, Latvia, Poland, Russia and Sweden (partner countries). The aim was to get indicative data on the prevalence of ESBL-carriage in specific populations in the region. Faecal samples were collected from four study populations and screened on ChromID-ESBL and ChromID-OXA-48 plates...
October 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Ebru Sedef Kaplan, Aynur Gül Karahan
In this study, a total of 57 water samples were collected over different months around the Isparta region. The levels of total and fecal coliform in these water samples were determined. According to an analysis of the results, although the pollution level of these water sources are not high in terms of their total coliform counts, they cannot be used as drinking water. In the water samples taken from Andık Creek, Darı Creek  Dam, and Eğirdir Lake, fecal counts were found to be similar to each other, it is possible to use these waters after refinement...
October 18, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Narbada Upreti, Binod Rayamajhee, Samendra P Sherchan, Mahesh Kumar Choudhari, Megha Raj Banjara
Background: Treatment and prevention of wound infection continues to be a challenging issue in clinical settings of Nepal especially in the context of globally growing problem of antimicrobial resistance. Study on opportunistic pathogens and sensitivity to commonly prescribed local antimicrobial agents are cardinal to reduce the disease burden of wound infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria from wound infections of patients at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Lijun Ye, Xinna Zhu, Tao Wu, Wen Wang, Dongdong Zhao, Changhao Bi, Xueli Zhang
Background: One important metabolic engineering strategy is to localize the enzymes close to their substrates for improved catalytic efficiency. However, localization configurations become more complex the greater the number of enzymes and substrates is involved. Indeed, optimizing synthetic pathways by localizing multiple enzymes remains a challenge. Terpenes are one of the most valuable and abundant natural product groups. Phytoene, lycopene and β-carotene serve as common intermediates for the synthesis of many carotenoids and derivative compounds, which are hydrophobic long-chain terpenoids, insoluble in water and usually accumulate in membrane compartments...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
James Amor Smith, Maor Bar-Peled
The rare branched-chain sugar apiose, once thought to only be present in the plant kingdom, was found in two bacterial species: Geminicoccus roseus and Xanthomonas pisi. Glycans with apiose residues were detected in aqueous methanol-soluble fractions as well as in the insoluble pellet fraction of X. pisi. Genes encoding bacterial uridine diphosphate apiose (UDP-apiose) synthases (bUASs) were characterized in these bacterial species, but the enzyme(s) involved in the incorporation of the apiose into glycans remained unknown...
2018: PloS One
Julie Melsted Birch, Karin Ullman, Tina Struve, Jens Frederik Agger, Anne Sofie Hammer, Mikael Leijon, Henrik Elvang Jensen
Pre-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in mink kits is a common multifactorial syndrome on commercial mink farms. Several potential pathogens such as astroviruses, caliciviruses, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus delphini have been studied, but the etiology of the syndrome seems complex. In pooled samples from 38 diarrheic and 42 non-diarrheic litters, each comprising of intestinal contents from 2-3 mink kits from the same litter, the bacterial populations were studied using Illumina Next Generation Sequencing technology and targeted 16S amplicon sequencing...
2018: PloS One
Pawel T Schubert, Deidre Mason, Roosacelis Martines, Marlene Deleon-Carnes, Sherif R Zaki, Drucilla J Roberts
Fetal bacterial infections are a common cause of fetal/neonatal morbidity and mortality. The pathologic correlates of congenital bacterial infection include acute chorioamnionitis, acute villitis, and acute intervillositis. The strength of the association of congenital bacterial infection differs among these pathologies. Acute chorioamnionitis results usually from an ascending infection, and damage to the fetus is thought to be cytokine driven rather than damage secondary to bacteremia. Acute villitis is strongly associated with fetal sepsis due to congenital infections...
October 18, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Julio Cesar López-Romero, Jesús Fernando Ayala-Zavala, Etna Aida Peña-Ramos, Javier Hernández, Humberto González-Ríos
Agave plants contain different bioactive compounds that are related to different biological activities; however, the application of Agave as a food additive has rarely been evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Agave angustifolia extract (AAE) on pork patties stored at 4 °C during 10 days. According to the spectrophotometric analysis, AAE contained phenolic compounds and saponins. In addition, AAE exhibited antioxidant activity based on DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays (94...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Min Han Lew, Rahmah Noordin, Mohammed Monsur Alam Khan, Gee Jun Tye
Toxoplasmosis, a parasitic disease in human and animals, is caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Our previous study has led to the discovery of a novel RAP domain binding protein antigen (TgRA15), an apparent in-vivo induced antigen recognised by antibodies in acutely infected individuals. This study is aimed to evaluate the humoral response and cytokine release elicited by recombinant TgRA15 protein in C57BL/6 mice, demonstrating its potential as a candidate vaccine for Toxoplasma gondii infection. In this study, the recombinant TgRA15 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and refolded into soluble form...
October 17, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Joseph Ngonzi, Lisa M Bebell, Joel Bazira, Yarine Fajardo, Dan Nyehangane, Yap Boum, Deborah Nanjebe, Adeline Boatin, Jerome Kabakyenga, Yves Jacquemyn, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Laura E Riley
Introduction: The proportion of women with severe maternal morbidity from obstructed labor is between 2 and 12% in resource-limited settings. Maternal vaginal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), Escherichia coli , and Enterococcus spp. is associated with maternal and neonatal morbidity. It is unknown if vaginal colonization with these organisms in obstructed labor women is associated with poor outcomes. Objectives: To determine whether vaginal colonization with GBS, E...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Elizabeth M Antaki-Zukoski, Xunde Li, Patricia A Pesavento, Tran H B Nguyen, Bruce R Hoar, Edward R Atwill
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli , like E. coli O157:H7, are important human and animal pathogens. Naturally-acquired E. coli O157:H7 infections occur in numerous species but, particularly, cattle have been identified as a significant reservoir for human cases. E. coli O157:H7 are isolated from a number of domestic and wild animals, including rodents that share a living space with cattle. These Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7 strains can be highly virulent in humans, but little is known about the sequelae of interspecies transfer...
October 15, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Thibault Duburcq, Arthur Durand, Antoine Tournoys, Viviane Gnemmi, Caroline Bonner, Valery Gmyr, Thomas Hubert, François Pattou, Mercedes Jourdain
BACKGROUND: Antithrombin III physiological levels are decreased during septic shock, and supplementation therapy could therefore be beneficial. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the use of recombinant human antithrombin could reduce Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) occurrence. METHODS: We conducted a randomized open label controlled experimental study. Ten female "Large White" pigs were challenged with intravenous infusion of E...
October 15, 2018: Shock
D A Nehru, G S Dhaliwal, M H Jan, R S Cheema, S Kumar
This study examined the effect of single IU administration of cephapirin on clinical recovery, clearance of uterine bacteria and reproductive performance of postpartum buffaloes with subclinical endometritis (SCE). Buffaloes (n=86) at 35 days postpartum (DPP) with >10% polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in endometrial cytosmears were designated as positive (SCEP, n=29) and buffaloes with ≤10% PMN cell were designated as negative (SCEN, n=57) for SCE. Out of 29 positive buffaloes, 15 were administered a single intrauterine dose of cephapirin benzathine on 40 DPP (SCEP-CB), while the remaining 14 animals were kept as untreated control (SCEP-C)...
October 16, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
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