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Y Guo, F P Hu, D M Zhu, C Q Wang, A M Wang, H Zhang, C Wang, F Dong, J H Zhen, S P Zhou, Y Zhou, L Zhu, J H Meng
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and resistance changes of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) strains isolated from children patients of Chinese Bacterial Resistance Surveillance Network (CHINET) from 2005 to 2017. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by disk diffusion method (KB method) and automated systems. Results were analyzed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2017 edition standards. Results: Among the 4 481 CRE clinical strains, the overall prevalence of CRE in children was 6...
December 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Shinji Furuya, Joseph A Cichocki, Kranti Konganti, Kostiantyn Dreval, Takeki Uehara, Yuuki Katou, Hisataka Fukushima, Hiroshi Kono, Igor P Pogribny, Josepmaria Argemi, Ramon Bataller, Ivan Rusyn
Human alcoholic hepatitis (AH) carries a high mortality rate. AH is an acute-on-chronic form of liver injury characterized by hepatic steatosis, ballooned hepatocytes, neutrophil infiltration, and pericellular fibrosis. We aimed to study the pathogenesis of AH in an animal model which combines chronic hepatic fibrosis with intragastric alcohol administration. Adult male C57BL6/J mice were treated with CCl4 (0.2 ml/kg, 2×weekly by intraperitoneal injections for 6 weeks) to induce chronic liver fibrosis. Then, ethyl alcohol (up to 25 g/kg/day for 3 weeks) was administered continuously to mice via a gastric feeding tube, with or without one-half dose of CCl4...
December 4, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Sucheta, Sumit Tahlan, Prabhakar Kumar Verma
BACKGROUND: Thiazolidinedione is a pentacyclic moiety having five membered unsaturated ring system composed with carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur molecules at 1 and 3 position of the thiazole ring and widely found throughout nature in various form. They favourably alter concentration of the hormones secreted by adipocytes, particularly adiponectin. They also increase total body fat and have mixed effects on circulating lipids. Thiazolidinedione nucleus is present in numerous biological moieties and has different pharmacological activities likes, e...
December 4, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Vivian Peirano, María Noel Bianco, Armando Navarro, Felipe Schelotto, Gustavo Varela
Introduction: Acute diarrheal disease still deserves worldwide attention due to its high morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. While etiologic determination is not mandatory for management of all individual cases, it is needed for generating useful epidemiologic knowledge. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are relevant enteropathogens, and their investigation requires specific procedures to which resources and training should be dedicated in reference laboratories...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Rhiannon M Evans, Stephen E Beaton
The recent novel overproduction system for the membrane-bound oxygen-sensitive [NiFe]-hydrogenase-2 (Hyd-2) from Escherichia coli is detailed. Hyd-2 is an efficient and reversible catalyst for the interconversion of H2 and 2H+ . Produced at low levels during anaerobic respiration, Hyd-2 is instrumental in the generation of proton-motive force (PMF), and likewise uses PMF to generate H2 . The structure of the Hyd-2 complex could yield immense information on the mechanism of proton pumping in this group of enzymes, which are of energetic and pathogenic importance...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Shan Zhang, Xiaoke Dai, Chunbao Guo
Intravenous fluid prescription plays an important role in sepsis management, which may be associated with patient prognosis. The objective of the present study was to determine if the administration of crystalloid fluids is associated with clinical outcome for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.The medical records of 79 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock at an academic tertiary care hospital between 2011 and 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were dichotomized based on the median 3-day amount of corrected crystalloid fluids as low (<193 mL/kg) versus high (>193 mL/kg)...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nils Kunze-Szikszay, Karoline Walliser, Jakob Luther, Barbara Cambiaghi, Verena Reupke, Christian Dullin, Wolfgang Vautz, Felix Bremmer, Ursula Telgheder, Cornelia Zscheppank, Michael Quintel, Thorsten Perl
OBJECTIVES: The detection of microbial volatile organic compounds or host response markers in the exhaled gas could give an earlier diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry enables noninvasive, rapid, and sensitive analysis of exhaled gas. Using a rabbit model of ventilator-associated pneumonia we determined if gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry is able to detect 1) ventilator-associated pneumonia specific changes and 2) bacterial species-specific changes in the exhaled gas...
November 30, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Ming Liu, Jian-Qiang Kong
Herein we describe the discovery and functional characterization of a steroidal glycosyltransferase (SGT) from Ornithogalum saundersiae and a steroidal glycoside acyltransferase (SGA) from Escherichia coli and their application in the biosynthesis of acylated steroidal glycosides (ASGs). Initially, an SGT gene, designated as OsSGT1, was isolated from O. saundersiae . OsSGT1-containing cell free extract was then used as the biocatalyst to react with 49 structurally diverse drug-like compounds. The recombinant OsSGT1 was shown to be active against both 3 β - and 17 β -hydroxyl steroids...
October 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Ev Christin Heide, Laura Bindila, Julia Maria Post, Dörthe Malzahn, Beat Lutz, Jana Seele, Roland Nau, Sandra Ribes
Easy-to-achieve interventions to promote healthy longevity are desired to diminish the incidence and severity of infections, as well as associated disability upon recovery. The dietary supplement palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Here, we investigated the effect of prophylactic PEA on the early immune response, clinical course, and survival of old mice after intracerebral E. coli K1 infection. Nineteen-month-old wild type mice were treated intraperitoneally with two doses of either 0...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hussein M Galal, Azza M Tawfek, Mohamed I Abdrabou, Ashgan Mohamed Hessain, Jwaher Haji Alhaaji, Saleh A Kabli, Ayman Elbehiry, Waleed K Alwarhi, Ihab M Moussa
This study was conducted on 100 one-day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effect of Poulvac E. coli vaccine in reduction of clinical signs and complications after concurrent infectious bronchitis virus (variant 02) and virulent E. coli O78 challenges. The birds were evaluated for clinical signs, mortality for 7 days post-infection, PM lesion score, average body weight and serological evaluation. Re-isolation and RT-PCR for the challenging infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variant 02 were conducted thereafter...
November 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Konstantinos Arsenopoulos, Eleftherios Triantafillou, George Filioussis, Elias Papadopoulos
The aim of this study was to assess the possible effect of the fly repellent deltamethrin on the full microbiological profile of the intramammary infections as well as on the somatic cell count in one Greek dairy cattle farm under intensive management, during peak fly season. Fifty five multiparous cows, stabled in the same farm, were randomly divided in three groups; cows of Group A were dressed on their back with deltamethrin, cows of Group B remained untreated within the same pen and cows of Group C remained untreated in a separate pen...
December 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Katarzyna Piekarska, Katarzyna Zacharczuk, Tomasz Wołkowicz, Natalia Wolaniuk, Magdalena Rzeczkowska, Rafał Gierczyński
BACKGROUND: Plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), 16S rRNA methylases and quinolone resistance mechanisms (PMQRs) are well-known agents conferring resistance to more than 1 antimicrobial in its group. The accumulation of these agents poses, therefore, a serious risk to public health. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of common ß-lactamases and 16S rRNA methylases in Qnr-producing Enterobacteriaceae and their genetic relatedness...
November 30, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Arya Suresh, Amit Ranjan, Savita Jadhav, Arif Hussain, Sabiha Shaik, Munirul Alam, Ramani Baddam, Lothar H Wieler, Niyaz Ahmed
Colibactin, a genotoxin, encoded by the pks pathogenicity island of Escherichia coli belonging to the B2 phylogroup has been reported as a determinant of bacterial pathogenicity. The present study was carried out to detect the pks pathogenicity island in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolated from a tertiary hospital in Pune, India. Of 462 isolates analyzed, the pks genomic island was detected in 35 (7.6%) isolates, which predominantly belonged to pathogenic phylogroup B2 (97%), and harbored virulence genes such as fimH, sfaD/E , and usp ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nidhi Bhardwaj, Surbhi Khurana, Minu Kumari, Rajesh Malhotra, Purva Mathur
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem worldwide especially among the surgical site infections (SSIs). SSI is becoming more serious due to hospital-acquired infections/nosocomial infections, which further leads to the overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics. To investigate the antimicrobial resistance patterns among Gram-negative bacteria in SSI in in- and out-patients the present study was designed. METHODOLOGY: During the 4 years (January 2013-December 2016), the antimicrobial resistant pattern was studied in the admitted patients and in the patients who were followed up to the outpatients department (OPD) after discharge...
October 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Bjørn-Arne Lindstedt, Misti D Finton, Davide Porcellato, Lin T Brandal
BACKGROUND: Classification of pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) has traditionally relied on detecting specific virulence associated genes (VAGs) or combinations thereof. For E. coli isolated from faecal samples, the presence of specific genes associated with different intestinal pathogenic pathovars will determine their classification and further course of action. However, the E. coli genome is not a static entity, and hybrid strains are emerging that cross the pathovar definitions...
November 1, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Alexander M Oberc, Aline A Fiebig-Comyn, Caressa N Tsai, Wael Elhenawy, Brian K Coombes
Background: Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease with a complex etiology. Paradoxically, CD is associated with the use of antibiotics and with an increased abundance of an unusual phenotypic group of Escherichia coli known as adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC). However, the impact of antibiotics on AIEC infection has not been well studied in controlled models of infection. Methods: We infected mice with AIEC before or after treatment with a variety of different classes of antibiotics...
November 29, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Mohammad Shah Jalal, Md Zohorul Islam, Avijit Dutta, Pangkaj Kumar Dhar, Avijit Das, Mohammad Mahbub Hasan, Himel Barua, Paritosh Kumar Biswas, Abdul Ahad
Irrawaddy squirrel (Callosciurus pygerythrus) may play an important role in the transmission of zoonotic bacteria, but little is known about the carriage of zoonotic bacteria in this common frugivorous rodent in Bangladesh. We aimed to investigate the presence of common zoonotic bacterial pathogens in Irrawaddy squirrel in the southeast part of Bangladesh. A total of 27 rectal and 27 oro-nasal swabs were collected from 27 healthy wild Irrawaddy squirrels. Four common zoonotic bacteria were isolated following routine laboratory procedures, and were identified based on colony morphology, and biochemical and staining properties...
November 29, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
M N Tarana, S M Shamsuzzaman
Pathogenic microorganisms are important cause of maternal and neonatal infections which are transmitted from colonized vagina of mother. The purpose of the present study was to detect the potential pathogens other than Group B Streptococcus in vaginal swab of pregnant women. This prospective cross sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to June 2014 at Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 224 vaginal swab samples were studied. Gram stain Nugent score was applied for all vaginal smear to detect bacterial vaginosis...
October 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Mohammed Husien Yousif, Jing-Hui Li, Zheng-Qian Li, Gibson Maswayi Alugongo, Shou-Kun Ji, Yuan-Xiao Li, Ya-Jing Wang, Sheng-Li Li, Zhi-Jun Cao
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding milk replacer (MR) with two different antibiotics treatments on the gut microbiota of pre-weaning calves. Twelve (12) Holstein male calves at 1-day-old were randomly assigned to: milk replacer without antibiotics (CON), milk replacer plus low cocktail of antibiotics (LCA) concentration (penicillin 0.024 mg/L, streptomycin 0.025 mg/L, tetracycline 0.1 mg/L, ceftiofur 0.33 mg/L), and milk replacer plus a low concentration of single antibiotic (LSA; ceftiofur 0...
November 27, 2018: Microorganisms
Isabel Pereira, Sónia Fraga, Susana Silva, João Paulo Teixeira, Miguel Gama
Hydrogels are three-dimensional, crosslinked networks of hydrophilic polymers swollen with a large amount of water or biological fluids, without dissolving. Dextrin, a low-molecular-weight carbohydrate composed by glucose residues, has been used to develop an injectable hydrogel for biomedical applications. Dextrin was first oxidized to introduce aldehyde groups, which then reticulate with adipic acid dihydrazide, forming the dextrin-based hydrogel (HG). The HG and its components were tested for cyto- and genotoxicity according to the International Standard ISO 10993-3 on the biological evaluation of medical devices...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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