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Lin-Tian Yu, Ying-Ping Xiao, Jing-Jing Li, Jin-Shan Ran, Ling-Qian Yin, Yi-Ping Liu, Long Zhang
Host defense peptides (HDPs) represent a large group of diverse small peptides that play important roles in host defense and disease resistance. In vertebrates, one of the main types of HDPs belong to defensins, which are less than 100 amino acid residues and characterized by a highly conserved motif of cysteine residues. Recently, a subfamily of defensins, namely ovodefensins (OvoDs), has been identified in birds and reptiles. However, both their family members and evolutionary relationships remain unclear...
August 8, 2018: Gene
Yu Kuroiwa, Takahiro Niikura, Sang Yang Lee, Keisuke Oe, Takashi Iwakura, Tomoaki Fukui, Tomoyuki Matsumoto, Takehiko Matsushita, Kotaro Nishida, Ryosuke Kuroda
PURPOSE: This study investigated whether Escherichia coli-derived bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 (E-BMP-2) adsorbed onto β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules can induce bone regeneration in critical-size femoral segmental defects in rabbits. METHODS: Bone defects 20 mm in size and stabilized with an external fixator were created in the femur of New Zealand white rabbits, which were divided into BMP-2 and control groups. E-BMP-2-loaded β-TCP granules were implanted into defects of the BMP-2 group, whereas defects in the controls were implanted with β-TCP granules alone...
August 10, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Chi-Dung Yang, Hsi-Yuan Huang, Sirjana Shrestha, Yen-Hua Chen, Hsien-Da Huang, Ching-Ping Tseng
Feed-forward loops (FFLs) represent an important and basic network motif to understand specific biological functions. Cyclic-AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP), a transcription factor (TF), mediates catabolite repression and regulates more than 400 genes in response to changes in intracellular concentrations of cAMP in Escherichia coli . CRP participates in some FFLs, such as araBAD and araFGH operons and adapts to fluctuating environmental nutrients, thereby enhancing the survivability of E. coli . Although computational simulations have been conducted to explore the potential functionality of FFLs, a comprehensive study on the functions of all structural types on the basis of in vivo data is lacking...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shalv Amit Parekh, Rebecca Nicole David, Kranthi K R Bannuru, Lakshminarasimhan Krishnaswamy, Avinash Baji
The scarcity of drinking water and the contamination of water sources in underdeveloped countries are serious problems that require immediate low-tech and low-cost solutions. In this study, we fabricated polyacrylonitrile (PAN) porous membranes coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and demonstrated their use for water filtration and water treatment applications. The membranes were prepared by electrospinning a PAN solution and treating in a hydroxylamine (NH₂OH) aqueous solution to form ⁻C(NH₂)N⁻OH groups that were used for functionalization (Ag⁺ ions) of the membrane...
August 8, 2018: Membranes
P Puerta-Alcalde, Cardozo C, M Suárez-Lledó, O Rodríguez-Núñez, L Morata, C Fehér, F Marco, A Del Río, J A Martínez, J Mensa, M Rovira, J Esteve, A Soriano, C Garcia-Vidal
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the current time to positivity (TTP) of blood cultures in onco-hematological patients with febrile neutropenia. We assessed the probability of having multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) bloodstream infection (BSI) 24h after cultures were taken, to use this information for antibiotic de-escalation strategies. METHODS: BSI episodes were prospectively collected (2003-2017). When a patient experienced more than one BSI, only one episode was randomly chosen...
August 7, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ross C Beier, Roger B Harvey, Charles A Hernandez, Michael E Hume, Kathleen Andrews, Robert E Droleskey, Maureen K Davidson, Sonia Bodeis-Jones, Shenia Young, Sara E Duke, Robin C Anderson, Tawni L Crippen, Toni L Poole, David J Nisbet
Campylobacter coli is a bacterial species that is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, and Campylobacter spp. are among the top 5 foodborne pathogens in the United States. During food production organic acids (OAs) are often used to remove bacteria from animal carcasses. The interactions of six OAs with 111 C. coli strains obtained from swine and retail pork chops were studied by determining the molar minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICMs) of the C. coli strains, and the pH at the MICMs. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation was used to calculate the concentrations of the undissociated and dissociated OAs at the MICMs of the C...
2018: PloS One
Xun Pei, Zhiping Xiao, Lujie Liu, Geng Wang, Wenjing Tao, Minqi Wang, Junbiao Zou, Dongbi Leng
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effects of dietary zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) on growth performance, zinc status, intestinal morphology, microflora population, and immune response in weaned piglets. A total of 150 weaned piglets (9.37 ± 0.48 kg) were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments and fed with basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with nano-ZnOs at 150, 300, or 450 mg kg-1 , and 3,000 mg kg-1 ZnO for 21 days. After feeding trial, six pigs from the control, 450 mg kg-1 nano-ZnOs and 3,000 mg kg-1 ZnO were slaughtered...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Beatriz Mesa-Pereira, Mary C Rea, Paul D Cotter, Colin Hill, R Paul Ross
Bacteriocins, a heterogenous group of antibacterial ribosomally synthesized peptides, have potential as bio-preservatives in in a wide range of foods and as future therapeutics for the inhibition of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. While many bacteriocins have been characterized, several factors limit their production in large quantities, a requirement to make them commercially viable for food or pharma applications. The identification of new bacteriocins by database mining has been promising, but their potential is difficult to evaluate in the absence of suitable expression systems...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Michael Pietsch, Alexandra Irrgang, Nicole Roschanski, Geovana Brenner Michael, Axel Hamprecht, Heime Rieber, Annemarie Käsbohrer, Stefan Schwarz, Uwe Rösler, Lothar Kreienbrock, Yvonne Pfeifer, Stephan Fuchs, Guido Werner
BACKGROUND: Resistance to 3rd-generation cephalosporins in Escherichia coli is mostly mediated by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) or AmpC beta-lactamases. Besides overexpression of the species-specific chromosomal ampC gene, acquisition of plasmid-encoded ampC genes, e.g. blaCMY-2 , has been described worldwide in E. coli from humans and animals. To investigate a possible transmission of blaCMY-2 along the food production chain, we conducted a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based analysis of 164 CMY-2-producing E...
August 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Aiah El-Rashidy, Gihan Waly, Ahmed Gad, Judith A Roether, Jasmin Hum, Yuyun Yang, Rainer Detsch, Azza Hashem, Inas Sami, Wolfgang H Goldmann H Goldmann, Aldo R Boccaccini
Composite 3D scaffolds combining natural polymers and bioceramics are promising candidates for bone tissue engineering (BTE). Zein, as a natural plant protein, offers several advantages, including biocompatibility, adequate strength properties, and low/no immunogenicity; however, it lacks bioactivity. Thus, composite zein:bioactive glass (BG) scaffolds are proposed as promising candidate for BTE applications, with silver-doping of bioactive glass providing an antibacterial effect against possible post-implantation infection...
August 8, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Klas I Udekwu, Howard Weiss
Introduction: Antibiotics have greatly reduced the morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. Although antibiotic resistance is not a new problem, its breadth now constitutes a significant threat to human health. One strategy to help combat resistance is to find novel ways to use existing drugs, even those that display high rates of resistance. For the pathogens Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , pairs of antibiotics have been identified for which evolution of resistance to drug A increases sensitivity to drug B and vice versa...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Quentin Perraud, Lucile Moynie, Véronique Gasser, Mathilde Munier, Julien Godet, Françoise Hoegy, Yves Mély, Gaëtan L A Mislin, James H Naismith, Isabelle J Schalk
Enterobactin (ENT) is a siderophore (iron-chelating compound) produced by Escherichia coli in order to gain access to iron, an essential nutriment for bacterial growth. ENT is used as an exosiderophore by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa with transport of ferri-ENT across the bacterial outer membrane by the transporter PfeA. Next to pfeA gene on the chromosome is localized a gene encoding for an esterase, PfeE, whose transcription is regulated, as for pfeA, by the presence of ENT in bacterial environment...
August 7, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
James R Johnson, Brian D Johnston, Stephen Porter, Paul Thuras, Maliha Aziz, Lance B Price
Background: The distinguishing characteristics of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains are incompletely defined. Methods: We characterized 292 diverse-source human E. coli isolates (116 fecal, 27 cystitis, 30 pyelonephritis, 93 blood) for phylogenetic group, sequence type complex (STc), and 49 putative ExPEC-associated virulence genes. We then assessed these traits and ecological source as predictors of illness severity in a murine sepsis model...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lisa M Rogers, Anjali P Anders, Ryan S Doster, Elizabeth A Gill, Juan S Gnecco, Jacob M Holley, Tara M Randis, Adam J Ratner, Jennifer A Gaddy, Kevin Osteen, David M Aronoff
PROBLEM: Bacterial chorioamnionitis causes adverse pregnancy outcomes, yet host-microbial interactions are not well characterized within gestational membranes. The decidua, the outermost region of the membranes, is a potential point of entry for bacteria ascending from the vagina to cause chorioamnionitis. We sought to determine whether paracrine communication between decidual stromal cells and macrophages shaped immune responses to microbial sensing. METHOD OF STUDY: Decidual cell-macrophage interactions were modeled in vitro utilizing decidualized, telomerase-immortalized human endometrial stromal cells (dTHESCs) and phorbol ester-differentiated THP-1 macrophage-like cells...
August 7, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Zachary T Kern, Megan E Jacob, Jessica M Gilbertie, Shelly L Vaden, Sara K Lyle
BACKGROUND: Bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in companion animals. Increasing awareness of biofilm-forming bacteria raises concern regarding the appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of UTIs associated with these organisms. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To (1) describe the population of dogs with UTIs associated with biofilm-forming Escherichia coli and (2) determine whether or not clinical differences exist between dogs with biofilm-forming E...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Wen-Pin Tseng, Yee-Chun Chen, Shang-Yu Chen, Shey-Ying Chen, Shan-Chwen Chang
Background: Risks for subsequent multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) infection and long-term outcome after hospitalization among patients with MDRGNB colonization remain unknown. Methods: This observational study enrolled 817 patients who were hospitalized in the study hospital in 2009. We defined MDRGNB as a GNB resistant to at least three different antimicrobial classes. Patients were classified into MDRGNB culture-positive (MDRGNB-CP; 125 patients) and culture-negative (MDRGNB-CN; 692 patients) groups based on the presence or absence of any MDRGNB identified from either active surveillance or clinical cultures during index hospitalization...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Cindy M Dierikx, Jeanet van der Goot, Alieda van Essen-Zandbergen, Dik J Mevius
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli (ESBL-E) are wide spread among broilers, with the highest prevalence among individual birds at broiler production farms. Previous research describes low prevalences among individual birds at arrival at the farm (below 30%), and a rapid increase up to 100% within the first week. Our goal was to investigate whether this rapid increase was due to latent contamination of ESBL-E or to contamination at the broiler farm. Two broiler groups, one hatched at a conventional hatchery and the other individually hatched in an ESBL-free environment, were housed individually in an experimental ESBL-free environment...
August 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Tetsuya Harada, Masumi Taguchi, Ryuji Kawahara, Masashi Kanki, Kentaro Kawatsu
The potential human health risk of Japanese ready-to-eat (RTE) foods was investigated by determining the contamination by foodborne bacterial pathogens, the prevalence of opportunistic and nosocomial pathogens, and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates recovered from 96 samples of lightly pickled vegetables, 88 samples of Western-style desserts, and 98 samples of RTE fish and seafood products sold at retail in Osaka, Japan. Staphylococcus aureus, including isolates producing staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE), were isolated from six lightly pickled vegetable products, seven Western-style dessert products, and three RTE fish and seafood products...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Nadine A Vogt, David L Pearl, Eduardo N Taboada, Steven K Mutschall, Nicol Janecko, Richard Reid-Smith, Bryan Bloomfield, Claire M Jardine
Antimicrobial resistant bacteria and zoonotic pathogens have previously been isolated from Canada geese. We examined the prevalence of three enteric bacteria (i.e. Campylobacter, Salmonella, Escherichia coli) among Canada geese from three sampling sources in southern Ontario from 2013 through 2015. Samples were obtained by convenience from hunting groups, diagnostic birds submitted for post-mortem, and fresh faeces from live birds in parks. Escherichia coli isolates were isolated and tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance test panel...
August 5, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Fátima Higuera-de-la-Tijera, Alfredo I Servín-Caamaño, Francisco Salas-Gordillo, José L Pérez-Hernández, Juan M Abdo-Francis, Jaime Camacho-Aguilera, Sai N Alla, Fiacro Jiménez-Ponce
Background and Aim: Variceal bleeding is the second most important precipitating factor related to the development of episodic hepatic encephalopathy; but to date there are no recommendations to prevent this complication. The aim of this study was to compare if primary prophylaxis with lactulose or L-ornithine L-aspartate or rifaximin, in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding, is better than placebo for avoiding the development of hepatic encephalopathy. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (ClinicalTrials...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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