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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315933/the-multiple-protective-roles-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-melatonin-and-its-precursor-n-acetylserotonin-in-targeting-brain-injury-and-liver-damage-and-in-maintaining-bone-health
#1
REVIEW
Chengliang Luo, Qiang Yang, Yuancai Liu, Shuanhu Zhou, Jiying Jiang, Russel J Reiter, Pallab Bhattacharya, Yongchun Cui, Hongwei Yang, He Ma, Jiemin Yao, Sean E Lawler, Xinmu Zhang, Jianfang Fu, Renato Rozental, Hany Aly, Mark D Johnson, E Antonio Chiocca, Xin Wang
Melatonin is a neurohormone associated with sleep and wakefulness and is mainly produced by the pineal gland in animals. Numerous physiological functions of melatonin have been demonstrated including anti-inflammation, suppressing neoplastic growth, circadian and endocrine rhythm regulation, and its potent antioxidant activity as well as its role in regeneration of various tissues including the nervous system, liver, bone, kidney, bladder, skin, and muscle, among others. In this review, we summarize the recent advances related to the multiple protective roles of melatonin receptor agonists, melatonin and N-acetylserotonin (NAS) in brain injury, liver damage, and bone health...
October 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315932/ym155-sensitizes-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-to-egfr-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-through-the-mechanism-of-autophagy-induction
#2
Chun-Hua Dai, Yang Shu, Ping Chen, Jian-Nong Wu, Li-Haun Zhu, Rong-Xia Yuan, Wei-Guo Long, Yu-Min Zhu, Jian Li
Resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), such as erlotinib and gefitinib, is a major clinical problem in the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). YM155 is a survivin small molecule inhibitor and has been demonstrated to induce cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy. EGFR-TKIs have been known to induce cancer cell autophagy. In this study, we showed that YM155 markedly enhanced the sensitivity of erlotinib to EGFR-TKI resistant NSCLC cell lines H1650 (EGFR exon 19 deletion and PTEN loss) and A549 (EGFR wild type and KRAS mutation) through inducing autophagy-dependent apoptosis and autophagic cell death...
October 10, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315711/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-alleviated-osteoarthritis-and-chondrocyte-apoptosis-through-autophagy-inducing
#3
Jun Zhou, Yu Wang, Yiming Liu, Hanjiang Zeng, Hanshi Xu, Fan Lian
OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore the effect of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) on a knee osteoarthritis rat model and analyze how ADMSCs affect chondrocyte apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A surgically induced rat knee osteoarthritis (OA) model was constructed. ADMSCs were engrafted into the right knee cavity. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson, and Safranin O were used to compare the histopathology of synovial membrane and cartilage. Immunohistochemical (IHC) was used to measure MMP-13, Collagen 2 (Col-2), Caspase-3 (Cas-3), PARP, p62, LC3b, DDR-2, FGFR-1, Wnt, P-AKT/AKT, p-CAMKII/CAMKII, and p-Smad1/Smad1 expression in the articular cartilage...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315453/aluminum-induced-neural-cell-death
#4
Qinli Zhang
Aluminum (Al), an abundant element in the earth's crust, is well-known for its neurotoxicity. Nonetheless, its causal role in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly in Alzheimer's disease (AD), is still in debate. Ample studies have shown that neural cell death and cognitive deficits induced by Al are similar to those in AD. In the present chapter, we demonstrate separately the Al-induced cell death in neuron, neuroglia cells, and co-cultured neural cells from newborn rats to illustrate the neurotoxic effects...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315250/tubeimoside-1-a-triterpenoid-saponin-induces-cytoprotective-autophagy-in-human-breast-cancer-cells-in-vitro-via-akt-mediated-pathway
#5
Shi-Long Jiang, Yi-di Guan, Xi-Sha Chen, Peng Ge, Xin-Luan Wang, Yuan-Zhi Lao, Song-Shu Xiao, Yi Zhang, Jin-Ming Yang, Xiao-Jun Xu, Dong-Sheng Cao, Yan Cheng
Autophagy, a form of cellular self-digestion by lysosome, is associated with various disease processes including cancers, and modulating autophagy has shown promise in the treatment of various malignancies. A number of natural products display strong antitumor activity, yet their mechanisms of action remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of how traditional Chinese medicine agents exert antitumor effects, we screened 480 natural compounds for their effects on autophagy using a high content screening assay detecting GFP-LC3 puncta in HeLa cells...
October 12, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314894/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-is-activated-in-post-ischemic-kidneys-to-promote-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Shaoqun Shu, Jiefu Zhu, Zhiwen Liu, Chengyuan Tang, Juan Cai, Zheng Dong
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) may lead to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), i.e. AKI-CKD transition, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is characterized by the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in ER resulting in a cellular stress response. The role of ER stress in AKI-CKD transition remains unknown. METHODS: In this study, we examined ER stress in the mouse model of AKI-CKD transition after unilateral renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (uIR)...
October 9, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312880/enhanced-neutrophil-autophagy-and-increased-concentrations-of-il-6-il-8-il-10-and-mcp-1-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
Qiyuan An, Wenkai Yan, Yi Zhao, Keqiang Yu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a high morbidity and disability disease with numerous inflammatory cells infiltrating in interstitial of articular cartilages and bones. As the most abundant inflammatory cells, neutrophil has been reported that their apoptosis changed gradually in the circumstance of RA. Apoptosis, one modality of programmed cell death (PCD), is closely associated with autophagy, which indicates neutrophil autophagy may also alter in RA. Flow cytometry, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscope and multiplex antibody microarray were used to comparative investigate the status of neutrophil autophagy in patients with RA and in vitro...
October 9, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312603/the-involvement-of-regulated-in-dna-damage-and-development-1-redd1-in-the-pathogenesis-of-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#8
Huipeng Yin, Yukun Zhang, Kun Wang, Yu Song, Ji Tu, Liang Kang, Kangcheng Zhao, Xinghuo Wu, Rongjin Luo, Cao Yang
Regulated in DNA damage and development 1 (REDD1) is an evolutionarily conserved, ubiquitous protein that responds to various cell stresses. Studies have proved REDD1 is involved in many diseases, such as osteoarthritis and cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the potential role of REDD1 in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disk degeneration (IDD). Analysis of clinical tissue samples showed REDD1 exprssion was up-regulated during IDD and was correlated with the grade of disc degeneration. Overexpression of REDD1 in normal human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells resulted in extracellular matrix (ECM) degeneration...
October 9, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312583/the-increased-activity-of-a-transcription-factor-inhibits-autophagy-in-diabetic-embryopathy
#9
Cheng Xu, Xi Chen, E Albert Reece, Wenhui Lu, Peixin Yang
BACKGROUND: Maternal diabetes induces neural tube defects (NTDs) and stimulates the activity of the transcription factor FoxO3a (forkhead box transcription factor O3a) in the embryonic neuroepithelium. We previously demonstrated that deleting the Foxo3a gene ameliorates maternal diabetes-induced NTDs. Macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) is essential for neurulation. Rescuing autophagy suppressed by maternal diabetes in the developing neuroepithelium inhibits NTD formation in diabetic pregnancy...
October 9, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312515/mitochondrial-network-structure-homeostasis-and-cell-death
#10
REVIEW
Long-Long Xie, Feng Shi, Zheqiong Tan, Yueshuo Li, Ann M Bode, Ya Cao
Mitochondria are the major cellular energy producing organelles and intracellular source of reactive oxygen species. These organelles are responsible for driving cell life and death through mitochondrial network structure homeostasis, which is determined by a balance of fission and fusion. Recent advances revealed that a number of components of the fission and fusion machinery, including dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), mitofusin1/2 (Mfn1/2) and Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) have been implicated in mitochondrial shape changes are indispensible for autophagy, apoptosis and necroptosis...
October 12, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311565/molecular-responses-of-cancers-by-natural-products-modifications-of-autophagy-revealed-by-literature-analysis
#11
Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Amr El-Demerdash, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Atanas G Atanasov, Yuh-Shan Ho
Although numerous bibliometric studies have examined various aspects of cancer research, the landscape of scientific studies focusing on natural products in cancer research has not been characterized. Using the Web of Science Core Collection online database, we identify and analyze scientific articles on natural products in cancer-related research. English is the language of publication for 99% of articles. In general, annual citation count of an article increases quickly after publication, reaches a plateau in the second year, stays in this plateau for 10 yr, and then begins to fall...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310905/suppressing-glucose-metabolism-with-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-egcg-reduces-breast-cancer-cell-growth-in-preclinical-models
#12
Ran Wei, Limin Mao, Ping Xu, Xinghai Zheng, Robert M Hackman, Gerardo G Mackenzie, Yuefei Wang
Numerous studies propose that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an abundant polyphenol in green tea, has anti-cancer properties. However, its mechanism of action in breast cancer remains unclear. This study investigated the capacity of EGCG to suppress breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo, characterizing the underlying mechanisms, focusing on the effect of EGCG on glucose metabolism. EGCG reduced breast cancer 4T1 cell growth in a concentration- (10-320 μM) and time- (12-48 h) dependent manner. EGCG induced breast cancer apoptotic cell death at 24 h, as evidenced by annexin V/PI, caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9 activation...
October 12, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310513/the-role-of-micrornas-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
REVIEW
Xin Xu, Yuquan Tao, Liang Shan, Rui Chen, Hongyuan Jiang, Zijun Qian, Feng Cai, Lifang Ma, Yongchun Yu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers, leading to the second cancer-related death in the global. Although the treatment of HCC has greatly improved over the past few decades, the survival rate of patients is still quite low. Thus, it is urgent to explore new therapies, especially seek for more accurate biomarkers for early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis in HCC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, are pivotal participants and regulators in the development and progression of HCC...
2018: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310136/sodium-tanshinone-iia-sulfonate-protects-arpe-19-cells-against-oxidative-stress-by-inhibiting-autophagy-and-apoptosis
#14
Dongmei Han, Xingwei Wu, Libin Liu, Wanting Shu, Zhenping Huang
Oxidative stress in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is considered to be a major contributor to the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous investigations have shown that sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) can alleviate oxidative stress in haemorrhagic shock-induced organ damage and cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in mice. However, whether STS has a protective effect in ARPE-19 cells under oxidative stress and its exact mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309849/finely-tuned-regulation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-is-crucial-for-human-adult-erythropoiesis
#15
Meriem Ladli, Cyrielle Richard, Lilia Cantero Aguilar, Sarah Ducamp, Sabrina Bondu, Pierre Sujobert, Jérôme Tamburini, Catherine Lacombe, Nabih Azar, Marc Foretz, Yael Zermati, Patrick Mayeux, Benoit Viollet, Frédérique Verdier
AMP-activated protein kinase is a heterotrimeric complex containing α, β, and γ subunits involved in maintaining integrity and survival of murine red blood cells (RBC). Indeed, Ampk α1-/-, Ampk b1-/- and Ampk γ1-/- mice present a hemolytic anemia and their RBC show elasticity defects in their plasma membrane. The membrane composition evolves continuously along erythropoiesis and during RBC maturation; defects due to the absence of AMPK could be initiated during erythropoiesis. Therefore, we aim to study the role of AMPK during human erythropoiesis...
October 11, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308510/lycium-barbarum-polysaccharides-alleviates-oxidative-damage-induced-by-h2o2-through-down-regulating-microrna-194-in-pc-12-and-sh-sy5y-cells
#16
Tong Niu, Liuzhong Jin, Shizhen Niu, Cunqi Gong, Hui Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Currently, scientists attempt to improve outcome of spinal cord injury (SCI) via reducing secondary injury during SCI. Oxidative stress is critical for pathophysiology of secondary damage, thus we mainly focused on the anti-oxidant effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) on PC-12 and SH-SY5Y cells as well as the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Oxidative stress was induced by H2O2 stimulation. Effects of LBPs on cell viability, apoptosis, and expression of proteins associated with apoptosis and autophagy in H2O2-induced cells were assessed by CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry assay and Western blot analysis, respectively...
October 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308184/silibinin-to-improve-cancer-therapeutics-as-an-apoptotic-inducer-autophagy-modulator-cell-cycle-inhibitor-and-micrornas-regulator
#17
REVIEW
Jahanafrooz Zohreh, Motamed Nasrin, Rinner Beate, Mokhtarzadeh Ahad, Baradaran Behzad
Silibinin is a natural plant polyphenol with high antioxidant and anticancer properties, which causes broad-spectrum efficacy against cancer, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in most cancer cell types. Silibinin, by modulating the apoptosis, cell cycle progression and autophagic pathways in various cellular and molecular routs might be used to design more effective anticancer strategies. Silibinin also regulates aberrant miRNAs expression linked to many aspects of cell biology in cancer. Maybe the most interesting aspect of silibinin is its ability to trigger multiple cellular signaling pathways to induce a particular biologic effect in various cell types...
October 8, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307330/enhancement-of-radiotherapy-efficacy-by-silver-nanoparticles-in-hypoxic-glioma-cells
#18
Zhujun Liu, Hongye Tan, Xiaohong Zhang, Feng Chen, Zhuo Zhou, Xiaodan Hu, Shuquan Chang, Peidang Liu, Haiqian Zhang
Radiotherapy is one of the most widely used treatments for therapy of malignant tumors, but resistance to radiation of hypoxic cells in tumor tissues is still a serious concern. Previous studies have demonstrated that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) enhance the radiosensitivity of human glioma cells in vitro, but the effect of AgNPs on hypoxic glioma cells has not been investigated in detail. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiosensitizing efficacy of AgNPs on hypoxic glioma cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of AgNPs for the hypoxic U251 cells and C6 cells were 30...
October 11, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305395/insulin-and-20-hydroxyecdysone-oppose-each-other-in-the-regulation-of-phosphoinositide-dependent-kinase-1-expression-during-insect-pupation
#19
Jing Pan, Yu-Qin Di, Yong-Bo Li, Cai-Hua Chen, Jin-Xing Wang, Xiao-Fan Zhao
Insulin promotes larval growth of insects by stimulating the synthesis of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), which induces pupation and apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying the coordinate regulation of insect pupation and apoptosis by these two functionally opposing hormones is still unclear. Here, using the lepidopteran insect and serious agricultural pest Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm) as a model, we report that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) and forkhead box O (FoxO) play key roles in these processes...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30304783/nanostructured-dihydroartemisinin-plus-epirubicin-liposomes-enhance-treatment-efficacy-of-breast-cancer-by-inducing-autophagy-and-apoptosis
#20
Ying-Jie Hu, Jing-Ying Zhang, Qian Luo, Jia-Rui Xu, Yan Yan, Li-Min Mu, Jing Bai, Wan-Liang Lu
The heterogeneity of breast cancer and the development of drug resistance are the relapse reasons of disease after chemotherapy. To address this issue, a combined therapeutic strategy was developed by building the nanostructured dihydroartemisinin plus epirubicin liposomes. Investigations were performed on human breast cancer cells in vitro and xenografts in nude mice. The results indicated that dihydroartemisinin could significantly enhance the efficacy of epirubicin in killing different breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...
October 9, 2018: Nanomaterials
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