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apoptosis AND autophagy

Hong Ri Jin, Charles H Du, Chong-Zhi Wang, Chun-Su Yuan, Wei Du
Protopanaxadiol (PPD), a ginseng metabolite generated by the gut bacteria, was shown to induce colorectal cancer cell death and enhance the anticancer effect of chemotherapeutic agent 5-FU. However, the mechanism by which PPD promotes cancer cell death is not clear. In this manuscript, we showed that PPD activated p53 and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induced expression of BH3-only proteins Puma and Noxa to promote cell death. Induction of Puma by PPD was p53-dependent, whereas induction of Noxa was p53-independent...
December 9, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Qian-Qian Wang, Cui Zhai, Alafate Wahafu, Yan-Ting Zhu, Yong-Hui Liu, Lian-Qing Sun
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of SalB on high glucose (HG)-induced excessive autophagy and apoptosis in vitro. METHODS: The proliferation and apoptosis of RSC96 cells were determined using the MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to examine the expression of autophagy and apoptosis-related proteins. RT-PCR and flow cytometry were manipulated to examine the level of Bcl-2...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Yanyan Zhao, Lufang Wang, Yanshi Wang, Siyu Dong, Shaojie Yang, Yifu Guan, Xin Wu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the inhibition of the proliferation of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) by astragaloside IV. METHODS: MTT examined the cell proliferation of VSCC. Flow cytometry analyzed cell cycle and apoptosis. Western blot assay detected the expression of some relevant proteins. RESULTS: AS-IV reduced the proliferation of SW962 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, induced cell-cycle arresting in G0/G1 phase, as demonstrated by the up-regulation of P53 and P21 expression, and the down-regulation of cyclin D1 expression...
December 7, 2018: Dermatologic Therapy
Xiaoyan Guo, Xiaoguang Wu, Yan Han, Erhu Tian, Jiangtao Cheng
Investigating the molecular mechanisms of myocardial infarction (MI) and subsequent heart failure have gained considerable attention worldwide. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) has been previously demonstrated to regulate the proliferation and metastasis of several tumors. However, little is known about the effects of MALAT1 in MI and in regulating the cell date after MI. In our study, first, it was shown that the expression levels of MALAT1 were increased in the MI samples compared with normal tissues using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Xiaolu Zhang, Jing Liu, Yufeng Gu, Chengming Sun, Fuzheng Qu
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to play important roles in nearly all biological processes. However, the functions of the majority of LncRNAs are not fully clear. Here we evaluated the function of lncRNA OGFRP1, which has not been previously annotated, in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). First, we knocked down lncRNA OGFRP1 in HCAECs by using siRNA transfection. qRT-PCR results indicated that siRNA1 and siRNA3 both had potent interference efficiencies. Next, by using CCK8 assay and clone formation assay, we found that siRNA3 transfection induced growth inhibition in HCAECs...
December 11, 2018: Cell Biology International
Yuning Lin, Yongxin Chen, Shengshan Wang, Jing Ma, Yue Peng, Xianling Yuan, Beibei Lv, Wanjun Chen, Yanfei Wei
Plumbagin (PL), an active naphthoquinone compound, has been demonstrated to be a potential anticancer agent. However, the underlying anticancer mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) SMMC-7721 cell line was studied in an in vitro model. The cell proliferation was inhibited by PL in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Electron microscopy, acridine orange staining, and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate autophagosome formation and LC3 protein expression in PL-treated SMMC-7721 cells...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Xue-Kai Pan, Fei Su, Li-Hua Xu, Zhang-Shuo Yang, Dan-Wen Wang, Li-Jie Yang, Fan-Zheng Kong, Wei Xie, Mao-Hui Feng
Epirubicin, which is a conventional chemotherapeutic drug for gastric cancer, has innate and adaptive chemoresistance. Recent studies revealed that epirubicin could induce autophagy as a defensive mechanism in drug resistance of mammary carcinoma. Another study implied that DJ-1 may be a chemoresistance-related gene. But the association between DJ-1 and drug resistance of epirubicin in gastric cancer is still ambiguous. In the present report, we explored whether and how DJ-1 conduced to epirubicin-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer...
December 2018: Current medical science
Yann Guéguen, Alice Bontemps, Teni G Ebrahimian
This article reviews the current knowledge on the mechanisms of adaptive response to low doses of ionizing radiation or chemical exposure. A better knowledge of these mechanisms is needed to improve our understanding of health risks at low levels of environmental or occupational exposure and their involvement in cancer or non-cancer diseases. This response is orchestrated through a multifaceted cellular program involving the concerted action of diverse stress response pathways. These evolutionary highly conserved defense mechanisms determine the cellular response to chemical and physical aggression...
December 8, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Xiao-Tao Zhou, Ze-Jin Pu, Li-Xuan Liu, Guo-Ping Li, Jia-Lin Feng, Hua-Chen Zhu, Ling-Fei Wu
In cancer research, autophagy acts as a double‑edged sword: it increases cell viability or induces cell apoptosis depending upon the cell context and functional status. Recent studies have shown that adenosine (Ado) has cytotoxic effects in many tumors. However, the role of autophagy in Ado‑induced apoptosis is still poorly understood. In the present study, Ado‑induced apoptotic death and autophagy in hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells was investigated and the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis was identified...
November 30, 2018: Oncology Reports
Etel R P Gimba, Mariana C M Brum, Gabriela Nestal De Moraes
Osteopontin (OPN) is a matricellular phosphoglycoprotein overexpressed in several tumor types and can activate several aspects of cancer progression in solid and non‑solid tumors. In the present review, the roles of OPN in mediating resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and their main associated signaling pathways were summarized and discussed. Furthermore, it was detailed how OPN expression may be able to modulate resistance to these therapies by controlling epithelial cell plasticity, stemness potential and cell survival...
December 6, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Teruyuki Kajiume, Masao Kobayashi
Mature neutrophils must be quickly removed from inflammatory sites to prevent tissue damage. Neutrophil removal is thought to be accomplished primarily through caspase-dependent apoptosis, which involves several genes of mitochondrial origin. However, mature neutrophils show reduced gene transcription and mitochondrial numbers. We predicted that neutrophils utilize other cell death mechanisms and investigated programmed cell death in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNCs or neutrophil fractions)...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Márta Sárközy, Zsuzsanna Z A Kovács, Mónika G Kovács, Renáta Gáspár, Gergő Szűcs, László Dux
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem and a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CKD could amplify the progression of chronic heart failure leading to the development of type 4 cardio-renal syndrome (T4CRS). The severity and persistence of heart failure are strongly associated with mortality risk in T4CRS. CKD is also a catabolic state leading to renal sarcopenia which is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle strength and physical function. Renal sarcopenia also promotes the development of CVD and increases the mortality in CKD patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ciro De Luca, Anna Maria Colangelo, Lilia Alberghina, Michele Papa
Coagulation and the immune system interact in several physiological and pathological conditions, including tissue repair, host defense, and homeostatic maintenance. This network plays a key role in diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) by involving several cells (CNS resident cells, platelets, endothelium, and leukocytes) and molecular pathways (protease activity, complement factors, platelet granule content). Endothelial damage prompts platelet activation and the coagulation cascade as the first physiological step to support the rescue of damaged tissues, a flawed rescuing system ultimately producing neuroinflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Tao Wang, Ning Yu, Miao Qian, Jie Feng, Shuyang Cao, Jun Yin, Quan Zhang
Background: Apoptosis and autophagy are known to play important roles in cancer development. It has been reported that HVJ-E induces apoptosis in cancer cells, thereby inhibiting the development of tumors. To define the mechanism by which HVJ-E induces cell death, we examined whether HVJ-E activates autophagic and apoptotic signaling pathways in HeLa cells. Methods: Cells were treated with chloroquine (CQ) and rapamycin to determine whether autophagy is involved in HVJ-E-induced apoptosis...
2018: Cancer Cell International
Concetta Paola Ilisso, Donatella Delle Cave, Laura Mosca, Martina Pagano, Alessandra Coppola, Luigi Mele, Michele Caraglia, Giovanna Cacciapuoti, Marina Porcelli
Background: To get insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activity of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet), we analyzed AdoMet-induced modulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profile in MCF-7 breast cell line and its correlation with cancer-related biological pathways. Methods: MiRNA expression profiling was performed using a TaqMan MiRNA Array, following 500 µM AdoMet-treatment. The results were confirmed by Quantitative real-time PCR analysis...
2018: Cancer Cell International
Isabel Carrascoso, José Alcalde, Daniel Tabas-Madrid, Juan Carlos Oliveros, José M Izquierdo
Control of gene expression depends on genetics and environmental factors. The T-cell intracellular antigens T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1), TIA1-like/related protein (TIAL1/TIAR) and human antigen R (HuR/ELAVL1) are RNA-binding proteins that play crucial roles in regulating gene expression in both situations. This study used massive sequencing analysis to uncover molecular and functional mechanisms resulting from the short-time expression of the b isoforms of TIA1 and TIAR, and of HuR in HEK293 cells...
2018: PloS One
Xiaohua Tan, Hongmei Zhu, Qianyu Tao, Lisha Guo, Tianfang Jiang, Le Xu, Ruo Yang, Xiayu Wei, Jin Wu, Xiaokun Li, Jin-San Zhang
Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with high mortality and poor outcomes. Autophagy plays important roles in the homeostasis of renal tubular cells (RTCs) and is implicated in the pathogenesis of AKI, although its role in the process is complex and controversial. Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10), a multifunctional FGF family member, was reported to exert protective effect against cerebral ischemia injury and myocardial damage. Whether FGF10 has similar beneficial effect, and if so whether autophagy is associated with the potential protective activity against AKI has not been investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Qian Feng, Haojia Wang, Jiaying Pang, Liyan Ji, Jiada Han, Ying Wang, Xiaoxiao Qi, Zhongqiu Liu, Linlin Lu
The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays an important role in the development and progression of colon cancer, and the subcellular organelle localization directly affects its function. Wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone), a mono-flavonoid extracted from root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi , possesses acceptable toxicity and has been used in colorectal cancer (CRC) chemoprevention in pre-clinical trials by oncologist. However, the underlying anti-colon cancer mechanisms of wogonin are not yet fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Maximillian A Rogers, Elena Aikawa
Cardiovascular calcification is a health disorder with increasing prevalence and high morbidity and mortality. The only available therapeutic options for calcific vascular and valvular heart disease are invasive transcatheter procedures or surgeries that do not fully address the wide spectrum of these conditions; therefore, an urgent need exists for medical options. Cardiovascular calcification is an active process, which provides a potential opportunity for effective therapeutic targeting. Numerous biological processes are involved in calcific disease, including matrix remodelling, transcriptional regulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, calcium and phosphate signalling, endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipid and mineral metabolism, autophagy, inflammation, apoptosis, loss of mineralization inhibition, impaired mineral resorption, cellular senescence and extracellular vesicles that act as precursors of microcalcification...
December 10, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Dong Weng, Qin Wu, Xian-Qiu Chen, Yu-Kui Du, Tao Chen, Hong Li, Dan-Li Tang, Qiu-Hong Li, Yuan Zhang, Li-Qin Lu, Nian-Yu Zhou, Jia-Cui Song, Chen Wang, Hui-Ping Li
Azithromycin (AZM), that is a macrolide antibiotic, has been found to treat diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) effectively. However, the mechanism of action underlying the therapeutic effects remains unclear. We selected 64 patients with DPB from 305 patients who were diagnosed with DPB at the outpatient clinic in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital from Jan 2010 to Oct 2014. The primary PBLs, CD4 + T cells, and Jurkat T cells were treated with AZM or erythromycin (EM), and the effects of AZM and EM on IL-17A and CXCL-2 production, proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy were evaluated...
December 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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