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apoptosis AND autophagy

Ahmad Fadhlurrahman Ahmad Hidayat, Chim Kei Chan, Jamaludin Mohamad, Habsah Abdul Kadir
Ethnopharmacological importance Leptospermum flavescens has been used traditionally in Malaysia to treat various ailments such as constipation, hypertension, diabetes and cancer. AIM OF STUDY: To investigate the potential protective effects of L. flavescens in pancreatic β cells through inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy cell death mechanisms in in vitro and in vivo models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: L. flavescens leaves were extracted using solvent in increasing polarities: hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yueliang Zhao, Xiaoqian Hu, Xinyuan Zuo, Mingfu Wang
Colon cancer is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Dietary phytochemicals have been drawing increasing attention for colon cancer prevention and treatment due to their chemical diversity, biological activity, easy availability, lack of toxic effects, and ability to modulate various signal transduction pathways and cell processes. The chemoprotective effects elicited by phytochemicals include antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities, induction of phase II enzymes, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, autophagy, and changes in gut microbiota...
August 17, 2018: Food & Function
Jun Wang, Yumin Zhang, Wei Song, Tao Ma, Kunzheng Wang
This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-590-5p in chondrocyte apoptosis and autophagy in response to mechanical pressure injury in vitro, as well as to elucidate its regulatory mechanism in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. We applied mechanical pressure of 10 MPa to chondrocytes for 60 minutes to establish the chondrocyte model of experimentally induced mechanical injury. We then investigated the expression of miR-590-5p in the injury model and the effects of miR-590-5p dysregulation on the expression of cell apoptosis-related and autophagy-related proteins...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Rui Chen, Meiping Jiang, Bo Li, Wei Zhong, Zhongqun Wang, Wei Yuan, Jinchuan Yan
Autophagy is a recycling process that degrades damaged or unneeded cellular components for renewal. Accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulation of autophagy is involved in pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH is a progressive disease characterized by persistent proliferation of apoptosis-resistant pulmonary vascular cells. However, reports on the role of autophagy in the development of PH are often conflicting. In this review, we discuss recent development in the field with emphasis on pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, pulmonary smooth muscle cells, right ventricular myocyte, as well as pharmacological strategies targeting the autophagic signaling pathway...
August 16, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Joanne Keenan, Karina Horgan, Martin Clynes, Indre Sinkunaite, Patrick Ward, Richard Murphy, Finbarr O'Sullivan
Copper is an essential trace element micronutrient in human and animal nutrition. Trace amounts present even in ultrapure water, serum and other cell culture medium components are sufficient to support the health requirements of most cell types in culture. Analysis of a variety of different types of basal media from a number of different suppliers revealed large fluctuations in the levels of copper, and also of other micronutrients including zinc, iron, selenium and cobalt. Investigations on proliferating Caco-2 cells revealed reductions in growth with increasing copper concentrations within the range seen in the commercial media and changes in expression of apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins were noted...
August 16, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Arnold N Onyango
Insulin resistance (IR), a key component of the metabolic syndrome, precedes the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Its etiological pathways are not well defined, although many contributory mechanisms have been established. This article summarizes such mechanisms into the hypothesis that factors like nutrient overload, physical inactivity, hypoxia, psychological stress, and environmental pollutants induce a network of cellular stresses, stress responses, and stress response dysregulations that jointly inhibit insulin signaling in insulin target cells including endothelial cells, hepatocytes, myocytes, hypothalamic neurons, and adipocytes...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Sergiu Chira, Lajos Raduly, Cornelia Braicu, Ancuta Jurj, Roxana Cojocneanu-Petric, Laura Pop, Valentina Pileczki, Calin Ionescu, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Cancer, and particularly colon cancer, is associated with an increasing number of cases resistant to chemotherapy. One approach to overcome this, and to improve the prognosis and outcome of patients, is the use of adjuvant therapy alongside the standard chemotherapy regiment. In the present study, the effect of deuterium-depleted water (DDW) as a potential modulator of adjuvant therapy on DLD-1 colorectal cancer models was assessed. A number of functionality assays were performed, including MTT, apoptosis and autophagy, and mitochondrial activity and senescence assays, in addition to assessing the capacity to modify the pattern of released miRNA via microarray technology...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xintao Tian, Chunpeng Yu, Lei Shi, Dan Li, Xiaoxue Chen, Di Xia, Jingwei Zhou, Wanqun Xu, Chengtai Ma, Lihua Gu, Yi An
The present study investigated the expression of microRNA (miRNA or miR)-199a-5p in the peripheral blood of patients with primary hypertension, and examined its mechanism of action in vascular endothelial cell injury induced by hypertension. A total of 57 patients with primary hypertension, who were treated at the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University (Qingdao, China) between December 2014 and November 2015 were included in the present study. Peripheral blood was collected from all patients. The expression of miR-199a-5p was measured using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Wenhui Mo, Chengfen Wang, Jingjing Li, Kan Chen, Yujing Xia, Sainan Li, Ling Xu, Xiya Lu, Wenwen Wang, Chuanyong Guo
Objective: Fucosterol is derived from the brown alga Eisenia bicyclis and has various biological activities, including antioxidant, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of fucosterol pretreatment on Concanavalin A- (ConA-) induced acute liver injury in mice, and to understand its molecular mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Acute liver injury was induced in BALB/c mice by ConA (25 mg/kg), and fucosterol (dissolved in 2% DMSO) was orally administered daily at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Shenglong Zhu, Ninghan Feng, Guangxiao Lin, Yuelin Tong, Xuan Jiang, Qin Yang, Shunhe Wang, Wei Chen, Zhao He, Yong Q Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Rapamycin (Rp), the main mammalian target of rapamycin complex inhibitor, is a promising therapeutic agent for breast cancer. However, metabolic disorders and drug resistance reduce its efficacy. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have demonstrated that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) significantly reduce the incidence and mortality of breast cancer and improve metabolic disorders. METHODS: Three breast cancer cell lines and immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice were used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Rp plus ω-3 PUFA treatment...
August 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Dijiong Wu, Keding Shao, Qihao Zhou, Jie Sun, Ziqi Wang, Fei Yan, Tingting Liu, Xiangping Wu, Baodong Ye, He Huang, Yuhong Zhou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although the cure rate of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has exceeded 90%, the relapse/refractory APL that resistant to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or ATO was still serious concern. Matrine (MAT) could improve the differentiation ability of ATRA-resistant APL cells. This study aimed to explore how the APL-specific fusion protein was degraded in ATRA-resistant APL with the application of MAT and ATRA. METHODS: ATRA-sensitive (NB4) and ATRA-resistant (NB4-LR1) cell lines were used...
August 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Liany Luna-Dulcey, Rebeka Tomasin, Marina A Naves, James A da Silva, Marcia R Cominetti
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is very aggressive and lacks specific therapeutic targets, having limited treatment options and poor prognosis. [6]-gingerol is the most abundant and studied compound in ginger, presenting diverse biological properties such as antitumor activity against several types of cancer, including breast cancer. In this study, we show that the semi-synthetic analogue SSi6, generated after chemical modification of the [6]-gingerol molecule, using acetone-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (2,4-DNPH) reagent, enhanced selective cytotoxic effects on MDA-MB-231 cells...
July 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Jiao-Jiao Yin, Bing Li, Qiang Zhao, Shu-Ting Zhang, Yao-Zhu Pan, Hai Bai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the autophagy activity changes of umbilical cord mesenchymal cells (MSC) under hypobaric hypoxia and the effect of hypobaric hypoxia on cell viability. METHODS: Umbilical cord mesenchymal cells were cultured in the chamber of hypobaric hypoxia with an air pressure of 41.1 kPa and an oxygen density of 1%. At 0, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 hours, the cells were harvested for Western blot and real-time PCR to observe the expression level of the autophagy marker protein LC3B...
August 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Gang Chen, Gangcai Zhu, Xin Zhang
Prolin-rich Akt substrate of 40 kD (PRAS40) is firstly identified as a partner of 14-3-3 protein and a substrate of Akt kinase by Roth et al in 2003. Accumulated evidence shows that PRAS40 is mainly activated by phosphorylate modification at different sites. PRAS40 may be involved in various of signaling pathways, such as mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), protein kinase B (Akt), NF-κB and ribosomal protein L11 (RPL11) etc, which can regulate cell proliferation, senescence, autophagy, apoptosis and exosome secretion...
June 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Anna Onnis, Valentina Cianfanelli, Chiara Cassioli, Dijana Samardzic, Pier Giuseppe Pelicci, Francesco Cecconi, Cosima T Baldari
Macroautophagy/autophagy has emerged as a central process in lymphocyte homeostasis, activation and differentiation. Based on our finding that the p66 isoform of SHC1 (p66SHC) pro-apoptotic ROS-elevating SHC family adaptor inhibits MTOR signaling in these cells, here we investigated the role of p66SHC in B-cell autophagy. We show that p66SHC disrupts mitochondrial function through its CYCS (cytochrome c, somatic) binding domain, thereby impairing ATP production, which results in AMPK activation and enhanced autophagic flux...
August 15, 2018: Autophagy
Gang Chen, Yueping Ma, Zhe Jiang, Yuan Feng, Yueqing Han, Yetian Tang, Juan Zhang, Hui Ni, Xuezheng Li, Ning Li
During our study on the bioactivities of natural flavonoids, we found that the total flavonoids (TFs) and the main constituent of it, licochalcone A (lico A), activated unfolded protein response (UPR) and induced autophagy and thereby apoptosis in H292 cells. MicroRNAs, such as the tumor repressor miR-144-3p, were reported to be differentially expressed in lung cancer cells and were linked to ER stress, autophagy, and apoptosis. However, the underlying miRNA-based mechanism for lico A modulating proliferation, autophagy and apoptosis in lung cancer cells is elusive...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Lijian Shao, Wuping Yang, Rui Xu, Shuqin Zhu, Yanqiu Huang, Huan Li, Xincheng Wu, Mengzhen Yue, Xiaoliang Xiong, Xiaowen Chen, Bohai Kuang, Guangqin Fan, Qingxian Zhu, Huihong Zeng
BACKGROUND: Irradiation-induced kidney damage is inevitable during radiotherapeutic practice, which limits effective radiotherapy doses on tumor treatment. In the present study, the role of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling was investigated in irradiation-induced renal injuries. METHODS: Mice were exposed to 8.0-Gy X-ray of total body irradiation and subsequently treated with rapamycin. Changes of renal morphology were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining...
August 14, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Xing-He Wang, Wei Li, Xing-Hui Wang, Mei-Yu Han, Ishfaq Muhammad, Xiu-Ying Zhang, Xiao-Qi Sun, Xiao-Xu Cui
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is very harmful for broiler production and public health. The water-soluble castoff in gluten production, i.e., the water-soluble substances of wheat (WSW) that contains 14% pentosan has positive effect on animal nutrient absorption, immunity, and antioxidation. Our study aims to investigate the preventive effects of WSW against AFB1-induced broiler liver injury. One day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly separated to 4 groups and were, respectively, fed with control diet, diet with 5 mg/kg AFB1 standard, diet with 5 mg/kg AFB1 standard and 214 ml/kg WSW, and diet with 214 ml/kg WSW continuously for 28 d...
August 13, 2018: Poultry Science
Xin Li, Chen Li, Jun-Chao Liu, Ya-Ping Pan, Yong-Gang Li
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory epithelial cells are the first natural barrier against bacteria and viruses; hence, the interactions among epithelial cells, bacteria, and viruses are associated with disease occurrence and development. The effect of co-infection by P. gingivalis and influenza A virus (IAV) on respiratory epithelial cells remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro cell viability and apoptosis rates in respiratory epithelial A549 cells infected with P. gingivalis or IAV alone, or a combination of both pathogens...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Yanyang Chen, Yunsheng Ou, Yong Tao, Huzhe Liu, Hang Yin, Shenxi Zhong, Haoyang Yu, Zenghui Zhao, Bin He
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the bone found predominantly in children and teenagers and results in early metastasis and poor prognosis. The present study primarily focused on the impact of celastrol on apoptosis and autophagy of osteosarcoma HOS cells, as well as the related mechanisms. Following the appropriate treatment, the human osteosarcoma cell line HOS was assessed for viability, Ca2+ in cells, apoptosis and changes in cell morphology using Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, inverted phase contrast microscope, Hoechst staining and transmission electron microscopy...
August 1, 2018: Oncology Reports
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