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Emergency system

Amirhossein Bahreyni, Mona Alibolandi, Mohammad Ramezani, Atefeh Sarafan Sadeghi, Khalil Abnous, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi
Conventional chemotherapy suffers from several drawbacks, including toxic side effects together with the development of resistance to the chemical agents. Therefore, exploring alternative therapeutic approaches as well as developing targeted delivery systems are in demand. Oligonucleotide-based therapy has emerged as a promising and alternative procedure for treating malignancies involving gene-related diseases. In the current study, a targeted delivery system was designed to target cancer cells based on two biocompatible polymers of poly (β amino ester) (PβAE) and poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)...
December 4, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Dimitrios Michmizos, Zoe Hilioti
In plants, the acquisition, processing and storage of empirical information can result in the modification of their behavior according to the nature of the stimulus, and yet this area of research remained relatively understudied until recently. As the body of evidence supporting the inclusion of plants among the higher organisms demonstrating the adaptations to accomplish these tasks keeps increasing, the resistance by traditional botanists and agricultural scientists, who were at first cautious in allowing the application of animal models onto plant physiology and development, subsides...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Cindy L J Weinstein, Nicholas Ryan, Tulin Shekar, Davis Gates, Stephen J Lane, Ioana Agache, Robert A Nathan
BACKGROUND: The safety of long-acting beta agonists added to inhaled corticosteroids for the treatment of persistent asthma has been controversial. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether administering formoterol in combination with mometasone furoate increases the risk of serious asthma outcomes compared to mometasone furoate alone. METHODS: We conducted a 26-week, randomized, double-blind trial in adolescent and adult patients (≥12 years) with persistent asthma in 35 countries with the primary objective of evaluating whether mometasone furoate-formoterol increases the risk of serious asthma outcomes (adjudicated hospitalization, intubation, or death) compared to mometasone furoate alone...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
S Zayas-Garcia, R Cano-de-la-Cuerda
INTRODUCTION: New treatment options are emerging within the information and communication technologies field through smartphones in order to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. AIM: To carry out a systematic review about the information related to mobile applications specifically designed in the field of MS, in order to classify them and carry out a description of their main characteristics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A literature search of articles published in English and Spanish has been carried out from 2012 until 2017 that presents, analyzes and validates a system based on an application with utility or specific design for MS...
December 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Simon Murphy, Hannah Littlecott, Gillian Hewitt, Sarah MacDonald, Joan Roberts, Julie Bishop, Chris Roberts, Richard Thurston, Alexa Bishop, Laurence Moore, Graham Moore
The paper reflects on a transdisciplinary complex adaptive systems (T-CAS) approach to the development of a school health research network (SHRN) in Wales for a national culture of prevention for health improvement in schools. A T-CAS approach focuses on key stages and activities within a continuous network cycle to facilitate systems level change. The theory highlights the importance of establishing transdisciplinary strategic partnerships to identify and develop opportunities for system reorientation. Investment in and the linking of resources develops the capacity for key social agents to take advantage of disruption points in the re-orientated system, and engagement activities develop the network to facilitate new social interactions and opportunities for transdisciplinary activities...
December 8, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Marie-Luise Dierks, Christopher Kofahl
Health literacy has recently been put on the health policy agenda in Germany, triggered by several recent studies that show that more than half of the German population has difficulties in finding, understanding, appraising and applying health information. Respective statistics reflect these individual difficulties and point at user preferences and competencies being inadequately considered and responded to by the healthcare system. Among other measures to improve this situation, a national action plan on health literacy was launched in 2018, which explicitly addresses self-help groups and self-help organisations repeatedly as an important player in promoting health literacy on individual and organisational levels...
December 7, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Maribel Portilla, Michael Grodowitz
Life fertility tables were constructed for Phymastichus coffea LaSalle, the only known endoparasitoid wasp that attacks the adult female of the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari. No preoviposition period was observed, and the parasitoid female attacked the CBB females immediately after emergence. The reproductive period was 20.33 (±0.87 SE) h and the postreproductive period of 14.78 (±0.99 SE) h. Mean generation time was 37 d. Median longevity for female and male fed on honey-water solution (50:50) was 35...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Gangyi Feng, Han Gyol Yi, Bharath Chandrasekaran
We establish a mechanistic account of how the mature human brain functionally reorganizes to acquire and represent new speech sounds. Native speakers of English learned to categorize Mandarin lexical tone categories produced by multiple talkers using trial-by-trial feedback. We hypothesized that the corticostriatal system is a key intermediary in mediating temporal lobe plasticity and the acquisition of new speech categories in adulthood. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment in which participants underwent a sound-to-category mapping task...
December 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Yuehua Xu, Miao Cao, Xuhong Liao, Mingrui Xia, Xindi Wang, Tina Jeon, Minhui Ouyang, Lina Chalak, Nancy Rollins, Hao Huang, Yong He
Individual variability in human brain networks underlies individual differences in cognition and behaviors. However, researchers have not conclusively determined when individual variability patterns of the brain networks emerge and how they develop in the early phase. Here, we employed resting-state functional MRI data and whole-brain functional connectivity analyses in 40 neonates aged around 31-42 postmenstrual weeks to characterize the spatial distribution and development modes of individual variability in the functional network architecture...
December 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Sungjun Kim, Jia Chen, Ying-Chen Chen, Min-Hwi Kim, Hyungjin Kim, Min-Woo Kwon, Sungmin Hwang, Muhammad Ismail, Yi Li, Xiang-Shui Miao, Yao-Feng Chang, Byung-Gook Park
We studied the pseudo-homeothermic synaptic behaviors by integrating complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible materials (hafnium oxide, aluminum oxide, and silicon substrate). A wide range of temperatures, from 25 °C up to 145 °C, in neuronal dynamics was achieved owing to the homeothermic properties and the possibility of spike-induced synaptic behaviors was demonstrated, both presenting critical milestones for the use of emerging memristor-type neuromorphic computing systems in the near future...
December 7, 2018: Nanoscale
Adrian Chrastina, Veronique T Baron, Parisa Abedinpour, Gaelle Rondeau, John Welsh, Per Borgström
Background: Plumbagin, a medicinal plant-derived 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, is an emerging drug with a variety of pharmacological effects, including potent anticancer activity. We have previously shown that plumbagin improves the efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer and it is now being evaluated in phase I clinical trial. However, the development of formulation of plumbagin as a compound with sparing solubility in water is challenging. Methods: We have formulated plumbagin-loaded nanoemulsion using pneumatically controlled high pressure homogenization of oleic acid dispersions with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate as surfactant...
2018: BioMed Research International
Gareth D Meyer, Tabitha Nadishani Meyer, Charles Benjamin Gaunt
Introduction: The implementation of a triage system is a vital step in improving the functioning and patient flow of the emergency centre in a rural district hospital. The South African Triage Scale (SATS) is a well validated and reliable tool used widely in South Africa and other low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to assess the validity of the SATS in a rural district hospital context. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. All patients presenting to the Zithulele Hospital emergency centre from 1 October 2015 to 31 December 2015 were triaged using the SATS system, routinely collected data was used to determine the correlation between assigned acuity and outcome to determine rates of under- and over-triage...
December 2018: African Journal of Emergency Medicine Revue Africaine de la Médecine D'urgence
Kate Elzinga, Abelardo Medina, Regan Guilfoyle
The nose plays a critical role in olfaction, air filtration and humidification, and facial aesthetics. Most nasal amputations result from animal bites, human bites, and lacerations from glass. Successful replantation yields the best aesthetic and functional outcomes and is preferred compared with multistage nasal reconstruction. However, nasal replantation is technically challenging; establishing venous outflow can be particularly difficult. A 17-year-old male sustained a complete nose and upper lip amputation in a motor vehicle accident...
October 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Susmita Mondal, Kaushik Bhattacharya, Chitra Mandal
The emergence and maintenance of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are usually governed by tumor niche. Tumor niche always provides metabolic challenges to cancer cells and CSCs mostly because of tissue hypoxia. However, the role of micro-environmental nutritional stress (NS) in dedifferentiation of cancer cells is poorly defined. Here, we developed a stochastic model of CSCs by gradual nutritional deprivation in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells used as a model system. Nutritional deprivation induced enhanced expression of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs)-specific biomarkers with higher invasive and angiogenic properties...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Wei Zhang, Yanxiu Li, Van Phuc Nguyen, Ziyi Huang, Zhipeng Liu, Xueding Wang, Yannis M Paulus
Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is an emerging imaging technology that can non-invasively visualize ocular structures in animal eyes. This report describes an integrated multimodality imaging system that combines PAM, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fluorescence microscopy (FM) to evaluate angiogenesis in larger animal eyes. High-resolution in vivo imaging was performed in live rabbit eyes with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced retinal neovascularization (RNV). The results demonstrate that our multimodality imaging system can non-invasively visualize RNV in both albino and pigmented rabbits to determine retinal pathology using PAM and OCT and verify the leakage of neovascularization using FM and fluorescein dye...
2018: Light, Science & Applications
Gustavo F Wandalsen, Renata G Dias, Herberto J Chong-Neto, Nelson Rosário, Lillian Moraes, Neusa F Wandalsen, Décio Medeiros, Ana Caroline Della Bianca, Marilyn Urrutia-Pereira, Jennifer Avila, Patrícia P Jorge, Dirceu Solé
Background: TRACK (Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids) questionnaire is an instrument developed and validated in English to evaluate the control of respiratory symptoms in children under 5 years of age. Objective: To validate the Portuguese version of the TRACK questionnaire. Methods: The validation was done in an observational, prospective and multicenter evaluation (six centers in Brazil) in children with recurrent respiratory symptoms...
2018: World Allergy Organization Journal
J Ssebunnya, S Kangere, J Mugisha, S Docrat, D Chisholm, C Lund, F Kigozi
Background: In spite of the pronounced adverse economic consequences of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders on households in most low- and middle-income countries, service coverage and financial protection for these families is very limited. The aim of this study was to generate potential strategies for sustainably financing mental health care in Uganda in an effort to move towards increased financial protection and service coverage for these families. Methods: The process of identifying potential strategies for sustainably financing mental health care in Uganda was guided by an analytical framework developed by the Emerging Mental health systems in low and middle income countries (EMERALD project)...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Joshua Weller, Andrea Ceschi, Lauren Hirsch, Riccardo Sartori, Arianna Costantini
Emerging research has highlighted the utility of measuring individual differences in decision-making competence (DMC), showing that consistently following normatively rational principles is associated with positive psychosocial and health behaviors. From another level of analysis, functional theories of personality suggest that broad trait dimensions represent variation in underlying self-regulatory systems, providing a mechanistic account for robust associations between traits and similar life outcomes. Yet, the degree to which broad dispositional personality dimensions predict global tendencies to respond rationally is less understood...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Geetha Maniam, Chun-Wai Mai, Mohd Zulkefeli, Christine Dufès, Doryn Meam-Yee Tan, Ju-Yen Fu
Plant-derived phytonutrients have emerged as health enhancers. Tocotrienols from the vitamin E family gained high attention in recent years due to their multi-targeted biological properties, including lipid-lowering, neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. Despite well-defined mechanism of action as an anti-cancer agent, their clinical use is hampered by poor pharmacokinetic profile and low oral bioavailability. Delivery systems based on nanotechnology were proven to be advantageous in elevating the delivery of tocotrienols to tumor sites for enhanced efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kimia Pourmohammadi, Nahid Hatam, Payam Shojaei, Peivand Bastani
Introduction: Key performance indicators are essential navigation tools for hospitals. They provide managers with valid information enabling them to identify institutional strengths and weaknesses and improve managerial performance. In this study, the synthesis of evidence relating to hospital performance indicators was carried out by means of a field review and the indicators were analyzed through the Best Fit Method. Methods: The five-step approach of Arksey and O'Malley was used as follows: selection of the research question; search for related studies; selection and refinement of the studies; synthesis and tabulation of key information; derivation of the related summary and report...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
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