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Emergency system

Abhilasha Karkey, Niva Joshi, Shiva Chalise, Suchita Joshi, Shrijana Shrestha, To Nguyen Thi Nguyen, Sabina Dongol, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker, Christine J Boinett
Background: Human infections with Serratia spp. are generally limited to Serratia marcescens and the Serratia liquefaciens complex. There is little data regarding the infections caused by the remaining Serratia spp., as they are seldom isolated from clinical specimens. Methods: In this health care setting in Kathmandu, Nepal routine blood culture is performed on all febrile patients with a temperature >38°C or when there is clinical suspicion of bacteremia. During 2015 we atypically isolated and identified several Serratia spp...
August 11, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Guichard Anne, Tardieu Émilie, Nour Kareen, Lafontaine Ginette, Ridde Valéry
While numerous tools are available to better incorporate equity into population health actions, they are limited mainly by their lack of adaptation to professional practices and organizational realities. A study was conducted in Québec to identify and understand, from the perspective of future users, conditions that would facilitate use of a tool (Reflex-ISS) targeted at supporting collaborative action to improve consideration of social inequalities in health (SIH) within population health actions. Concept mapping and focus groups were implemented as complementary methods for investigating the conditions...
August 9, 2018: Health Promotion International
Hairong Xu, Shan Lu, Lexi Ding, Liangkun Lyu, Zejun Ma, Qiulun Lu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In clinical settings, the pulsatility index (PI) has become a widely used tool for monitoring obstetrics or other vascular diseases. It is based on the maximum Doppler shift waveform derived from ultrasonography. However, it remains unclear whether the PI levels are correctly predicted from the perfusion in mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. METHODS: To explore the relationship between PI and perfusion, we generated a unilateral hindlimb ischemia model in 8-week-old C57BL/6 male mice by ligation of the right common iliac artery and femoral artery...
August 14, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Benjamin Des Soye, Samuel Davidson, Matthew Weinstock, Dan Gibson, Michael C Jewett
A new wave of interest in cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems has shown their utility for producing proteins at high titers, establishing genetic regulatory element libraries (e.g., promoters, ribosome binding sites) in non-model organisms, optimizing biosynthetic pathways before implementation in cells, and sensing biomarkers for diagnostic applications. Unfortunately, most previous efforts have focused on a select few model systems, such as Escherichia coli. Broadening the spectrum of organisms used for CFPS promises to better mimic host cell processes in prototyping applications and open up new areas of research...
August 14, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Janine H Peterson, Sunyia Hussain, Harris D Bernstein
Although the barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex has been shown to facilitate the insertion of β barrel proteins into the bacterial outer membrane (OM), the stage at which β barrels fold is unknown. Here we describe insights into β barrel assembly that emerged from an analysis of a member of the autotransporter family of OM proteins (EspP) in E. coli. EspP contains an extracellular "passenger" domain that is translocated across the OM and then released from the covalently linked β barrel domain in an intra-barrel cleavage reaction...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Daisy Elizabeth Gates, John Joseph Valletta, Camille Bonneaud, Mario Recker
Emergent infectious diseases can have a devastating impact on host populations. The high selective pressures on both the hosts and the pathogens frequently lead to rapid adaptations not only in pathogen virulence but also host resistance following an initial outbreak. However, it is often unclear whether hosts will evolve to avoid infection-associated fitness costs by preventing the establishment of infection (here referred to as qualitative resistance) or by limiting its deleterious effects through immune functioning (here referred to as quantitative resistance)...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Dominik Hoff, Federico J Furch, Tobias Witting, Klaus Rühle, Daniel Adolph, A Max Sayler, Marc J J Vrakking, Gerhard G Paulus, Claus Peter Schulz
With the emergence of high-repetition-rate few-cycle laser pulse amplifiers aimed at investigating ultrafast dynamics in atomic, molecular, and solid-state science, the need for ever faster carrier-envelope phase (CEP) detection and control has arisen. Here we demonstrate a high-speed, continuous, every-single-shot measurement and fast feedback scheme based on a stereo above-threshold ionization time-of-flight spectrometer capable of detecting the CEP and pulse duration at a repetition rate of up to 400 kHz...
August 15, 2018: Optics Letters
G Anthony Fidacaro, Christopher W Jones, Lisa A Drago
OBJECTIVE: There are nearly 1000 annual ambulance crashes within the United States involving pediatric patients. In 2012 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration/US Department of Transportation released Best-Practice Recommendations for the Safe Transportation of Children in Emergency Ground Ambulances. The aim of our study was to measure emergency medical services (EMS) providers' knowledge and opinions of how to safely transport pediatric patients. In addition, we aimed to gather information on barriers to safe pediatric transport...
August 13, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Letizia Leocani, Simone Guerrieri, Giancarlo Comi
: ABSTRACT:: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, degenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by progressive neurological decline over time. The need for better "biomarkers" to more precisely capture and track the effects of demyelination, remyelination, and associated neuroaxonal injury is a well-recognized challenge in the field of MS. To this end, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) have a role in assessing the extent of demyelination along the optic nerve, as a functionally eloquent CNS region...
September 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Daniela Iannazzo, Alessandro Pistone, Stefania Ferro, Laura De Luca, Annamaria Monforte, Roberto Romeo, Maria Rosa Buemi, Christophe Pannecouque
Graphene quantum dots (GQD) are the next generation of nanomaterials with great potential in drug delivery and target-specific HIV inhibition. In this study we investigated the antiviral activity of graphene based nanomaterials by using water soluble GQD synthesized from multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) through prolonged acidic oxidation and exfoliation and compared their anti-HIV activity with that exerted by reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) conjugated with the same nanomaterial. The antiretroviral agents chosen in this study, CHI499 and CDF119, belong to the class of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)...
August 14, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Guowu Zhan, Ping Li, Hua Chun Zeng
Advanced nanocatalysts with high compositional and structural tailorability have emerged as a new class of heterogeneous catalysts exhibiting many new technical merits over their conventional counterparts. Generally, preparation of such catalysts involves the integration of catalyst components with compositional, size, and shape controls into a larger material system in order to bring along collective and synergetic effects of individual components. Herein, a brief review of architectural designs and synthetic strategies for making these nanocatalysts is presented...
August 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Kiyotaka Uchiyama, Naoki Washida, Nobuyuki Yube, Takahiro Kasai, Keisuke Shinozuka, Kohkichi Morimoto, Akihito Hishikawa, Hiroyuki Inoue, Hidenori Urai, Aika Hagiwara, Kentaro Fujii, Shu Wakino, Souzana Deenitchina, Hiroshi Itoh
AIMS: Remote monitoring (RM) can improve management of chronic diseases. We evaluated the impact of RM in automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) in a simulation study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We simulated 12 patient scenarios with common clinical problems and estimated the likely healthcare resource consumption with and without the availability of RM (RM+ and RM- groups, respectively). Scenarios were evaluated 4 times by randomly allocated nephrologist-nurse teams or nephrologist-alone assessors...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Bo Wang, Ningning Wei, Kuan Peng, Jiaying Xiao
PURPOSE: Acoustic resolution photoacoustic endoscopy (ARPAE) is an emerging tool for gastrointestinal tract and esophagus imaging. However, high resolution over large depth of field in ARPAE is still a challenge to be addressed due to the usage of fixed-focus transducers. METHODS: To solve this problem, a modified back-projection reconstruction algorithm is proposed in this work, which was demonstrated in 2D. By employing data from multiple transducer positions and at the meantime considering the geometry of the transducer detection surface, this method offers a significantly improved lateral resolution throughout the imaging depth...
August 14, 2018: Medical Physics
Rachel Lang-Baldé, Roxanne Amerson
INTRODUCTION: Almost 830 women die daily in childbirth with 550 of those deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. This region has the highest maternal mortality rates in the world with 546 deaths per 100,000 live births. Research must focus on understanding cultural beliefs and practices to improve maternal health outcomes. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence of relevant cultural beliefs and the impact on birth outcomes for women in sub-Saharan Africa. METHOD: Using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, the literature focused on 25 articles that defined, directly or indirectly, associations of cultural values, beliefs, and lifeways to pregnancy and birth from the perspective of women of childbearing age...
September 2018: Journal of Transcultural Nursing: Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
Md Motiar Rahman, Shigeyoshi Matsumura, Yoshiya Ikawa
The emergence of cellular compartmentalization was a crucial step in the hypothetical RNA world and its evolution because it would not only prevent the extinction of RNA self-replication systems due to dispersion/diffusion of their components but also facilitate ribozyme reactions by molecular crowding effects. Here, we proposed and examined self-assembly of RNA components as a primitive cellular-like environment, which may have the ability to mimic cellular compartmentalization and crowding effects. We engineered a bimolecular group I ribozyme to form a one-dimensional (1D)-ribozyme assembly...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Robert Kronstrand, Davide Guerrieri, Svante Vikingsson, Ariane Wohlfarth, Henrik Gréen
This chapter describes how new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been involved in fatal intoxications from 2010 and onwards. It summarizes the circumstances, antemortem symptoms, and adverse effects that have led to death after ingestion of one or more NPS and tabulates concentrations, and postmortem findings from these intoxications.Consumption of NPS exerts health problems and unknown risks for the users. Data on toxicity of many NPS are scarce or nonexistent and long-term toxicity and risks are still largely unknown...
August 14, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Nanshu Liu, Si Zhou, Nan Gao, Jijun Zhao
Monolayer gallium selenide (GaSe), an emerging two-dimensional semiconductor, holds great promise for electronics and optoelectronics. In reality, the contact properties between a semiconductor and the electrodes play a vital role in device performance. Thus, selecting suitable electrode materials with zero contact resistance is critical and challenging. Here, we explore the contact properties and electronic transport of monolayer GaSe with a series of electrode materials (including transition metals and MXenes) by ab initio electronic calculations and quantum transport simulations...
August 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Tomoyuki Yokouchi, Shintaro Hoshino, Naoya Kanazawa, Akiko Kikkawa, Daisuke Morikawa, Kiyou Shibata, Taka-Hisa Arima, Yasujiro Taguchi, Fumitaka Kagawa, Naoto Nagaosa, Yoshinori Tokura
Dynamics of string-like objects is an important issue in a broad range of physical systems, including vortex lines in superconductors, viscoelastic polymers, and superstrings in elementary particle physics. In noncentrosymmetric magnets, string forms of magnetic skyrmions are present as topological spin objects, and their current-induced dynamics has recently attracted intense interest. We show in the chiral magnet MnSi that the current-induced deformation dynamics of skyrmion strings results in transport response associated with the real-space Berry phase...
August 2018: Science Advances
Emma Maria Dunne, Ian Mark Fraser, Mitchell Liu
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) also referred to as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), is a technique which has emerged over the past two decades due to improvements in radiation technology. Unlike conventional external beam radiotherapy (cEBRT) which traditionally delivers radiation in small doses [approximately 2 Gray (Gy) per fraction] over several weeks, SBRT, typically delivered in one to eight fractions, is a technique whereby potentially ablative doses of radiotherapy (usually 7.5-20 Gy per fraction) can be delivered with steeper dose gradients and sub millimetre precision, minimising risk to surrounding normal tissues...
July 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Tadashi Nakashima, Hajime Mushiake, Kazuhiro Sakamoto
An individual's personality develops through a combination of experiences and parental inheritance. When faced with a conflict, will an individual take an innate behavior or a learned one? In such situations, individuality will manifest itself. Here, we focused on turn alternation behavior, which is a habitual tendency to turn in the direction opposite the preceding turn, in earthworms ( Eisenia fetida ) and examined how this behavior is affected by an aversive stimulus. Of 10 earthworms, 3 were affected by the stimulus...
2018: Biophysics and Physicobiology
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