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Diagnostic markers

Nima Abbasian, Karl Herbert, Izabella Pawluczyk, James Burton, Alan Bevington
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microparticles (MPs) and exosomes (EXOs), are derived from a wide range of mammalian cells including blood platelets, endothelial cells, and kidney cells and can be detected in body fluids including blood and urine. While EVs are well established as diagnostic markers under pathophysiological and stress conditions, there is also mounting evidence of their functional significance as vehicles for communication between cells mediated by the presence of nucleic acids, especially microRNAs (miRs), encapsulated in the EVs...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Manjari Bhamidipati, Hyeon-Yeol Cho, Ki Bum Lee, Laura Fabris
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-based biosensors have been used increasingly over the past few years for cancer detection and diagnosis. SERS-based imaging offers excellent sensitivity and has advantages over other detection techniques such as fluorescence. In this study, we developed a novel biosensor to detect the cancer biomarker epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and quantify its expression at the single cell level. EpCAM is one of the most commonly expressed markers on a variety of cancer cells; importantly it has been suggested that reduction of its expression levels could be associated to the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus to the onset of metastasis...
August 15, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Janaina Silva Martins Humberto, Jefferson Veronezi Pavanin, Maria José Alves da Rocha, Ana Carolina Fragoso Motta
The etiopathogenesis of oral lichen planus (OLP) is still not fully elucidated, and it is believed that its development could involve a neuro-immune-endocrine profile. This systematic review investigated the relationship between cytokines, cortisol, and nitric oxide (NO) in the saliva of OLP patients. An electronic search was conducted in Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, LIVIVO, and Web of Science databases with no restriction of language to identify studies published up to December 2017. Data extraction was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
August 13, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Yaohui Wang, Wenjin Yin, Yanping Lin, Kai Yin, Liheng Zhou, Yueyao Du, Tingting Yan, Jinsong Lu
Success in curing breast cancer largely depends on the stage at diagnosis. Circulating microRNAs are becoming a promising noninvasive biomarker. We postulate that a postoperative decline in circulating microRNAs might have diagnostic and prognostic value. Applying high-throughput microarrays, we screened the dysregulated microRNAs in paired serum samples before and after surgery. The relative concentrations of putative markers between the early breast cancer and cancer-free groups were evaluated in the training set and verified in the validation set...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Michael Chetrit, Matthias G Friedrich
This article addresses the specific diagnostic information provided by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with suspected acute myocarditis. It gives an overview of the current evidence of the ability of CMR to detect myocardial inflammation and discusses the added value as well as its limitations in clinical settings. Because of the large variety of symptoms and the limited specificity of other non-invasive procedures, the identification of myocardial inflammation is of paramount importance...
2018: F1000Research
Javad Shahabi, Reihaneh Zavar, Afshin Amirpour, Mohammad Bidmeshki, Melinaz Barati-Chermahini
BACKGROUND: Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a common disease with a high mortality rate, and a variable and nonspecific clinical presentation. To detect the nonspecific signs and symptoms associated with this condition, several right ventricular (RV) echocardiographic parameters have been proposed as practical marker. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 93 patients with PTE diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) angiography, and 57 patients with negative PTE based on CT angiography...
March 2018: ARYA Atherosclerosis
K R Lin, J Q Zhu, J Li, J C Gu, H C Li, R Wei, Y Guo, Y Y Wang, H Y Wang, D L Fu
Objective: To analyze the causes of preoperative miscarriage of pancreatic serous cystadenoma (SCN) and find the ways to improve it. Methods: Clinical data of 425 pancreatic cystic neoplasm patients who underwent surgical resection from January 2006 to December 2016 in Department of Pancreatic Surgery in Huashan Hospital were retrospectively analyzed.Excel database was created which covered 128 fields of 7 fields: general information of patients, preoperative blood biochemical indexes, tumor markers, surgical related data, postoperative complications, imaging findings and pathology...
August 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
M Zhao, A X Wang, X Zhu, J J Yu, W Wang, D H Zhang, X L He, H Y He, X D Teng
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic and differential diagnostic features of glomus tumor of the kidney. Methods: Four cases of glomus tumor of the kidney were collected from the archives of Peking University Third Hospital, the Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Ningbo Yinzhou Second Hospital and Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital between January 2012 to June 2017; the clinical and radiologic features, histomorphology, immunohistochemistry, ultrastucture and prognosis were analyzed and the relevant literature was reviewed...
August 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Willem Bruin, Damiaan Denys, Guido van Wingen
As of yet, no diagnostic biomarkers are available for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and its diagnosis relies entirely upon the recognition of behavioural features assessed through clinical interview. Neuroimaging studies have shown that various brain structures are abnormal in OCD patients compared to healthy controls. However, the majority of these results are based on average differences between groups, which limits diagnostic usage in clinical practice. In recent years, a growing number of studies have applied multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) techniques on neuroimaging data to extract patterns of altered brain structure, function and connectivity typical for OCD...
August 11, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Kalliopi I Pappa, Polyxeni Christou, Amarildo Xholi, George Mermelekas, Georgia Kontostathi, Vasiliki Lygirou, Manousos Makridakis, Jerome Zoidakis, Nicholas P Anagnou
The available therapeutic approaches for cervical cancer can seriously affect the fertility potential of patient; thus, there is a pressing requirement for less toxic and targeted therapies. The membrane proteome is a potential source of therapeutic targets; however, despite the significance of membrane proteins in cancer, proteomic analysis has been a challenging task due to their unique biochemical properties. The aim of the present study was to develop an efficient membrane protein enrichment protocol, and to the best of our knowledge, to compare for the first time the expression pattern of membrane proteins of one normal cell line, HCK1T, and three cervical cancer cell lines, C33A, a human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative cell line, and two HPV-positive cell lines, SiHa (HPV16+) and HeLa (HPV18+)...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Wenhua Huang, Xinya Su, Wei Yan, Zhe Kong, Dan Wang, Yan Huang, Qiaoli Zhai, Xiaowei Zhang, Hai Wu, Yao Li, Tao Li, Xuechao Wan
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of death in males all over the world; besides, the diagnosis and therapy of it are still challenging. Researchers have revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the genesis and progression of human cancers, including PCa. METHODS: Bioinformatics analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were utilized to confirm TMPO-AS1 as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. The TMPO-AS1 levels in both patient tissues and PCa cell lines were determined by qRT-PCR analysis...
August 13, 2018: Prostate
Dorota Pastuszak-Lewandoska, Daria Domańska-Senderowska, Adam Antczak, Jacek Kordiak, Paweł Górski, Karolina H Czarnecka, Monika Migdalska-Sęk, Ewa Nawrot, Justyna M Kiszałkiewicz, Ewa Brzeziańska-Lasota
BACKGROUND: The interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 signaling pathway and the SOCS3 gene, one of its main regulators, constitute an important link between the inflammation process in the epithelial cells and inflammatory-related tumorigenesis. The present study is the first to evaluate IL-4, IL-13, STAT6, and SOCS3 mRNA expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) histopathological subtypes. METHODS: Gene expression levels were assessed using TaqMan® probes by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in lung tumor samples and unchanged lung tissue samples...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Albert M Anderson, Kirk A Easley, Nicole Kasher, Donald Franklin, Robert K Heaton, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Magnus Gisslen, Scott L Letendre
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) persists in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era and is associated with diminished quality of life. The disorder remains challenging to diagnose given the requirement for comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Blood biomarkers are needed to facilitate the diagnosis of HAND and to gauge neurological response to antiretroviral therapy. We performed a study of plasma neurofilament light chain (NFL) that included 37 HIV-infected and 54 HIV-negative adults...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Xiaoge Hu, Jiahong Jiang, Qiuran Xu, Chao Ni, Liu Yang, Dongsheng Huang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has the second highest mortality rate worldwide among all cancers. Previous studies have revealed the significant involvement of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in numerous human cancers including HCC. Both oncogenic and tumor repressive lncRNAs have been identified and implicated in the complex process of hepatocarcinogenesis. They can be further explored as prospective diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic markers for HCC. An in-depth understanding of lncRNAs' mechanism in HCC is therefore required to fully explore their potential role...
2018: BioMed Research International
Semanur Kuyucu, Jean-Christoph Caubet
Epilepsy affects approximately 10 million children globally. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are among the most frequent causes of drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs), especially severe ones. However, systematic studies about AED hypersensitivity among children are very rare. In this review, we aimed to gather all relevant and important data about different aspects of DHRs to AEDs in children by conducting a PubMed search including English-language studies published between January 1990 and June 2017. In these studies, aromatic AEDs were mostly incriminated in DHRs, but still being dominantly prescribed in both developed and developing countries...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Hiroaki Hori, Seiji Nakamura, Fuyuko Yoshida, Toshiya Teraishi, Daimei Sasayama, Miho Ota, Kotaro Hattori, Yoshiharu Kim, Teruhiko Higuchi, Hiroshi Kunugi
Etiology of depression and its vulnerability remains elusive. Using a latent profile analysis on dimensional personality traits, we previously identified 3 different phenotypes in the general population, namely stress-resilient, -vulnerable, and -resistant groups. Here we performed microarray-based blood gene expression profiling of these 3 groups (n = 20 for each group) in order to identify genes involved in stress vulnerability as it relates to the risk of depression. Identified differentially expressed genes among the groups were most markedly enriched in ribosome-related pathways...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Lianne M Reus, Everard Gb Vijverberg, Betty M Tijms, Mara Ten Kate, Flora Gossink, Welmoed A Krudop, Marta Del Campo, Charlotte E Teunissen, Frederik Barkhof, Wiesje M van der Flier, Pieter Jelle Visser, Annemiek Dols, Yolande Al Pijnenburg
Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is characterized by behavioural and social cognitive disturbances, while various psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders may have similar clinical symptoms. Since neurodegenerative disorders are eventually progressive, whereas primary psychiatric disorders are not, this study aimed to investigate whether the change in clinical symptoms over time differed between groups and which biomarkers predicted rate of decline. Disease trajectories (median follow-up = 3 years) of frontal and stereotyped behaviour, general and frontal cognitive functioning, and social cognition were examined in bvFTD (n = 34), other neurodegenerative (n = 28) and primary psychiatric disorders (n = 43), all presenting with late-onset frontal lobe syndrome (45-75 years), using linear mixed models...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Mareen Matz, Frederik Heinrich, Christine Lorkowski, Kaiyin Wu, Jens Klotsche, Qiang Zhang, Nils Lachmann, Pawel Durek, Klemens Budde, Mir-Farzin Mashreghi
Interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IFTA) is associated with reduced allograft survival, whereas antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is the major cause for renal allograft failure. To identify specific microRNAs and their regulation involved in these processes, total RNA from blood cells of 16 kidney transplanted (KTx) patients with ABMR, stable graft function (SGF) and with T-cell mediated rejection (TCMR) was isolated. MicroRNA expression was determined by high-throughput sequencing. Differentially expressed candidate microRNAs were analyzed with RT-PCR in patients with SGF (n = 53), urinary tract infection (UTI) (n = 17), borderline rejection (BL) (n = 19), TCMR (n = 40), ABMR (n = 22) and IFTA (n = 30)...
2018: PloS One
Min Wang, Jiajing Sheng, Qian Wu, Yingchang Zou, Yanjie Hu, Kejing Ying, Hao Wan, Ping Wang
Lung cancer (LC) is a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality globally, and exhaled breath test has been considered as a fast, convenient and non-invasive way to diagnose LC in early stage. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as markers of LC in exhaled breath, has been widely investigated for cancer diagnosis. However, few study reports about the interference of benign pulmonary diseases (BPD) for selecting VOCs markers of LC. During this study, 207 samples were analyzed by thermal desorption instrument/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) to detect C6∼C30 VOCs, and all samples were divided into four groups: LC group, BPD group, lung disease (LD) group (including LC group and BPD group) and health group...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Takatoyo Kiko, Akiomi Yoshihisa, Yuki Kanno, Tetsuro Yokokawa, Satoshi Abe, Makiko Miyata-Tatsumi, Tomofumi Misaka, Masayoshi Oikawa, Atsushi Kobayashi, Takafumi Ishida, Yasuchika Takeishi
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease including heart (cardiac sarcoidosis, CS). It has recently been reported that isolated CS, which presenting primarily cardiac symptoms without clinical evidence of sarcoid involvement in other organs. Diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of CS, especially in isolated CS, have not yet been established.We studied plasma levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in consecutive 172 patients with diagnosed sarcoidosis...
August 11, 2018: International Heart Journal
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