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Babak Sarrafpour, Philip Boughton, Ramin M Farahani, Stephen C Cox, Gareth Denyer, Elizabeth Kelly, Hans Zoellner
We have an interest in the cellular response to mechanical stimuli, and here describe an in-vitro method to examine the response of cells cultured in a three-dimensional matrix to mechanical compressive and tensile stress. Synthetic aliphatic polyester scaffolds coated with 45S5 bioactive glass were seeded with human dental follicular cells (HDFC), and attached to well inserts and magnetic endplates in six well palates. Scaffolds were subjected to either cyclic 10% tensile deformation, or 8% compression, at 1 Hz and 2 Hz respectively for 6, 24 or 48 h, by uniaxial motion of magnetically-coupled endplates...
August 8, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Todd Alamin, John P Kleimeyer, James R Woodall, Vijay Agarwal, Angus Don, Derek Lindsey
The clinical efficacy of vertebral cement augmentation for compression fractures (VCFs) remains undetermined. Recent studies have shown that refracture and progression of deformity may occur after augmentation with significant clinical consequences. Vertebral body height loss following kyphoplasty has also been observed with cyclic loading. We hypothesized that height loss is partly due to lack of cement fill past the margin of cancellous bone created by balloon expansion with subsequent failure under load...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Min Deng, Timothy C Y Kwok, Jason C S Leung, Ping Chung Leung, Yì Xiáng J Wáng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
Hang Feng, Haoxi Li, Zhaoyu Ba, Zhaoxiong Chen, Xinhua Li, Desheng Wu
PURPOSE: Accurate and comprehensive data on cervical endplates is essential for developing and improving cervical devices. However, current literature on vertebral disc geometry is scarce or not suitable. The aim of this study was to obtain quantitative parameters of cervical endplates and provide morphometric references for designing cervical devices. METHODS: In this study, 19 human cervical spine cadaveric specimens were considered. Employing a reverse engineering system, the surface information of each endplate was recorded in digital cloud and then 3D reconstructed...
August 9, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Chao Xia, Leilei Xu, Bingchuan Xue, Fei Sheng, Yong Qiu, Zezhang Zhu
BACKGROUND: Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a common phenomenon following long segmental fusion surgery of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, the inability to reliably identify vertebral endplates on lateral upright radiographs has made an accurate measurement of proximal junctional angle (PJA) technically impossible in many patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether a grayscale inversion view is more reliable to measure PJA and to assess PJK accurately...
August 2, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Bharti Khurana, Luciano M Prevedello, Christopher M Bono, Erwin Lin, Steven T McCormack, Hamdi Jimale, Mitchel B Harris, Aaron D Sodickson
PURPOSE: This study aims to determine whether secondary CT findings can predict posterior ligament complex (PLC) injury in patients with acute thoracic (T) or lumbar (L) spine fractures. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 105 patients with acute thoracic and lumbar spine fractures on CT, with MRI as the reference standard for PLC injury. Three readers graded CT for facet joint alignment (FJA), widening (FJW), pedicle or lamina fracture (PLF), spinous fracture (SPF), interspinous widening (ISW), vertebral translation (VBT), and posterior endplate fracture (PEF)...
August 3, 2018: European Spine Journal
S Knauss, L Ginesta Roque, P Hühnchen, L Heinzerling, W Böhmerle, M Endres
BACKGROUND: In recent years the treatment of many tumor entities has been revolutionized by the use of modern immunotherapies with checkpoint inhibitors; however, good response rates are contrasted by many immune-mediated side effects. Neurological immune-mediated side effects are rare but often severe complications of checkpoint inhibitor treatment. METHOD: A systematic search in the PubMed and Web of Sciences databases was carried out for case reports and studies on neurological side effects during checkpoint inhibitor treatment...
August 2, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
J Zhao, L T Cooper, A W Boyd, P F Bartlett
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an untreatable, progressive, neurodegenerative disease specifically affecting motor neurons. Recently, the tyrosine kinase receptor EphA4 was directly implicated in ALS disease progression. We report that a long-lived mutated form of the EphA4 antagonist EphA4-Fc (mutEphA4-Fc), which blocks EphA4 binding to its ligands and inhibits its function, significantly improved functional performance in SOD1G93A ALS model mice, as assessed by rotarod and hind-limb grip strength tests...
July 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joel Torretti, Jonathan Andrew Harris, Brandon Seth Bucklen, Mark Moldavsky, Saif El Din Khalil
STUDY DESIGN: In vitro cadaveric study. PURPOSE: To compare biomechanical performance, trial and implant insertion, and disc distraction during implant placement, when two interbody devices, an in situ continuously expandable spacer (CES) and a traditional static spacer (SS), were used for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Severe degenerative disc diseases necessitate surgical management via large spacers to increase the disc space for implants...
August 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Sung Hoon Choi, Seung Min Son, Dong-Ho Lee, Choon Sung Lee, Won Chul Shin, Chul Gie Hong, Jung Sub Lee, Chang Ju Hwang
Retrospective study.To investigate the radiologic and geometrical association between L1 incidence (L1I) with pelvic incidence/lumbar lordosis (PI/LL) mismatch and T1 incidence (T1I) with PI/LL/thoracic kyphosis (TK) mismatch.The relationship between PI and LL is not clear, and it might be because of the absence of a direct radiologic parameter to represent PI/LL mismatch. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a direct radiologic parameter for representing PI/LL mismatch.This study is a retrospective review of 146 patients who underwent anteroposterior and lateral standing radiographs of the whole spine...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Constantine Farmakidis, Mamatha Pasnoor, Richard J Barohn, Mazen M Dimachkie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Congenital myasthenia syndromes are clinically and genetically heterogeneous but treatable conditions. Careful selection of drug therapy is paramount as the same drug can be effective, ineffective, and even harmful in different congenital myasthenia syndromes. The purpose of this article is to review current treatment options for these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Next-generation sequencing has accelerated the discovery of new genes and facilitated the description of novel congenital myasthenic syndromes...
July 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Ravi R Patel, Andriy Noshchenko, R Dana Carpenter, Todd Baldini, Carl P Frick, Vikas V Patel, Christopher M Yakacki
Current implant materials and designs used in spinal fusion show high rates of subsidence. There is currently a need for a method to predict the mechanical properties of the endplate using clinically available tools. The purpose of this study was to develop a predictive model of the mechanical properties of the vertebral endplate at a scale relevant to the evaluation of current medical implant designs and materials. Twenty vertebrae (10 L1 and 10 L2) from 10 cadavers were studied using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to define bone status (normal, osteopenic, or osteoporotic) and computed tomography (CT) to study endplate thickness (μm), density (mg/mm3), and mineral density of underlying trabecular bone (mg/mm3) at discrete sites...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Yixin Zheng, Cunchang Liu, Li Ni, Zhaoyang Liu, Anthony J Mirando, Jun Lin, Saijilafu, Di Chen, Matthew J Hilton, Bin Li, Jianquan Chen
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is the major cause of back pain. Notch signaling is activated in annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues of degenerated IVDs, and induced by IL1-β and TNF-α in NP cells. However, the role of Notch activatin in the pathogenesis of IVD degeneration is largely unknown. In this study, we overexpressed the Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD1) in AF, NP, and chondrogenic ATDC5 cells via adenoviruses. Overexpression of NICD1 activated transcription of Notch signaling target genes in AF, NP, and ATDC5 cells, and caused cell type-specific effects on expression of matrix anabolic and catabolic genes...
July 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Chuang Liu, Allieu Kamara, Yunhui Yan
BACKGROUND: Numerous reports have shown that rigid spinal fixation contributes to a series of unwanted complications in lumbar fusion procedure. This innovative micro-dynamic pedicle screw study was designed to investigate the biomechanical performance of lumbar implants using numerical simulation technique and biomechanical experiment. METHODS: Instrumented finite element models of three configurations (dynamic fixation, rigid fixation and hybrid fixation) using a functional L3-L4 lumbar unit were developed, to compare the range of motion of the lumbar spine and stress values on the endplate and implants...
July 18, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Victor Neuhaus, Simon Lennartz, Nuran Abdullayev, Nils Große Hokamp, Nadav Shapira, Galit Kafri, Jasmin A Holz, Barbara Krug, Martin Hellmich, David Maintz, Jan Borggrefe
PURPOSE: To evaluate calcium suppressed images (CaSupp) in dual-layer detector computed tomography (DLCT) for the detection of bone marrow edema (BME) in vertebral fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. 34 patients with synchronous DLCT and MRI, who were diagnosed with one or more acute vertebral fractures, were included. MRI were systematically analyzed as reference standard. Two blinded and independent readers evaluated CaSupp for vertebral BME...
August 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Jiandang Zhang, Zorica Buser, Aidin Abedi, Xiangyu Dong, Jeffrey C Wang
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of consecutive 113 cervical kinetic magnetic resonance images (kMRIs) and 57 radiographs. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the relationship between C2-6 or C2-7 Cobb angle and cervical sagittal alignment parameters using kMRI, and evaluate the visibility of C6 and C7 inferior endplates on cervical radiographs. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Several studies have used C2-6 Cobb angle instead of C2-7 Cobb angle since C7 inferior endplate is not always visible due to overlying shadows...
July 13, 2018: Spine
Jian Wang, Wanju Sun, Allen Bond, Chengpin Xu, Kai Li, Donglin Ren, Xin Song, Fang Tan, Kun Jiao, Ming Ni, Jun Zhang, Yunpeng Bai, Mingfei Wang
BACKGROUND: Endplate inflammation remains a difficult disease to treat, in part due to its unclear pathology. Previous experiments showed that patients with idiopathic inflammation presented a systemic upregulation of Th17 cells. Here, we investigated how this change might affect the inflammatory environment in endplate inflammation. METHODS: Peripheral blood was obtained from patients and healthy controls, and Th17 cells were examined. RESULTS: Th17 cells significantly increased the differentiation of CD11c+ and DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells (DCs) from circulating monocytes in the absence of exogenous stimulation as well as in the presence of LPS stimulation...
July 17, 2018: Immunological Investigations
Xiaofeng Yin, Xiaomeng Zhang, Yuhui Kou, Yanhua Wang, Lijia Zhang, Baoguo Jiang, Dianying Zhang
Using portion of a nearby nerve trunk to reconstruct a severe nerve lesion by artificial biodegradable chitin conduit is the core practicable method based on peripheral nerve amplification regeneration. However, the quantitative influences on skeletal muscle function corresponding to the injury of the donated nerve fibres were not previously reported. Here, we aimed to explore the compensative capacity in tibialis anterior muscles of rats with the models of acute tibialis anterior nerve branch injuries. The tibialis anterior branch of deep peroneal nerve was transected in various levels each time...
July 16, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Kaori Minehiro, Satoru Demura, Katsuhiro Ichikawa, Takeshi Sasagawa, Naoki Takahashi, Syuhei Minami, Hideki Murakami, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case series. OBJECTIVE: To assess a new protocol for full spine X-ray using copper (Cu) filters to reduce radiation exposure in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Radiation exposure is associated with an increased risk of cancer development in children. To reduce the radiation exposure without compromising the image quality using existing radiographic equipment, a new computed radiography protocol was optimized using a variety of heavy metal filters...
July 12, 2018: Spine
Guang-Liang Hao, Tian-Yin Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Ming-Yong Gu, Chen Chen, Lin Zou, Xue-Cheng Cao, Gui-Chun Zhang
BACKGROUND Brachial plexus injury (BPI), a severe nervous system injury, is a leading cause of functional damages of the affected upper limb. Patients with BPI manifested with motor weakness or paralysis, sensory deficits, and pain. We established a BPI rat model to explore the in vivo effect of end-to-side screw anastomosis (ETSSA) of phrenic nerve on the recovery of limb function after BPI. MATERIAL AND METHODS After modeling, rats were treated with end-to-side anastomosis (ETSA) and ETSSA respectively. After 1 and 3 months, the behavioral changes of rats were observed using the Terzis grooming test, and the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and muscle tension of biceps brachii were detected...
July 12, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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