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E V Kovaleva, B M Doronin, V V Morozov, Yu V Seryapina, S G Markova
AIM: To examine an effect of polymorphisms of lipid peroxidation system genes on the risk of ischemic stroke as well as the prognosis of disease outcome after rehabilitation measures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven hundred and forty-six patients with ischemic stroke and 500 patients of the control group were genotyped for 6 polymorphisms of lipid peroxidation system genes: HIF1a C1772T, ApoE Σ2/Σ3/Σ4, MnSOD C47T, GPX-1 C599T, BDNF G196T, p22phox C242T. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The HIF1a C1772T polymorphism was a significant risk factor for the development of ischemic stroke with the odds ratio 1...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Gina Hadley, Daniel J Beard, Yvonne Couch, Ain A Neuhaus, Bryan A Adriaanse, Gabriele C DeLuca, Brad A Sutherland, Alastair M Buchan
The significant morbidity that accompanies stroke makes it one of the world's most devastating neurological disorders. Currently, proven effective therapies have been limited to thrombolysis and thrombectomy. The window for the administration of these therapies is narrow, hampered by the necessity of rapidly imaging patients. A therapy that could extend this window by protecting neurons may improve outcome. Endogenous neuroprotection has been shown to be, in part, due to changes in mTOR signalling pathways and the instigation of productive autophagy...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Benjamin J Heller, Pranav Deshpande, Joshua A Heller, Patrick McCormick, Hung-Mo Lin, Ruiqi Huang, Gregory Fischer, Menachem M Weiner
Background: Cerebral oximetry using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has well-documented benefits during cardiac surgery. The authors tested the hypothesis that NIRS technology can be used at other sites as a tissue oximeter during cardiac surgery and in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Aims: To establish feasibility of monitoring tissue oximetry during and after cardiac surgery, to examine the correlations between tissue oximetry values and cerebral oximetry values, and to examine correlations between oximetry values and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in order to test whether cerebral oximetry can be used as an index organ...
October 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Wassim A Basheer, Ying Fu, Daisuke Shimura, Shaohua Xiao, Sosse Agvanian, Diana M Hernandez, Tara C Hitzeman, TingTing Hong, Robin M Shaw
Connexin 43 (Cx43), a product of the GJA1 gene, is a gap junction protein facilitating intercellular communication between cardiomyocytes. Cx43 protects the heart from ischemic injury by mechanisms that are not well understood. GJA1 mRNA can undergo alternative translation, generating smaller isoforms in the heart, with GJA1-20k being the most abundant. Here, we report that ischemic and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries upregulate endogenous GJA1-20k protein in the heart, which targets to cardiac mitochondria and associates with the outer mitochondrial membrane...
October 18, 2018: JCI Insight
M Bretzner, L Estrade, M Ferrigno, F Bala, F Boustia, A Kazemi, J P Pruvo, H Henon, N Bricout
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Direct thrombus aspiration is increasingly used as a first-line therapy in acute ischemic stroke with large vessel occlusion. We assessed the performance and safety of a novel aspiration catheter available: the 6-French AXS Catalyst catheter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cohort study from a prospective clinical registry of consecutive stroke patients treated by mechanical thrombectomy between March 2016 and July 2016. Baseline clinical and imaging characteristics, recanalization rates, complications, and clinical outcomes were analyzed...
October 16, 2018: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
Seok Joon Won, Angela M Minnella, Long Wu, Claire H Eun, Eric Rome, Paco S Herson, Alisa E Shaw, James R Bamburg, Raymond A Swanson
Functional impairment after brain ischemia results in part from loss of neuronal spines and dendrites, independent of neuronal death. Cofilin-actin rods are covalently linked aggregates of cofilin-1 and actin that form in neuronal processes (neurites) under conditions of ATP depletion and oxidative stress, and which cause neurite degeneration if not disassembled. ATP depletion and oxidative stress occur with differing severity, duration, and time course in different ischemic conditions. Here we evaluated four mouse models of brain ischemia to define the conditions that drive formation of cofilin-actin rods...
2018: PloS One
Jacqueline Salas, Nihaal Reddy, Emanuele Orru, Kathryn A Carson, Raul Chavez-Valdez, Vera Joanna Burton, Carl E Stafstrom, Frances J Northington, Thierry A G M Huisman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury of the brain and resultant encephalopathy (HIE) leads to major developmental impairments by school age. Conventional/anatomical MRI often fails to detect hippocampal injury in mild cases. We hypothesize that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has greater sensitivity for identifying subtle hippocampal injury. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed DTI data collected from a cohort of neonates with HIE and controls...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Angelos M Katramados, Lotfi Hacein-Bey, Panayiotis N Varelas
The most feared complication after acute ischemic stroke is symptomatic or asymptomatic hemorrhagic conversion. Neuroimaging and clinical criteria are used to predict development of hemorrhage. Seizures after acute ischemic stroke or stroke-like symptoms from seizures are not common but may lead to confusion in the peristroke period, especially if seizures are repetitive or evolve into status epilepticus, which could affect neuroimaging findings. Malignant infarction develops when cytotoxic edema is large enough to lead to herniation and death...
November 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
Thabele M Leslie-Mazwi, Michael H Lev, Pamela W Schaefer, Joshua A Hirsch, R Gilberto González
Acute stroke caused by large vessel occlusions (LVOs) are common. The time window to treat is up to 24 hours, and the most important factor is the size of the ischemic core. If the core is small (<70-100 mL), the penumbra must be large; penumbral imaging is unnecessary. MR imaging is precise in measuring the core, and superior to alternatives. The necessary sequences are obtainable rapidly, comparable to computed tomography scans. Available evidence suggests that most patients with LVOs are slow progressors defined as having a small core 6 hours or more after ictus onset...
November 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
Stephanie M Davis, Lisa A Collier, Edric D Winford, Christopher C Leonardo, Craig T Ajmo, Elspeth A Foran, Timothy J Kopper, John C Gensel, Keith R Pennypacker
BACKGROUND: The migration of peripheral immune cells and splenocytes to the ischemic brain is one of the major causes of delayed neuroinflammation after permanent large vessel stroke. Other groups have demonstrated that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a cytokine that promotes neural cell survival through upregulation of antioxidant enzymes, promotes an anti-inflammatory phenotype in several types of immune cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether LIF treatment modulates the peripheral immune response after stroke...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
M Reinthaler, F Jung, K Empen
BACKGROUND: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been demonstrated to induce potent cardioprotection in individuals experiencing coronary ischemia. A protocol combining limb ischemia and electronic muscle stimulation of the ischemic skeletal muscle (RIPC+), performed in advance of coronary artery occlusion, was superior in terms of infarct size reduction when compared to RIPC alone. METHODS: This study was performed to evaluate the benefit of RIPC + in humans compared to a standard RIPC protocol and a control group...
October 9, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
M Khateri, S Cheraghi, A Ghadimi, H Abdollahi
Bell's palsy is an idiopathic peripheral nerve palsy involving the facial nerve. It accounts for 60 to 75% of all cases of unilateral facial paralysis. The main mechanisms to induce BP remain unclear, but infection, ischemic condition and immunodeficiency may contribute to the development of Bell's palsy. Accumulating evidence has shown several factors can trigger the reactivation of latent HSV including psychological stressors, physical stressors and immunosuppression. Ionization and non-ionization radiations are of importance of physical stressors...
September 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
M Ebrahimian, M Razeghi, A Zamani, Z Bagheri, K Rastegar, A Motealleh
Background: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a noninvasive, inexpensive and safe analgesic technique used for relieving acute and chronic pain. However, despite all these advantages, there has been very little research into the therapeutic effects of TENS on brain activity. To the best of our knowledge, there is no evidence on the effect of high frequency TENS on the gamma band activity. Objective: Investigation of the effect of high frequency TENS on the electroencephalographic (EEG) gamma band activity after inducing ischemic pain in healthy volunteers is considered...
September 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Hendrikus J A van Os, Lucas A Ramos, Adam Hilbert, Matthijs van Leeuwen, Marianne A A van Walderveen, Nyika D Kruyt, Diederik W J Dippel, Ewout W Steyerberg, Irene C van der Schaaf, Hester F Lingsma, Wouter J Schonewille, Charles B L M Majoie, Silvia D Olabarriaga, Koos H Zwinderman, Esmee Venema, Henk A Marquering, Marieke J H Wermer
Background: Endovascular treatment (EVT) is effective for stroke patients with a large vessel occlusion (LVO) of the anterior circulation. To further improve personalized stroke care, it is essential to accurately predict outcome after EVT. Machine learning might outperform classical prediction methods as it is capable of addressing complex interactions and non-linear relations between variables. Methods: We included patients from the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN) Registry, an observational cohort of LVO patients treated with EVT...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Eunice Ho, Stephanie Hc Cheung, Michael Denton, Brian Dh Kim, Fraser Stephenson, Joyce Ching, Karl Boyle, Sandy Lyeo, Nancy M Salbach
BACKGROUND: Early mobilization (EM) post-stroke is recommended; however, the ideal timing and nature of EM, and factors that may influence EM practice are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to describe the type and extent of mobilization 0-48 h post-stroke admission to acute hospital care. A secondary objective was to evaluate whether pre-stroke functional level, stroke severity, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration, and level of consciousness (LOC) predicted any passive, any active, and out-of-bed mobilization (i...
October 15, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
Megan Barry, Truc M Le, Melissa C Gindville, Lori C Jordan
BACKGROUND: Pediatric stroke alerts or "code strokes" allow for rapid evaluation, imaging, and treatment of children presenting with stroke-like symptoms. In a previous study of emergency department-initiated pediatric stroke alerts, 24% of children had confirmed strokes. The purpose of this study was to characterize in-hospital pediatric stroke alerts. METHODS: Demographic and clinical information was obtained from a quality improvement database and medical records for children (zero to 20 years) at a single institution for whom a stroke alert was activated after hospital admission between April 2011 and December 2016...
August 10, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
I Ramírez-Camacho, F Correa, M El Hafidi, A Silva-Palacios, M Ostolga-Chavarría, M Esparza-Perusquía, S Olvera-Sánchez, O Flores-Herrera, C Zazueta
Electron leakage from dysfunctional respiratory chain and consequent superoxide formation leads to mitochondrial and cell injury during ischemia and reperfusion (IR). In this work we evaluate if the supramolecular assembly of the respiratory complexes into supercomplexes (SCs) is associated with preserved energy efficiency and diminished oxidative stress in post-ischemic hearts treated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the cardioprotective maneuver of Postconditioning (PostC). Hemodynamic variables, infarct size, oxidative stress markers, oxygen consumption and the activity/stability of SCs were compared between groups...
October 11, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Janhavi M Modak, Meaghan Roy-O'Reilly, Liang Zhu, Ilene Staff, Louise D McCullough
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small, endogenous (17-25 nucleotide) noncoding ribonucleic acids implicated in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. This study examines stroke-specific miRNA expression in large vessel territory cardioembolic stroke. METHODS: Peripheral blood was collected from controls and ischemic stroke patients 24hours after stroke onset. Whole blood miRNA was isolated and analyzed for differential expression...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Lukas T Rotkopf, Wolfgang G Kunz, Felix G Meinel, Annika Plate, Sönke Langner, Matthias Klein, Kolja M Thierfelder
BACKGROUND: Anton's syndrome is a rare neurological disorder characterized by a combination of visual anosognosia and confabulation of visual experience, most often seen after bilateral ischemic damage to the posterior occipital cortex. CASE REPORT: Wereport the first case of an acute synchronous P2 occlusion as confirmed by multiparametric computed tomography (CT) including perfusion. After the administration of Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), Anton's syndrome completely resolved...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Angus Lindsay, Preston M McCourt, Peter Karachunski, Dawn A Lowe, James M Ervasti
Generation of superoxide by xanthine oxidase can be stimulated under ischemic and aberrant calcium homeostasis. Because patients and mice with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) suffer from ischemia and excessive calcium influx, we tested the hypothesis that xanthine oxidase activity is elevated and contributes to disease pathology. Xanthine oxidase activity was measured by urinary isoxanthopterin in DMD patients at rest and in response to exercise. Urinary isoxanthopterin/creatinine was elevated compared to age-matched controls and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) patients...
October 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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