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Ischemic m

Xin Zhang, Seo Rin Kim, Christopher M Ferguson, Behzad Ebrahimi, Ahmad F Hedayat, Amir Lerman, Lilach O Lerman
Background: The collateral circulation is important in maintenance of blood supply to the ischemic kidney distal to renal artery stenosis (RAS). Obesity-metabolic syndrome (MetS) preserves renal blood flow (RBF) in the stenotic kidney, but whether this is related to an increase of collateral vessel growth is unknown. We hypothesized that MetS increased collateral circulation around the renal artery. Methods: Twenty-one domestic pigs were randomly divided into unilateral RAS fed an atherogenic (high-fat/high-fructose, MetS-RAS) or standard diet, or controls (n=7 each)...
August 9, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Megan A Evans, Brad R S Broughton, Grant R Drummond, Henry Ma, Thanh G Phan, Euan M Wallace, Rebecca Lim, Christopher G Sobey
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability and new therapies are desperately needed. Given the complex nature of ischemic brain injury, it has been postulated that cell-based therapies may be useful. However, cell resources, invasive extraction procedures, immunological rejection, tumorigenesis and ethical challenges make it unlikely that many stem cell types could serve as a practical source for therapy. By contrast, these issues do not pertain to human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs), which are placenta-derived stem cells...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Christopher Alan Hilditch, Waleed Brinjikji, Joanna Schaafsma, Chun On Anderson Tsang, Patrick Nicholson, Ronit Agid, Timo Krings, Vitor M Pereira
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in younger adults. The optimal medical and surgical strategies for managing these lesions have not been well established. We report a case series of extracranial ICA reconstruction using overlapping flow-diverter stents as a rescue therapy for the treatment of symptomatic ICA dissection in patients presenting with recurrent ischemic stroke and/or severe hemispheric hypoperfusion who failed medical management...
August 13, 2018: Clinical Neuroradiology
Jason J Sico, Fitsum Baye, Laura J Myers, John Concato, Jared Ferguson, Eric M Cheng, Farid Jadbabaie, Zhangsheng Yu, Gregory Arling, Alan J Zillich, Mathew J Reeves, Linda S Williams, Dawn M Bravata
Background: American Heart Association/American Stroke Association expert consensus guidelines recommend consideration of cardiac stress testing to screen for occult coronary heart disease (CHD) among patients with ischemic stroke/TIA who have a high-risk Framingham Cardiac Risk Score (FCRS). Whether this guideline is being implemented in routine clinical practice, and the association of its implementation with mortality, is less clear. Methods: Study participants were Veterans with stroke/TIA (n = 11,306) during fiscal year 2011 who presented to a VA Emergency Department or who were admitted...
June 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Traci L Parry, Joseph W Starnes, Sara K O'Neal, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, Aubree Honcoop, Amro Ilaiwy, Peter Christopher, Cam Patterson, Monte S Willis
Introduction: The effects of exercise on the heart and its resistance to disease are well-documented. Recent studies have identified that exercise-induced resistance to arrhythmia is due to the preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Objectives: To identify novel metabolic changes that occur parallel to these mitochondrial alterations, we performed non-targeted metabolomics analysis on hearts from sedentary and exercise-trained rats challenged with isolated heart ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R)...
January 2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Javier de Miguel-Díez, Ana López-de-Andrés, Isabel Jiménez-Trujillo, Valentín Hernández-Barrera, Rodrigo Jiménez-García, Alicia Lorenzo, José M Pedrajas, Adriana Visonà, Patricia López-Miguel, Manuel Monreal
BACKGROUND: Among patients presenting with pulmonary embolism (PE), those with diabetes are at increased risk to die than those without diabetes. The reasons have not been identified. We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad Trombo Embólica) database to compare the mortality rate and the causes of death during anticoagulation in patients with PE according to the presence or absence of diabetes. METHODS: A matched retrospective cohort study from consecutively enrolled patients in RIETE, from 179 hospitals in 24 countries...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Catherine Augello, Jessica M Noll, Timothy J Distel, Jolita Wainright, Charles Stout, Byron D Ford
The use of blood biomarkers for stroke has been long considered an excellent method to determine the occurrence, timing, subtype, and severity of stroke. In this study, venous blood was obtained from ischemic stroke patients after stroke onset and compared with age and sex-matched controls. We used a multiplex panel of 37 inflammatory molecules, analyzed using Luminex MagPix technology, to identify the changes in plasma proteins after ischemic stroke. We identified eight key molecules that were altered within the blood of stroke patients as compared to controls...
August 9, 2018: Brain Research
Atalie C Thompson, M Tariq Bhatti, Sidney M Gospe
PURPOSE: To use spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to assess whether epipapillary vitreous traction from evolving posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is mechanistically involved in the pathogenesis of non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: <AbstractText Label="SETTING" NlmCategory="METHODS">Single academic center. PATIENT OR STUDY POPULATION: Eighty eyes in 74 subjects presenting within 2 weeks of symptom onset of NAION...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
B M Carter, B J Sullivan, J R Landers, S D Kadam
Neonatal seizures have an incidence of 3.5 per 1000 newborns; while hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) accounts for 50-60% of cases, half are resistant to 1st-line anti-seizure drugs such as phenobarbital (PB). Tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) activation following ischemic injury is known to increase neuronal excitability by downregulation of K-Cl co-transporter 2 (KCC2); a neuronal chloride (Cl- ) co-transporter. In this study, three graded doses of ANA12, a small-molecule selective TrkB antagonist, were tested in CD1 mice at P7 and P10 following induction of neonatal ischemia by a unilateral carotid ligation...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amy C Kelly, Kate E Smith, William G Purvis, Catherine G Min, Craig S Weber, Amanda M Cooksey, Craig Hasilo, Steven Paraskevas, Thomas M Suszynski, Bradley P Weegman, Miranda J Anderson, Leticia E Camacho, Robert C Harland, Tom Loudovaris, Jana Jandova, Diana S Molano, Nicholas D Price, Ivan G Georgiev, William E Scott, Derek Manas, James Shaw, Doug O'Gorman, Tatsuya Kin, Fiona M McCarthy, Gregory L Szot, Andrew M Posselt, Peter G Stock, Theodore Karatzas, William J Shapiro, Ronald M Lynch, Sean W Limesand, Klearchos K Papas
BACKGROUND: All human islets used in research and for the clinical treatment of diabetes are subject to ischemic damage during pancreas procurement, preservation, and islet isolation. A major factor influencing islet function is exposure of pancreata to cold ischemia during unavoidable windows of preservation by static cold storage (SCS). Improved preservation methods may prevent this functional deterioration. In the present study, we investigated whether pancreas preservation by gaseous oxygen perfusion (persufflation) better preserved islet function versus SCS...
August 8, 2018: Transplantation
Nora N Sommer, Karla M Treitl, Eva Coppenrath, Hendrik Kooijman, Claudia Dechant, Michael Czihal, Theresa M Kolben, Sebastian E Beyer, Wieland H Sommer, Tobias Saam
OBJECTIVES: Arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (A-AION) caused by inflammatory occlusion of the posterior ciliary arteries is the most common reason for irreversible vision loss in patients with giant cell arteritis. Atypical clinical presentation and negative funduscopy can delay systemic high-dose corticosteroid therapy to prevent impending permanent blindness and involvement of the contralateral eye.The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) high-resolution T1-weighted black-blood magnetic resonance imaging (T1-BB-MRI) for the detection of posterior ciliary artery involvement in patients with giant cell arteritis and funduscopic A-AION...
August 8, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Daniele Mattevi, L G Luciani, W Mantovani, T Cai, S Chiodini, V Vattovani, M Puglisi, G Malossini
To compare the functional and operative outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy with selective arterial clamping guided by near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF-RAPN) versus a cohort of patients who underwent standard RAPN without selective arterial clamping (S-RAPN). 62 consecutive patients underwent RAPN from January 2016 to May 2017: the last 20 patients underwent NIRF-RAPN. Preoperative and postoperative renal scan at 1 month were performed to evaluate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the operated renal unit and total function...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Kyle H Flippo, Aswini Gnanasekaran, Guy A Perkins, Ajmal Ahmad, Ronald A Merrill, Audrey S Dickey, Susan S Taylor, G S McKnight, Anil K Chauhan, Yuriy M Usachev, Stefan Strack
Mitochondrial fission and fusion impact numerous cellular functions and neurons are particularly sensitive to perturbations in mitochondrial dynamics. Here we describe that male mice lacking the mitochondrial A-kinase anchoring protein 1 (AKAP1) exhibit increased sensitivity in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model of focal ischemia. At the ultrastructural level, AKAP1-/- mice have smaller mitochondria and increased contacts between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum in the brain. Mechanistically, deletion of AKAP1 dysregulates complex II of the electron transport chain, increases superoxide production and impairs Ca2+ homeostasis in neurons subjected to excitotoxic glutamate...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jordi Pedragosa, Angélica Salas-Perdomo, Mattia Gallizioli, Roger Cugota, Francesc Miró-Mur, Ferran Briansó, Carles Justicia, Fernando Pérez-Asensio, Leonardo Marquez-Kisinousky, Xabier Urra, Anna Gieryng, Bozena Kaminska, Angel Chamorro, Anna M Planas
The central nervous system (CNS) contains several types of immune cells located in specific anatomic compartments. Macrophages reside at the CNS borders surrounding the brain vessels, in leptomeningeal spaces and the choroid plexus, where they interact with the vasculature and play immunological surveillance and scavenging functions. We investigated the phenotypic changes and role of these macrophages in response to acute ischemic stroke. Given that CD163 expression is a hallmark of perivascular and meningeal macrophages in the rat and human brain, we isolated CD163+ brain macrophages by fluorescence activated cell sorting...
August 9, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Egor Dzyubenko, Daniel Manrique-Castano, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Andreas Faissner, Dirk M Hermann
Despite the crucial role of perineuronal nets (PNNs) in neural plasticity and neurological disorders, their ultrastructural organization remains largely unresolved. We have developed a novel approach combining superresolution structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM) and mathematical reconstruction that allows for quantitative analysis of PNN topology. Since perineuronal matrix is capable to restrict neural plasticity but at the same time is necessary to maintain synapses, we hypothesized that a beneficial post stroke recovery requires a reversible loosening of PNNs...
August 6, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Sachin Yallappa, Rizwana Imran, Ishtiakul Rizvi, Omar M Aboumarzouk, Rupesh Bhatt, Prashant Patel
Introduction: Nephrometric scores are used to predict perioperative and postoperative complications, with no uniform results in the current literature. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 141 patients in a single center who underwent open partial nephrectomy between June 2006 and 2016 for T1a and T1b renal tumor was conducted. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the correlations between preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical (PADUA) and radius exophytic/endophytic nearness anterior/posterior location (RENAL) scores and their components with pre-, peri-, and post-operative parameters...
July 2018: Urology Annals
Mark E Pepin, Chae-Myeong Ha, David K Crossman, Silvio H Litovsky, Sooryanarayana Varambally, Joseph P Barchue, Salpy V Pamboukian, Nikolaos A Diakos, Stavros G Drakos, Steven M Pogwizd, Adam R Wende
Ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) is the clinical endpoint of coronary heart disease and a leading cause of heart failure. Despite growing demands to develop personalized approaches to treat ICM, progress is limited by inadequate knowledge of its pathogenesis. Since epigenetics has been implicated in the development of other chronic diseases, the current study was designed to determine whether transcriptional and/or epigenetic changes are sufficient to distinguish ICM from other etiologies of heart failure. Specifically, we hypothesize that genome-wide DNA methylation encodes transcriptional reprogramming in ICM...
August 8, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Oscar M Leung, Jiatao Li, Xisheng Li, Vicken W Chan, Kevin Y Yang, Manching Ku, Lu Ji, Hao Sun, Herman Waldmann, Xiao Yu Tian, Yu Huang, James Lau, Bin Zhou, Kathy O Lui
The role of CD4+ T cells in the ischemic tissues of T2D patients remains unclear. Here, we report that T2D patients' vascular density was negatively correlated with the number of infiltrating CD4+ T cells after ischemic injury. Th1 was the predominant subset, and Th1-derived IFN-γ and TNF-α directly impaired human angiogenesis. We then blocked CD4+ T cell infiltration into the ischemic tissues of both Leprdb/db and diet-induced obese T2D mice. Genome-wide RNA sequencing shows an increased proliferative and angiogenic capability of diabetic ECs in ischemic tissues...
August 7, 2018: Cell Reports
Rhanderson Cardoso, Arash Aryana, Sheldon M Singh, Harikrishna Tandri, Andre d'Avila
For over 3 decades, it has been known that reentry circuits for ventricular tachycardia (VT) are not limited to the subendocardial myocardium. Rather, intramural or subepicardial substrates may also give rise to VT, particularly in those with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Percutaneous epicardial mapping and ablation has been successfully introduced for the treatment of such subepicardial VT. Herein, we review the indications for epicardial ablation and the identification of epicardial VT by electrocardiographic and imaging modalities...
July 12, 2018: Korean Circulation Journal
Olga N Kislitsina, Allen S Anderson, Jonathan D Rich, Esther E Vorovich, Duc T Pham, James L Cox, Patrick M McCarthy, Clyde W Yancy
Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have improved dramatically over the past several decades but stroke remains a problem. There are multiple etiologies of both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes associated with VADs. While this problem is yet to be solved, there are continuing efforts at improving the design of VADs to decrease the incidence of stroke and to improve long-term survival in patients requiring mechanical circulatory assistance. The purpose is to review the incidence and underlying causes of stroke in VAD patients...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
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