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N Kaneko, V Herranz-Pérez, T Otsuka, H Sano, N Ohno, T Omata, H B Nguyen, T Q Thai, A Nambu, Y Kawaguchi, J M García-Verdugo, K Sawamoto
After brain injury, neural stem cell-derived neuronal precursors (neuroblasts) in the ventricular-subventricular zone migrate toward the lesion. However, the ability of the mammalian brain to regenerate neuronal circuits for functional recovery is quite limited. Here, using a mouse model for ischemic stroke, we show that neuroblast migration is restricted by reactive astrocytes in and around the lesion. To migrate, the neuroblasts use Slit1-Robo2 signaling to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton in reactive astrocytes at the site of contact...
December 2018: Science Advances
Naveed Akhtar, Saadat Kamran, Rajvir Singh, Rayaz A Malik, Dirk Deleu, Paula J Bourke, Sujatha Joseph, Mark D Santos, Deborah M Morgan, Faisal M Wadiwala, Reny Francis, Blessy M Babu, Pooja George, Rumissa Ibrahim, Pablo Garcia-Bermejo, Ashfaq Shuaib
BACKGROUND: Stroke in diabetics may delay recovery and increases the risk of early recurrence of stroke. We compared the outcomes of patients (with and without diabetes) admitted with an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the state of Qatar. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively compared the clinical presentation, complications, discharge outcome, and stroke recurrence at 90 days in patients with and without diabetes. RESULTS: Five thousand two hundred twenty-eight stroke patients were admitted between January 2014 and December 2017...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Miodrag Ostojic, Bojan M Stanetic, Tamara Kovacevic-Preradovic, Darko Boljevic, Dusko Vulic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Sherif M Shoieb, Ahmed A El-Sherbeni, Ayman O S El-Kadi
Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes are superfamily of monooxygenases that hold the utmost diversity of substrate structures and catalytic reaction forms amongst all other enzymes. P450 enzymes metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) to a wide array of biologically active lipid mediators. P450-mediated AA metabolites have a significant role in normal physiological and pathophysiological conditions, hence they could be promising therapeutic targets in different disease states. P450 monooxygenases mediate the (ω-n)-hydroxylation reactions, which involve the introduction of a hydroxyl group to the carbon skeleton of AA, forming subterminal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs)...
December 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Joseph A Ladapo, John M Pfeifer, James M Pitcavage, Brent A Williams, Alana A Choy-Shan
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular care sex differences are controversial. We examined sex differences in management and clinical outcomes among patients undergoing noninvasive testing for ischemic heart disease (IHD). METHODS: In a rural integrated healthcare system, we identified adults age 40-79 without diagnosed IHD who underwent initial evaluation with a cardiac stress test with imaging or coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA), 2013-2014. We assessed sex differences in statin/aspirin therapy, revascularization, and adverse cardiovascular events...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Takanori Konishi, Rebecca M Schuster, Alex B Lentsch
Liver recovery after hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is characterized by clearance of dead tissue and its replacement with functional liver parenchyma. Previous reports have observed fibrosis after liver I/R. In order to determine if liver fibrosis after I/R was a pathologic consequence of the injury response, we assessed the development of liver fibrosis after I/R and its impact on subsequent insult. A murine model of partial I/R was used to induce liver injury and study the reparative response. During liver remodeling after I/R, expression of the pro-fibrotic genes increased in the ischemic liver...
December 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Angus Lindsay, Carl Petersen, Hamish Ferguson, Gavin Blackwell, Stephen Rickerby
Ischemic preconditioning (IP) has a small benefit on exercise performance, but differences in the IP method, performance tasks and exercise modality have made providing practical coach guidelines difficult. We investigated the performance-enhancing effects of IP on cyclists by comparing the frequency of IP application over a 7-day period. Using a randomized, sham-controlled, single-blinded experiment, 24 competitive age-group track cyclists (38±12 years) were assigned to one of three twice-daily (sham: 20 and 20 mmHg; once-a-day: 20 and 220 mmHg; twice-a-day: 220 and 220 mmHg) IP leg protocols (4 × 5 min ischemia/5 min reperfusion alternating between legs) over seven consecutive days...
July 2018: Sports medicine international open
Catherine Boisson-Vidal, Zahia Benslimane-Ahmim, Anna Lokajczyk, Dominique Heymann, David M Smadja
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are the main hypothetical cells that could give rise to vessels and in particular one subtype isolated from peripheral or cord bloods: endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs). These ECFCs are clonogenic precursors committed to endothelial lineage and have robust vasculogenic properties. However, their low number and poor expansion properties when isolated from human adult bloods, currently limit their use as an autologous cell therapy product. We previously reported that osteoprotegerin (OPG), a well-characterized regulator of bone metabolism, contributes to ischemic tissue revascularization, tumor growth in vivo , and potentiates ECFCs proangiogenic properties through the secretion of SDF-1...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Liang Zhao, Qiutang Xiong, Creed M Stary, Omer Kamal Mahgoub, Yingze Ye, Lijuan Gu, Xiaoxing Xiong, Shengmei Zhu
Emerging evidence suggests that gut-brain-microbiota axis (GBMAx) may play a pivotal role linking gastrointestinal and neuronal disease. In this review, we summarize the latest advances in studies of GBMAx in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and ischemic stroke. A more thorough understanding of the GBMAx could advance our knowledge about the pathophysiology of IBD and ischemic stroke and help to identify novel therapeutic targets via modulation of the GBMAx.
December 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Zak Ritchey, David M Mirsky, David Weitzenkamp, Timothy J Bernard, Paco S Herson, Nicholas V Stence
PURPOSE: Recent evidence suggests that recovery from secondary neurodegeneration following arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) may be related to age at injury and site of occlusion. We conducted a study of hippocampal volume (HCV) in a cohort of pediatric patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory AIS to determine whether HCV would be preserved in younger children as compared to older children. METHODS: This single-center, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board...
December 8, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Virginia J Howard, Tracy E Madsen, Dawn O Kleindorfer, Suzanne E Judd, J David Rhodes, Elsayed Z Soliman, Brett M Kissela, Monika M Safford, Claudia S Moy, Leslie A McClure, George Howard, Mary Cushman
Importance: Race-specific and sex-specific stroke risk varies across the lifespan, yet few reports describe sex differences in stroke risk separately in black individuals and white individuals. Objective: To examine incidence and risk factors for ischemic stroke by sex for black and white individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included participants 45 years and older who were stroke-free from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, enrolled from the continental United States 2003 through 2007 with follow-up through October 2016...
December 10, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Isabel M A Brüggenwirth, Carolina Moore, Paria Mahboub, Max F Thijssen, Xiaofei E, Henri G D Leuvenink, Pranoti Mandrekar, Xiaofei Wang, Timothy F Kowalik, Robert J Porte, Paulo N Martins
Background: It remains controversial if arterial perfusion in addition to portal vein perfusion during machine preservation improves liver graft quality. Comparative studies using both techniques are lacking. We studied the impact of using single or dual machine perfusion of donation after circulatory death rat livers. In addition, we analyzed the effect of pulsatile versus continuous arterial flow. Methods: Donation after circulatory death rat livers (n = 18) were preserved by 6 hours cold storage, followed by 1 hour subnormothermic machine perfusion (20°C, pressure of 40/5 mm Hg) and 2 hours ex vivo warm reperfusion (37°C, pressure of 80/11 mm Hg, 9% whole blood)...
November 2018: Transplantation Direct
Shuyi Wei, Dennis P Orgill, Giorgio Giatsidis
INTRODUCTION: External Volume Expansion (EVE) promotes angiogenesis in tissues by inducing a sub-critical hypoxia, mechanically stimulating endothelia, and creating mild inflammation. Application of EVE to less-vascularized tissues with endothelial cell dysfunction (ECD) (e.g., diabetic skin) poses a risk for ineffectiveness or ischemic damage. We investigated the effects of EVE on a murine model of diabetes type-2 and tested whether the adoption of micro-deformational interfaces of EVE optimizes its angiogenic properties while limiting complications to tissues...
November 26, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Elmina Mammadova-Bach, Magdolna Nagy, Johan W M Heemskerk, Bernhard Nieswandt, Attila Braun
Cytosolic free calcium (Ca2+ ) is a second messenger regulating a wide variety of functions in blood cells, including adhesion, activation, proliferation and migration. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), triggered by depletion of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum, provides a main mechanism of regulated Ca2+ influx in blood cells. SOCE is mediated and regulated by isoforms of the ion channel proteins ORAI and TRP, and the transmembrane Ca2+ sensors stromal interaction molecules (STIMs), respectively. This report provides an overview of the (patho)physiological importance of SOCE in blood cells implicated in thrombosis and thrombo-inflammation, i...
November 23, 2018: Cell Calcium
H M Haug, E Johnson, T Mala, D T Førland, T T Søvik, H O Johannessen
INTRODUCTION: About 1% of paraesophageal hernias (PEH) require emergency surgery due to obstruction or gangrene. We present two complicated cases of incarcerated PEH. Presentation of cases: A patient aged 18 with trisomy 21 was admitted after four days of vomiting and epigastric pain. CT scan revealed a large PEH. The stomach was massively dilated with compression of adjacent viscera and the celiac trunk. The stomach was repositioned laparoscopically and deflated by endoscopy in an attempt to avoid resection...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Mohammad Anadani, Alain Lekoubou, Eyad Almallouhi, Ali Alawieh, Arindam Chatterjee, Jan Vargas, Alejandro M Spiotta
OBJECTIVE: Despite the wide utilization of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke treatment, little is known about the incidence of early post-thrombectomy seizures, its predictors, and association with long-term outcome. METHODS: Using a prospective registry of mechanical thrombectomy in ischemic stroke between January 2013 and July 2017, we identified patients who developed a seizure within 7 days (early seizure) of qualifying event. Backward stepwise regression analysis was used to assess independent predictors of seizure occurrence and the association between seizure and functional outcome (modified Rankin scale of 0-2 vs...
December 1, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Reza Jahan, J Pablo Villablanca, Robert J Harris, Sandra Duarte-Vogel, Christopher K Williams, Harry V Vinters, Neal Rao, Dieter R Enzmann, Benjamin M Ellingson
BACKGROUND: A reliable animal model of ischemic stroke is vital for pre-clinical evaluation of stroke therapies. We describe a reproducible middle cerebral artery (MCA) embolic occlusion in the French Lop rabbit characterized with multimodal MRI and histopathologic tissue analysis. NEW METHOD: Fluoroscopic-guided microcatheter placement was performed in five consecutive subjects with angiographic confirmation of MCA occlusion with autologous clot. Multimodal MRI was obtained prior to occlusion and up to six hours post after which repeat angiography confirmed sustained occlusion...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Johannes M Weller, Elke Hattingen, Gabor C Petzold, Felix J Bode
BACKGROUND: Intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy are the standard of care for patients with acute ischemic stroke with large vessel occlusion. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a main complication of intravenous thrombolysis, however, no data are available on the efficacy and safety of mechanical thrombectomy in patients with thrombolysis-associated intracerebral hemorrhage. This constellation is expected to become more frequent as increasing numbers of patients are treated under the drip-and-ship paradigm...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Liang Tang, John R Lesser, Lynelle M Schneider, Marcus R Burns, Mario Gössl, Ross Garberich, Hiroki Niikura, Dawn Witt, Paul Sorajja
Prospective investigations for the frequency of hypoattenuated leaflet thickening (HALT) and its clinical implications in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) patients are limited. We initiated a prospective screening program of TAVI patients for HALT beginning in July 2015. Eligible patients were evaluated with gated, contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography within 30 days of TAVI, and examined for HALT and clinical outcomes. During the study period, 287 patients (81 ± 8 years; 53% men) who underwent TAVI with commercially approved devices were examined...
November 24, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Alyssa M Corley, Malachy J Sullivan, Scott E Friedman, Daniel J O'Rourke, Robert T Palac, Anthony S Gemignani
Patients with cancer are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the relationship of cancer type to the risk of arterial thrombosis in patients with high VTE risk has not been described. The goal of this study is to determine the rate of arterial thrombosis in patients with different types of solid tumors stratified by VTE risk. Using the 2012 National Inpatient Sample, we identified 373,789 hospitalizations involving patients ≥18 years associated with solid tumors, stratified by type...
November 24, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
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