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Cataract etiology

F H Verhagen, E C A Stigter, M L Pras-Raves, B M T Burgering, S M Imhof, T R D J Radstake, J H de Boer, J J W Kuiper
PURPOSE: HLA-B27 positive acute anterior uveitis has a higher recurrence rate and shows more anterior chamber cell infiltration compared to HLA-B27-negative patients, suggesting distinct etiology of these clinically overlapping conditions. To advance our understanding of the biology of acute anterior uveitis, we characterized the metabolic profile of aqueous humor (AqH) of patients with HLA-B27 associated anterior uveitis (B27-AAU) and non-infectious idiopathic anterior uveitis (idiopathic AAU)...
October 9, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Idan Hecht, Asaf Bar, Lior Rokach, Romi Noy Achiron, Marion R Munk, Wolfgang Huf, Zvia Burgansky-Eliash, Asaf Achiron
PURPOSE: In diabetic patients presenting with macular edema (ME) shortly after cataract surgery, identifying the underlying pathology can be challenging and influence management. Our aim was to develop a simple clinical classifier able to confirm a diabetic etiology using few spectral domain optical coherence tomography parameters. METHODS: We analyzed spectral domain optical coherence tomography data of 153 patients with either pseudophakic cystoid ME (n = 57), diabetic ME (n = 86), or "mixed" (n = 10)...
October 3, 2018: Retina
J Fernando Arevalo, Andres F Lasave, Vishali Gupta, Igor Kozak, Hanan Nasser Al Shamsi, Sulaiman Mohammad Al Suliman, Abdulaziz Adel Al Rushood, Yahya A Al-Zahrani, Ammar M Al-Mahmood, Hassan A Al Dhibi
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of panuveitis over a 10-year period. METHODS: Data were collected on panuveitis etiology, treatment, surgery and change in vision. RESULTS: Overall, 308 patients (594 eyes) were evaluated, 54.9% with non-granulomatous and 45.1% with granulomatous uveitis. Fifty-four patients had infectious and 254 had non-infectious uveitis. In infectious panuveitis, vision remained unchanged at last visit...
October 10, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Charoula Matalliotaki, Michail Matalliotakis, Maria I Zervou, Alexandra Trivli, Ioannis Matalliotakis, George Mavromatidis, Demetrios A Spandidos, Hans M Albertsen, Rakesh Chettier, Kenneth Ward, George N Goulielmos
Endometriosis is an enigmatic condition with an unknown etiology and poorly understood pathogenesis and women with endometriosis represent a high-risk population group for a large category of chronic conditions. The study focused on a 67-year-old woman who presented with a 40-year history of familial endometriosis associated with various non-gynecological co-morbidities, thus representing a unique case from a cohort of 1,000 patients with endometriosis. Her family history included infertile members suffering from endometriosis...
October 1, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Vivek Pravin Dave, Avinash Pathengay, Savitri Sharma, Naveen N, Soumyava Basu, Rajeev R Pappuru, Taraprasad Das
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical presentations, diagnosis and management outcomes of Nocardia endophthalmitis DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional, multi-centric case series. METHODS: The study was conducted in a multi-centric institutional practice setup including 25 eyes of 25 patients with culture-proven Nocardia endophthalmitis. AC fluid and/or vitreous and/or intraocular lens were submitted for microbiological evaluation is all cases. Patients with non-Nocardia etiology and those that were culture-negative were excluded...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
J A Domínguez-Calva, M L Pérez-Vázquez, E Serebryany, J A King, L Quintanar
Cataract disease results from non-amyloid aggregation of eye lens proteins and is the leading cause of blindness in the world. A variety of studies have implicated both essential and xenobiotic metals as potential etiological agents in cataract disease. Essential metal ions, such as copper and zinc, are known to induce the aggregation in vitro of human γD crystallin, one of the more abundant γ-crystallins in the core of the lens. In this study, we expand the investigation of metal-crystallin interactions to heavy metal ions, such as divalent lead, cadmium and mercury...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Abdulrahman F AlBloushi, Abdullah M Alfawaz, Saad A Al-Dahmash, Adi M Al Owaifeer, Saad H AlEnezi, Abdulmajeed S Al-Fakhri, Priscilla W Gikandi, Ahmed M Abu El-Asrar
PURPOSE: To investigate incidence, risk factors, and surgical outcomes of cataract among uveitis patients. METHODS: Retrospective review of 1000 patients (1582 eyes). RESULTS: At initial presentation, cataract was diagnosed in 290 (18.3%) eyes and was most common in eyes with anterior uveitis. Fuchs' uveitis, herpetic uveitis, and presumed tuberculous uveitis were leading clinical entities associated with cataract at presentation. During follow-up, cataract developed in additional 200 (12...
August 24, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Samar K Basak, Soham Basak, Viraj R Pradhan
Background: Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK) is now becoming the popular form of endothelial keratoplasty using only donor DM with healthy endothelium as true component lamellar corneal surgery. Objective: To analyze the results of visual outcomes, endothelial cell loss and complications of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty in first consecutive 100 Indian eyes. Methods: 100 eyes of 95 consecutive patients with endothelial dysfunctions of different etiologies scheduled for DMEK, were included in this study...
2018: Open Ophthalmology Journal
A Saad, S O Salceanu, K Oswal, A Aboushrkh, D Hamada
Purpose: To demonstrate the importance of subretinal biopsy to reach a diagnosis when vitreous biopsy is negative or inconclusive. Methods: A 54-year-old Caucasian gentleman presented with bilateral anterior uveitis at JCUH. He initially responded to topical steroids and dilating agents. Subsequently he developed bilateral panuveitis and cataract with poor response to treatment. Detailed workup had been done to rule out infectious etiology. A suspicion of lymphoma was considered and vitreous biopsy sample was taken from one eye, which was inconclusive...
2018: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
Chenlu Han, Jinyan Li, Chunxiao Wang, Hong Ouyang, Xiaoyan Ding, Yizhi Liu, Shuyi Chen, Lixia Luo
Purpose: Recent work has indicated that Wnt5a has a critical role in embryonic development. We investigate whether the Wnt5a-activated noncanonical Wnt pathway is capable of promoting embryonic lens differentiation. Methods: A "three-stage" protocol was used to induce lens differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro, and Wnt5a levels were modified by addition of exogenous protein and RNA interference. SP600125 was adopted to inhibit JNK cascades...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Lu-Si Zhang, Hai-Bo Li, Jun Zeng, Yan Yang, Chun Ding
AIM: To explore the clinical feature and genetic etiology of a Chinese Knobloch syndrome family. METHODS: Ocular examinations and magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs) were performed on the family. Whole exome sequencing was conducted on the two patients. Sanger sequencing was utilized to validate the presence of variation in the family as well as in 100 normal controls. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the expression level of COL18A1 in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patients and normal carriers...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Malco Rossi, Martin Cesarini, Emilia M Gatto, Angel Cammarota, Marcelo Merello
Background: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a rare autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder characterized by chronic diarrhea, tendon xanthomas, juvenile cataracts, and neurological symptoms. Case Report: An adult patient with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis exhibited ataxia and palatal tremor in the absence of tendon xanthomas and cataracts. Discussion: The importance of this case resides on the fact that cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis should be considered as a possible etiology of the syndrome of progressive ataxia with palatal tremor, even in the absence of tendon xanthomas and cataracts...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Mehdi Roozbahani, Kristin M Hammersmith, Parveen K Nagra, Jenny F Ma, Christopher J Rapuano
PURPOSE: To report the indications, outcomes, and complications of therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (Th PK) in patients with corneal perforation and/or nonhealing corneal ulceration. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of 51 eyes of 51 patients undergoing Th PK between January 1, 2006 and April 15, 2016. Data collected included patient demographics, visual acuity (VA), size of the corneal infiltrate and epithelial defect, degree of corneal thinning/perforation, microbiological results, surgical details, and postoperative complications...
June 25, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Craig Wilde, Marco U Morales, Dharmalingham Kumudhan, Justin Sim, Winfried Amoaku
Malignant glaucoma (MG), also known as aqueous misdirection and cilio-vitreo-lenticular block, is an infrequent cause of secondary angle closure glaucoma. Despite conventional treatment, it often has a poor visual outcome. It is recognized clinically by raised intraocular pressure associated with shallowing of the peripheral and central anterior chamber in the presence of a patent peripheral iridotomy/iridectomy. Despite being known to occur after a variety of surgical procedures, it most commonly presents following filtration surgery in hypermetropic eyes with angle closure glaucoma...
May 2018: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
Saagar N Patel, Shazia F Ali, Cameron Clarke, Jonathan Kim, Michael Murri, Marie Tuft, Christina Y Weng, Zaina Al-Mohtaseb
PURPOSE: To determine the risk factors, intraoperative and postoperative complications, therapeutic interventions, and visual outcomes for persistent postoperative inflammation in primary resident-performed cataract surgeries. SETTING: Ben Taub General Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Primary resident-performed cataract surgeries from January 2012 to June 2015 were analyzed for persistent postoperative inflammation, defined as persistent anterior chamber inflammatory reaction after a standard 1-month topical corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) drops taper...
July 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Koushik Tripathy, Rohan Chawla, Shreyas Temkar, Pradeep Sagar, Seema Kashyap, Neelam Pushker, Yog Raj Sharma
Phthisis bulbi denotes end-stage eye disease characterized by shrinkage and disorganization of the eye with the resultant functional loss. The major factors associated with the pathogenesis of phthisis are hypotony, deranged blood-ocular barriers, and inflammation. Common causes include trauma, surgery, infection, inflammation, malignancy, retinal detachment, and vascular lesions. A phthisical globe shows a small squared off shape, opaque and thickened cornea, thickened sclera, neovascularization of iris, cataract, cyclitic membrane, ciliochoroidal detachment, and retinal detachment...
2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Jeffrey Cooper, Andrei V Tkatchenko
Myopia occurs in more than 50% of the population in many industrialized countries and is expected to increase; complications associated with axial elongation from myopia are the sixth leading cause of blindness. Thus, understanding its etiology, epidemiology, and the results of various treatment regiments may modify current care and result in a reduction in morbidity from progressive myopia. This rapid increase cannot be explained by genetics alone. Current animal and human research demonstrates that myopia development is a result of the interplay between genetic and the environmental factors...
July 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Niranjan Pehere, Pratik Chougule, Gordon N Dutton
Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify common causes, associated ophthalmological abnormalities, and systemic comorbidities in children in Andhra Pradesh, India, with cerebral visual impairment (CVI). Methods: A retrospective review of case records of all children aged <16 years with diagnosis of CVI seen between January 2016 and December 2016 was carried out. Data were collected for their age, gender, cause of CVI, refraction, accommodation, anterior and posterior segment examination findings, and systemic problems...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Marko Šimunović, Martina Paradžik, Roko Škrabić, Ivana Unić, Kajo Bućan, Veselin Škrabić
Cataract is a rare manifestation of ocular complication at an early phase of T1DM in the pediatric population. The pathophysiological mechanism of early diabetic cataract has not been fully understood; however, there are many theories about the possible etiology including osmotic damage, polyol pathway, and oxidative stress. The prevalence of early diabetic cataract in the population varies between 0.7 and 3.4% of children and adolescents with T1DM. The occurrence of diabetic cataract in most pediatric patients is the first sign of T1DM or occurs within 6 months of diagnosis of T1DM...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Xiu-Feng Huang, Lue Xiang, Wan Cheng, Fei-Fei Cheng, Kai-Wen He, Bo-Wen Zhang, Si-Si Zheng, Ru-Yi Han, Yi-Han Zheng, Xiao-Tao Xu, Huan-Yun Yu, Wenjuan Zhuang, Yuk Fai Leung, Zi-Bing Jin
Ocular coloboma is a developmental structural defect of the eye that often occurs as complex ocular anomalies. However, its genetic etiology remains largely unexplored. Here we report the identification of mutation (c.331C>T, p.R111C) in the IPO13 gene in a consanguineous family with ocular coloboma, microphthalmia, and cataract by a combination of whole-exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping. IPO13 encodes an importin-B family protein and has been proven to be associated with the pathogenesis of coloboma and microphthalmia...
April 27, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
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