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Cataract etiology

Rafael Guerra, Ricardo Cabeças, Jesus Diaz, Tim Knott, Inês Freitas, Hugo Vilhena, Sofia Duarte
Cataracts are among the most common ocular diseases, and are a leading cause of vision loss in humans and dogs. Jack Russell Terriers (JRT) and Labrador Retrievers (LR) are among the most popular canine breeds in the United Kingdom, and also among the most affected by cataracts. This study aimed to analyze the clinical features and the surgical outcome of cataracts in JRT and LR in an ophthalmologic reference Veterinary Hospital in the United Kingdom. For that purpose, medical records from JRT and LR diagnosed with cataracts between January 2015 and December 2016 were retrospectively evaluated...
December 2018: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Vivek Pravin Dave, Joveeta Joseph, Avinash Pathengay, Rajeev R Pappuru
AIM: To describe the clinical presentations and management outcomes of Kocuria endophthalmitis and discuss diagnostic dilemmas DESIGN: Retrospective interventional comparative case series INTERVENTION: Eight unilateral cases with culture-proven Kocuria endophthalmitis from January 2013 to December 2017 underwent vitrectomy/vitreous biopsy and intravitreal antibiotic with or without additional procedures. The undiluted vitreous was subjected to microbiologic evaluation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The mean age at presentation, etiology, number of interventions, interval between inciting event and presentation, type of intravitreal antibiotic used, and anatomic and functional outcomes were reported...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Yoichi Wada, Atsuo Kikuchi, Natsuko Arai-Ichinoi, Osamu Sakamoto, Yusuke Takezawa, Shinya Iwasawa, Tetsuya Niihori, Hiromi Nyuzuki, Yoko Nakajima, Erika Ogawa, Mika Ishige, Hiroki Hirai, Hideo Sasai, Ryoji Fujiki, Matsuyuki Shirota, Ryo Funayama, Masayuki Yamamoto, Tetsuya Ito, Osamu Ohara, Keiko Nakayama, Yoko Aoki, Seizo Koshiba, Toshiyuki Fukao, Shigeo Kure
PURPOSE: Galactosemia is caused by metabolic disturbances at various stages of galactose metabolism, including deficiencies in enzymes involved in the Leloir pathway (GALT, GALK1, and GALE). Nevertheless, the etiology of galactosemia has not been identified in a subset of patients. This study aimed to explore the causes of unexplained galactosemia. METHODS: Trio-based exome sequencing and/or Sanger sequencing was performed in eight patients with unexplained congenital galactosemia...
October 19, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Anton M Kolomeyer, Christopher K Hwang, Benjamin J Kim
BACKGROUND: Ibrutinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor commonly used in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Based on the published literature, it has a very sound ophthalmologic safety profile. In the following, we describe a case of anterior chamber fibrinoid syndrome in a patient on ibrutinib for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia after uncomplicated cataract extraction. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old white man with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia on ibrutinib therapy and without significant past ocular history presented 1 day after uncomplicated phacoemulsification with in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation with multiple, discrete, pigmented cords in the anterior chamber...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Jelena Juri Mandić, Petra Kristina Ivkić, Krešimir Mandić, Dina Lešin, Tomislav Jukić, Jasenka Petrović Jurčević
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess subjective, human aspect of the medical condition, evaluate the quality of life (QOL) and level of depressive symptoms in patients with watery eye and compare it with patients with two most common causes of visual deterioration: cataract and macular region pathology. The results of this study may serve to raise awareness of watery eye impact on a large number of patients and subsequently promote their treatment in order to restore full visual and life quality necessary for normal human functioning...
December 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
John H Niffenegger, Arysol Soltero, James S Niffenegger, Sufang Yang, Grazyna Adamus
Objective: The goal was to test the hypothesis that high serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and retinal autoantibodies against α-HGF contribute to the pathology of bilateral diffuse melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP). Methods: Case report of an elderly diagnosed with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (n-AMD) treated with bilateral Bevacizumab injections. Examination included comprehensive ophthalmic examination and images obtained by fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and B-scan ultrasonography...
2018: Journal of Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Choul Yong Park, Jimmy K Lee, Roy S Chuck
BACKGROUND: Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) can be a rare complication of anterior segment surgery. Here we reviewed the most recent advances in the understanding of TASS. METHODS: English articles related to TASS were retrieved from "PubMed" using the following keywords; "toxic anterior segment syndrome" or "TASS". The authors of this paper reviewed all the retrieved literature and critical findings were summarized. RESULTS: The onset of TASS can vary from hours to months...
October 25, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Vivek Pravin Dave, Joveeta Joseph, Avinash Pathengay, Rajeev R Pappuru, Taraprasad Das
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical presentation and management of Curvularia endophthalmitis and compare with previous published literature. METHODS: Retrospective interventional comparative case series and literature review. Eight cases with culture-proven Curvularia endophthalmitis from January 2000 to March 2018 underwent vitrectomy/vitreous biopsy, intravitreal antibiotic with or without additional procedures as appropriate. The undiluted vitreous biopsy was subjected to microbiologic evaluation...
October 23, 2018: Retina
Xin-Yu Zhao, Song Xia, You-Xin Chen
PURPOSE: To estimate the success and safety of diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in determining the etiology of uveitis initially unknown and analyze their characteristics. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, and Ovid were searched up to October 2017 to identify relevant studies. The PRISMA guidelines were followed. Statistical analyses were performed with R version 3.3.1. Result in proportion were transformed by the Freeman-Tukey variant of arcsine square to attain symmetry of confidence intervals (CIs)...
October 23, 2018: Retina
Zohar Habot-Wilner, Liran Tiosano, Juan M Sanchez, Shiri Shulman, Dana Barequet, Ori Rahat, Gil Amarilyo, Radgonde Amer
PURPOSE: To report the epidemiology, etiology, ocular characteristics, treatment and visual outcome of pediatric uveitis in Israel. METHODS: Retrospective study from two tertiary uveitis centers. RESULTS: Included were 107 patients (182 eyes), 55% females. Mean age at diagnosis 8.8 years. Uveitis was predominantly anterior, idiopathic, bilateral, and chronic. Systemic associations were seen in 36% of patients of which the most common disease was juvenile idiopathic arthritis...
October 17, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
F H Verhagen, E C A Stigter, M L Pras-Raves, B M T Burgering, S M Imhof, T R D J Radstake, J H de Boer, J J W Kuiper
PURPOSE: HLA-B27 positive acute anterior uveitis has a higher recurrence rate and shows more anterior chamber cell infiltration compared to HLA-B27-negative patients, suggesting distinct etiology of these clinically overlapping conditions. To advance our understanding of the biology of acute anterior uveitis, we characterized the metabolic profile of aqueous humor (AqH) of patients with HLA-B27 associated anterior uveitis (B27-AAU) and non-infectious idiopathic anterior uveitis (idiopathic AAU)...
October 9, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Idan Hecht, Asaf Bar, Lior Rokach, Romi Noy Achiron, Marion R Munk, Wolfgang Huf, Zvia Burgansky-Eliash, Asaf Achiron
PURPOSE: In diabetic patients presenting with macular edema (ME) shortly after cataract surgery, identifying the underlying pathology can be challenging and influence management. Our aim was to develop a simple clinical classifier able to confirm a diabetic etiology using few spectral domain optical coherence tomography parameters. METHODS: We analyzed spectral domain optical coherence tomography data of 153 patients with either pseudophakic cystoid ME (n = 57), diabetic ME (n = 86), or "mixed" (n = 10)...
October 3, 2018: Retina
J Fernando Arevalo, Andres F Lasave, Vishali Gupta, Igor Kozak, Hanan Nasser Al Shamsi, Sulaiman Mohammad Al Suliman, Abdulaziz Adel Al Rushood, Yahya A Al-Zahrani, Ammar M Al-Mahmood, Hassan A Al Dhibi
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of panuveitis over a 10-year period. METHODS: Data were collected on panuveitis etiology, treatment, surgery and change in vision. RESULTS: Overall, 308 patients (594 eyes) were evaluated, 54.9% with non-granulomatous and 45.1% with granulomatous uveitis. Fifty-four patients had infectious and 254 had non-infectious uveitis. In infectious panuveitis, vision remained unchanged at last visit...
October 10, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Charoula Matalliotaki, Michail Matalliotakis, Maria I Zervou, Alexandra Trivli, Ioannis Matalliotakis, George Mavromatidis, Demetrios A Spandidos, Hans M Albertsen, Rakesh Chettier, Kenneth Ward, George N Goulielmos
Endometriosis is an enigmatic condition with an unknown etiology and poorly understood pathogenesis and women with endometriosis represent a high-risk population group for a large category of chronic conditions. The study focused on a 67-year-old woman who presented with a 40-year history of familial endometriosis associated with various non-gynecological co-morbidities, thus representing a unique case from a cohort of 1,000 patients with endometriosis. Her family history included infertile members suffering from endometriosis...
December 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Vivek Pravin Dave, Avinash Pathengay, Savitri Sharma, Naveen N, Soumyava Basu, Rajeev R Pappuru, Taraprasad Das
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical presentations, diagnosis and management outcomes of Nocardia endophthalmitis DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional, multi-centric case series. METHODS: The study was conducted in a multi-centric institutional practice setup including 25 eyes of 25 patients with culture-proven Nocardia endophthalmitis. AC fluid and/or vitreous and/or intraocular lens were submitted for microbiological evaluation is all cases. Patients with non-Nocardia etiology and those that were culture-negative were excluded...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
J A Domínguez-Calva, M L Pérez-Vázquez, E Serebryany, J A King, L Quintanar
Cataract disease results from non-amyloid aggregation of eye lens proteins and is the leading cause of blindness in the world. A variety of studies have implicated both essential and xenobiotic metals as potential etiological agents in cataract disease. Essential metal ions, such as copper and zinc, are known to induce the aggregation in vitro of human γD crystallin, one of the more abundant γ-crystallins in the core of the lens. In this study, we expand the investigation of metal-crystallin interactions to heavy metal ions, such as divalent lead, cadmium and mercury...
October 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Abdulrahman F AlBloushi, Abdullah M Alfawaz, Saad A Al-Dahmash, Adi M Al Owaifeer, Saad H AlEnezi, Abdulmajeed S Al-Fakhri, Priscilla W Gikandi, Ahmed M Abu El-Asrar
PURPOSE: To investigate incidence, risk factors, and surgical outcomes of cataract among uveitis patients. METHODS: Retrospective review of 1000 patients (1582 eyes). RESULTS: At initial presentation, cataract was diagnosed in 290 (18.3%) eyes and was most common in eyes with anterior uveitis. Fuchs' uveitis, herpetic uveitis, and presumed tuberculous uveitis were leading clinical entities associated with cataract at presentation. During follow-up, cataract developed in additional 200 (12...
August 24, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Samar K Basak, Soham Basak, Viraj R Pradhan
Background: Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK) is now becoming the popular form of endothelial keratoplasty using only donor DM with healthy endothelium as true component lamellar corneal surgery. Objective: To analyze the results of visual outcomes, endothelial cell loss and complications of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty in first consecutive 100 Indian eyes. Methods: 100 eyes of 95 consecutive patients with endothelial dysfunctions of different etiologies scheduled for DMEK, were included in this study...
2018: Open Ophthalmology Journal
A Saad, S O Salceanu, K Oswal, A Aboushrkh, D Hamada
Purpose: To demonstrate the importance of subretinal biopsy to reach a diagnosis when vitreous biopsy is negative or inconclusive. Methods: A 54-year-old Caucasian gentleman presented with bilateral anterior uveitis at JCUH. He initially responded to topical steroids and dilating agents. Subsequently he developed bilateral panuveitis and cataract with poor response to treatment. Detailed workup had been done to rule out infectious etiology. A suspicion of lymphoma was considered and vitreous biopsy sample was taken from one eye, which was inconclusive...
2018: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
Chenlu Han, Jinyan Li, Chunxiao Wang, Hong Ouyang, Xiaoyan Ding, Yizhi Liu, Shuyi Chen, Lixia Luo
Purpose: Recent work has indicated that Wnt5a has a critical role in embryonic development. We investigate whether the Wnt5a-activated noncanonical Wnt pathway is capable of promoting embryonic lens differentiation. Methods: A "three-stage" protocol was used to induce lens differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro, and Wnt5a levels were modified by addition of exogenous protein and RNA interference. SP600125 was adopted to inhibit JNK cascades...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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