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Cataract etiology

A Saad, S O Salceanu, K Oswal, A Aboushrkh, D Hamada
Purpose: To demonstrate the importance of subretinal biopsy to reach a diagnosis when vitreous biopsy is negative or inconclusive. Methods: A 54-year-old Caucasian gentleman presented with bilateral anterior uveitis at JCUH. He initially responded to topical steroids and dilating agents. Subsequently he developed bilateral panuveitis and cataract with poor response to treatment. Detailed workup had been done to rule out infectious etiology. A suspicion of lymphoma was considered and vitreous biopsy sample was taken from one eye, which was inconclusive...
2018: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
Chenlu Han, Jinyan Li, Chunxiao Wang, Hong Ouyang, Xiaoyan Ding, Yizhi Liu, Shuyi Chen, Lixia Luo
Purpose: Recent work has indicated that Wnt5a has a critical role in embryonic development. We investigate whether the Wnt5a-activated noncanonical Wnt pathway is capable of promoting embryonic lens differentiation. Methods: A "three-stage" protocol was used to induce lens differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro, and Wnt5a levels were modified by addition of exogenous protein and RNA interference. SP600125 was adopted to inhibit JNK cascades...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Lu-Si Zhang, Hai-Bo Li, Jun Zeng, Yan Yang, Chun Ding
AIM: To explore the clinical feature and genetic etiology of a Chinese Knobloch syndrome family. METHODS: Ocular examinations and magnetic resonance imagings (MRIs) were performed on the family. Whole exome sequencing was conducted on the two patients. Sanger sequencing was utilized to validate the presence of variation in the family as well as in 100 normal controls. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the expression level of COL18A1 in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patients and normal carriers...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Malco Rossi, Martin Cesarini, Emilia M Gatto, Angel Cammarota, Marcelo Merello
Background: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a rare autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder characterized by chronic diarrhea, tendon xanthomas, juvenile cataracts, and neurological symptoms. Case Report: An adult patient with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis exhibited ataxia and palatal tremor in the absence of tendon xanthomas and cataracts. Discussion: The importance of this case resides on the fact that cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis should be considered as a possible etiology of the syndrome of progressive ataxia with palatal tremor, even in the absence of tendon xanthomas and cataracts...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Mehdi Roozbahani, Kristin M Hammersmith, Parveen K Nagra, Jenny F Ma, Christopher J Rapuano
PURPOSE: To report the indications, outcomes, and complications of therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (Th PK) in patients with corneal perforation and/or nonhealing corneal ulceration. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of 51 eyes of 51 patients undergoing Th PK between January 1, 2006 and April 15, 2016. Data collected included patient demographics, visual acuity (VA), size of the corneal infiltrate and epithelial defect, degree of corneal thinning/perforation, microbiological results, surgical details, and postoperative complications...
June 25, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Craig Wilde, Marco U Morales, Dharmalingham Kumudhan, Justin Sim, Winfried Amoaku
Malignant glaucoma (MG), also known as aqueous misdirection and cilio-vitreo-lenticular block, is an infrequent cause of secondary angle closure glaucoma. Despite conventional treatment, it often has a poor visual outcome. It is recognized clinically by raised intraocular pressure associated with shallowing of the peripheral and central anterior chamber in the presence of a patent peripheral iridotomy/iridectomy. Despite being known to occur after a variety of surgical procedures, it most commonly presents following filtration surgery in hypermetropic eyes with angle closure glaucoma...
May 2018: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
Saagar N Patel, Shazia F Ali, Cameron Clarke, Jonathan Kim, Michael Murri, Marie Tuft, Christina Y Weng, Zaina Al-Mohtaseb
PURPOSE: To determine the risk factors, intraoperative and postoperative complications, therapeutic interventions, and visual outcomes for persistent postoperative inflammation in primary resident-performed cataract surgeries. SETTING: Ben Taub General Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Primary resident-performed cataract surgeries from January 2012 to June 2015 were analyzed for persistent postoperative inflammation, defined as persistent anterior chamber inflammatory reaction after a standard 1-month topical corticosteroid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) drops taper...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Koushik Tripathy, Rohan Chawla, Shreyas Temkar, Pradeep Sagar, Seema Kashyap, Neelam Pushker, Yog Raj Sharma
Phthisis bulbi denotes end-stage eye disease characterized by shrinkage and disorganization of the eye with the resultant functional loss. The major factors associated with the pathogenesis of phthisis are hypotony, deranged blood-ocular barriers, and inflammation. Common causes include trauma, surgery, infection, inflammation, malignancy, retinal detachment, and vascular lesions. A phthisical globe shows a small squared off shape, opaque and thickened cornea, thickened sclera, neovascularization of iris, cataract, cyclitic membrane, ciliochoroidal detachment, and retinal detachment...
June 14, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Jeffrey Cooper, Andrei V Tkatchenko
Myopia occurs in more than 50% of the population in many industrialized countries and is expected to increase; complications associated with axial elongation from myopia are the sixth leading cause of blindness. Thus, understanding its etiology, epidemiology, and the results of various treatment regiments may modify current care and result in a reduction in morbidity from progressive myopia. This rapid increase cannot be explained by genetics alone. Current animal and human research demonstrates that myopia development is a result of the interplay between genetic and the environmental factors...
July 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
Niranjan Pehere, Pratik Chougule, Gordon N Dutton
Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify common causes, associated ophthalmological abnormalities, and systemic comorbidities in children in Andhra Pradesh, India, with cerebral visual impairment (CVI). Methods: A retrospective review of case records of all children aged <16 years with diagnosis of CVI seen between January 2016 and December 2016 was carried out. Data were collected for their age, gender, cause of CVI, refraction, accommodation, anterior and posterior segment examination findings, and systemic problems...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Marko Šimunović, Martina Paradžik, Roko Škrabić, Ivana Unić, Kajo Bućan, Veselin Škrabić
Cataract is a rare manifestation of ocular complication at an early phase of T1DM in the pediatric population. The pathophysiological mechanism of early diabetic cataract has not been fully understood; however, there are many theories about the possible etiology including osmotic damage, polyol pathway, and oxidative stress. The prevalence of early diabetic cataract in the population varies between 0.7 and 3.4% of children and adolescents with T1DM. The occurrence of diabetic cataract in most pediatric patients is the first sign of T1DM or occurs within 6 months of diagnosis of T1DM...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Xiu-Feng Huang, Lue Xiang, Wan Cheng, Fei-Fei Cheng, Kai-Wen He, Bo-Wen Zhang, Si-Si Zheng, Ru-Yi Han, Yi-Han Zheng, Xiao-Tao Xu, Huan-Yun Yu, Wenjuan Zhuang, Yuk Fai Leung, Zi-Bing Jin
Ocular coloboma is a developmental structural defect of the eye that often occurs as complex ocular anomalies. However, its genetic etiology remains largely unexplored. Here we report the identification of mutation (c.331C>T, p.R111C) in the IPO13 gene in a consanguineous family with ocular coloboma, microphthalmia, and cataract by a combination of whole-exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping. IPO13 encodes an importin-B family protein and has been proven to be associated with the pathogenesis of coloboma and microphthalmia...
April 27, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Saif Khan, Tulika Bhardwaj, Pallavi Somvanshi, Raju K Mandal, Sajad A Dar, Arshad Jawed, Mohd Wahid, Naseem Akhter, Mohtashim Lohani, S Alouffi, Shafiul Haque
Human aldose reductase (hAR) is the key enzyme in sorbitol pathway of glucose utilization and is implicated in the etiology of secondary complications of diabetes, such as, cardiovascular complications, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, and cataract genesis. It reduces glucose to sorbitol in the presence of NADPH and the major cause of diabetes complications could be the change in the osmotic pressure due to the accumulation of sorbitol. An activated form of hAR (activated hAR or ahAR) poses a potential obstacle in the development of diabetes drugs as hAR-inhibitors are ineffective against ahAR...
August 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Nicole Shu-Wen Chan, Jessy Choi, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung
Pediatric uveitis differs from adult-onset uveitis and is a topic of special interest because of its diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Children with uveitis are often asymptomatic and the uveitis is often chronic, persistent, recurrent, and resistant to conventional treatment. Anterior uveitis is the most common type of uveitis in children; the prevalence of intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis varies geographically and among ethnic groups. Regarding etiology, most cases of pediatric uveitis are idiopathic but can be due to systemic inflammatory disorders, infections, or a manifestation of masquerade syndrome...
May 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Yang K Cho, Jin W Kwon, Sneha Konda, Balamurali K Ambati
PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence, related perioperative factors, clinical characteristics, and possible etiologies of epithelial keratitis after cataract surgery. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 666 eyes in 666 patients who underwent cataract surgery was performed to evaluate the incidence of epithelial keratitis and related factors in the postoperative period. RESULTS: Postoperative epithelial keratitis developed in 15 eyes. Eleven of the 15 eyes were diagnosed with herpes simplex keratitis (HSK); 10 of the 11 eyes were diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction, and the remaining 1 eye by clinical diagnosis...
June 2018: Cornea
Joshua Heczko, David Sierpina
Purpose: To report a case of rapid neuroadaptation to surgically-induced aniseikonia in a 17-year-old with preoperative anisometropia of 9.5 D. Observations: A 17-year-old female with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and progressive high myopia with resulting anisometropia secondary to conventional laser photocoagulation in her right eye was found to have diplopia after undergoing cataract surgery in that eye. Other etiologies of diplopia were ruled out and reversal of anisometropia remained the only viable diagnosis...
March 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Vasile Potop, Catalina Corbu
Clear lens extraction can be considered a therapeutic option in angle closure glaucoma (ACG). Even if it does not represent the first choice of treatment, it can be taken into consideration when the topical treatment does not control the intraocular pressure (IOP) and iridotomy does not have a positive effect on the angle closure, especially in appositional angle closure when biometry or ultrabiomicroscopy (UBM) show lens involvement. In angle closure glaucoma, clear lens extraction represents an etiological treatment that takes into account the role of the lens in the pathogenesis of the disease...
October 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
Alexandre Guyonnet, Elise Donzel, Aurélie Bourguet, Sabine Chahory
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and the clinical presentation of cataracts in a population of cats in France. PROCEDURES: A review of medical records of cats presented to the Ophthalmology Unit of the National Veterinary School of Alfort between January 2010 and June 2017 was carried out to identify cats affected by cataracts. The signalment of affected cats, medical history, etiology of cataract, age of onset, stage of development, location of opacities, and concurrent ocular lesions were evaluated...
March 6, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Václav Holecek, Richard Rokyta
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most dangerous and least understood diseases with a pathophysiology that is still largely unknown. In this article we try to provide a pathophysiological explanation of the etiological, pathogenetic, and clinical aspects of ALS. After a description of the rather complicated classification of the disease, we continue with an evaluation of its clinical presentation. The bibliography reveals several suspect etiological factors including atherosclerosis, inflammation, tumors, cataracts, diabetes mellitus type 2, aging, and degeneration of the nervous system...
February 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Robert B Garoon, Darlene Miller, Harry W Flynn
Purpose: To report a series of patients with acute-onset bacterial endophthalmitis caused by culture proven Staphylococcus lugdunensis , and to characterize clinical outcomes and microbiologic susceptibilities of this organism. Observations: The study included six eyes of 6 patients. The etiologies included cataract surgery (3), open globe injury (2), and intravitreal injection (1). Isolates of S. lugdunensis demonstrated sensitivity to vancomycin in all cases reported...
March 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
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