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Hyeon Kang Koh, Soo Yeon Seo, Jin Ho Kim, Hak Jae Kim, Eui Kyu Chie, Seung-Ki Kim, Il Han Kim
Purpose: Glioblastoma, the most common brain tumor in adults, has poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of disulfiram (DSF), an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor, on in vitro radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells with different methylation status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter and the underlying mechanism of such effect. Materials and Methods: Five human glioblastoma cells (U138MG, T98G, U251MG, U87MG, and U373MG) and one normal human astrocyte (NHA) cell were cultured and treated with DSF or 6MV x-rays (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 Gy)...
August 13, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Ina A Eilertsen, Anita Sveen, Jonas M Strømme, Rolf I Skotheim, Arild Nesbakken, Ragnhild A Lothe
KRAS mutation is a well-known marker for poor response to targeted treatment and patient prognosis in microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer (CRC). However, variation in clinical outcomes among patients wild-type for KRAS underlines that this is not a homogeneous population. Here, we evaluated the prognostic impact of KRAS alternative splicing in relation to mutation status in a single-hospital series of primary MSS CRCs (N = 258). Using splicing-sensitive microarrays and RNA sequencing, the relative expression of KRAS-4A versus KRAS-4B transcript variants was confirmed to be down-regulated in CRC compared to normal colonic mucosa (N = 41; P ≤ 0...
August 19, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Bin Zhao, Hong Zhao, Jiaxin Zhao
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have unprecedented effects on the treatment of metastatic melanoma. However, little is known about the prognostic values of various clinicopathological characteristics. Here, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane database were searched from inception to April 2018 for random controlled trials (RCTs) that compared ICIs with controls. The hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) according to gender, age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, and metastasis stage were extracted...
August 19, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Jenny Capuccini, Gabriella Macchia, Eleonora Farina, Milly Buwenge, Domenico Genovesi, Luciana Caravatta, Nam P Nguyen, Silvia Cammelli, Savino Cilla, Tigeneh Wondemagegnhu, A F M Kamal Uddin, Mostafà Aziz Sumon, Francesco Cellini, Vincenzo Valentini, Francesco Deodato, Alessio G Morganti
Metastases with soft tissues invasion, impending fractures or spinal cord compression (complicated bone metastases) represent a common clinical problem in advanced cancers and frequently lead to deterioration of patients' quality of life (QoL). A phase I-II study was planned to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of a short-course radiotherapy (RT) and its efficacy in palliation of complicated bone metastases. A phase I trial was designed with three dose-escalation steps: 16, 18, and 20 Gy. Total dose at each level was delivered in 2 days, twice daily...
August 18, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Anja Wehrle, Sarah Kneis, Hans-Hermann Dickhuth, Albert Gollhofer, Hartmut Bertz
PURPOSE: Acute leukemia (AL) and its initial treatment can impair physical functioning and capacity significantly. Exercise as a countermeasure has been investigated in few studies confirming its feasibility and safety during intensive induction chemotherapy, but the relative effects of diverse exercise programs have not been analyzed. Therefore, we aimed to investigate independent effects of endurance and resistance training on physical capacity and quality of life (QOL). METHODS: Twenty-nine adult AL patients were randomly allocated to an endurance (EG), resistance (RG), or control (CG) group...
August 18, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
A S Syadwa, Z B Anita
AIM: Symptomatic relief following palliative radiotherapy for advanced cancers may take a few weeks up to a few months to achieve. Thus, accurate prognostication is important to avoid harm to these patients with limited lifespan. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine the median survival and 30-day mortality (30-DM) and factors associated with these parameters in our centre. METHODS: Data from 585 eligible patients who received palliative radiotherapy between January 2012 and December 2014 were analysed...
August 2018: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Richard Todd Handley, Ryan E Bentley, Tony L Brown, Abigail A Annan
This is a single case of a 65-year-old American woman who presented with substantial weight gain and insulin resistance (IR) post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Before RYGB, she had reached 340 lbs (155 kg) and a body mass index (BMI) of 56.6 kg/m2 The surgery resulted in a 70 lbs (32 kg) weight loss, bringing her BMI, per cent total weight loss (%TWL) and per cent excess weight loss (%EWL) to 44.9 kg/m2 , 20.6% and 36.8%, respectively. Unfortunately, her BMI would return to 53.6 kg/m2 , nearly her pre-RYGB BMI...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Jan Borggrefe, Berit Glück, Volker Maus, Oezgur Onur, Nuran Abdullayev, Utako Barnikol, Christoph Kabbasch, Gereon Rudolf Fink, Anastasios Mpotsaris
BACKGROUND: Among patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with mechanical thrombectomy (MT), diabetic patients (DP) show a poorer outcome compared to non-diabetic patients (NDP). This study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of factors associated with unfavorable outcome in DP receiving MT for stroke of the anterior circulation. METHODS: This study includes 317 out of 498 consecutive patients who received interventional treatment for AIS in the terminal internal carotid artery and/or middle cerebral artery, including 46 DP...
August 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Raphael Bueno, Isabelle Opitz
Surgical intervention plays an important role in the diagnosis, staging and treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and can be applied with curative or palliative intent. The overall aim of surgery should be, as in any oncologic surgery, the macroscopic complete resection (MCR) of the tumor. Most importantly, the majority of patients with the diagnosis of MPM should be appropriately staged and initially evaluated in a multidisciplinary setting, including medical oncology, radiation oncology, and surgery after histological diagnosis...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Huiliang Yang, Akash A Shah, Sandra B Nelson, Joseph H Schwab
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Fungal spinal epidural abscess (FSEA) is a rare entity with high morbidity and mortality. Reports describing the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of FSEA are scarce in the literature. PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of FSEA. STUDY DESIGN: This study is designed as a retrospective clinical case series. PATIENT SAMPLE: A continuous series of patients with the diagnosis of FSEA who presented at our institution from 1993 to 2016...
August 16, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Meike H van der Ree, Louis Jansen, Matthijs R A Welkers, Hendrik W Reesink, K Anton Feenstra, Neeltje A Kootstra
BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify HBc amino acid differences between subgroups of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. METHODS: Deep sequencing of HBc was performed in samples of 89 CHB patients (42 HBeAg positive, 47 HBeAg negative). Amino acid types were compared using Sequence Harmony to identify subgroup specific sites between HBeAg-positive and -negative patients, and between patients with combined response and non-response to peginterferon/adefovir combination therapy...
August 16, 2018: Antiviral Research
Atilla Çifci, Cüneyt Tayman, Halil İbrahim Yakut, Halit Halil, Esra Çakır, Ufuk Çakır, Salih Aydemir
Background/aim: Hyperoxia- and inflammation-induced lung injury is an important cause of the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. We aimed to ascertain the beneficial effects of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) on rat pups exposed to hyperoxia and inflammation. Materials and methods: Thirty-six newborn Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups as the hyperoxia (95% O 2 ) + lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group, the hyperoxia + LPS + ginger-treated group, and the control/no treatment group (21% O 2 )...
August 16, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Jennifer Lai, Angela Jury, Jenny Long, David Fergusson, Mark Smith, Sandra Baxendine, Angela Gruar
Rates of seclusion vary across New Zealand's publicly funded district health board (DHB) adult mental health inpatient services as indicated by national data. Anecdotally, this variation has been attributed to a range of factors directly relating to the people admitted to acute inpatient services. This study examined the extent to which variation in seclusion rates could be explained by the sociodemographic and clinical differences between populations admitted into adult mental health inpatient services. Retrospective data were obtained from the Programme for the Integration of Mental Health Data (PRIMHD)...
August 18, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Erik Stroes, Jennifer G Robinson, Frederick J Raal, Robert Dufour, David Sullivan, Helina Kassahun, Yuhui Ma, Scott M Wasserman, Michael J Koren
BACKGROUND: Evolocumab significantly lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) when dosed 140 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) or 420 mg monthly (QM) subcutaneously. HYPOTHESIS: LDL-C changes are comparable among different patient subgroups in a pooled analysis of data from phase 3 trials. METHODS: A total of 3146 patients received ≥1 dose of evolocumab or control in four 12-week phase 3 studies. Percent change from baseline in LDL-C for evolocumab 140 mg Q2W or 420 mg QM vs control was reported as the average of week 10 and 12 values...
August 17, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Sang-Woo Lee, Seong-Jang Kim, Youngduk Seo, Shin Young Jeong, Byeong-Cheol Ahn, Jaetae Lee
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) or positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the assessment of disease activity in patients with large vessel vasculitis (LVV) through a meta-analysis. METHODS: The MEDLINE via PubMed and EMBASE were searched for the studies evaluating the performance of F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT in the assessment of disease activity in patients with LVV...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Eric M Thompson, Daniel Landi, David Ashley, Stephen T Keir, Darell Bigner
INTRODUCTION: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare Grade II and III glioma. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment, however, adjuvant therapy is sometimes necessary. Given the rarity of PXA, chemotherapeutic efficacy data is limited. The importance of the BRAF V600E mutation in the context of MAP kinase pathway inhibition is unknown. The purpose of this study was to perform an in vivo screen of a variety to agents to determine efficacy against both V600E mutant and non-mutant PXA...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Rupesh Agrawal, Dinesh Visva Gunasekeran, Dhananjay Raje, Aniruddha Agarwal, Quan Dong Nguyen, Onn Min Kon, Carlos Pavesio, Vishali Gupta
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine regional variation management practices and outcomes for tubercular uveitis (TBU). Methods: In this retrospective multinational cohort study, patients from 25 international eye care centers diagnosed with TBU with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were included. The geographic variation in treatment outcomes on survival analysis in patients with TBU were analyzed. Treatment failure is defined as a persistence or recurrence of inflammation within 6 months of completing antitubercular therapy, the inability to taper oral corticosteroids to less than 10 mg/d or topical corticosteroid drops to less than 2 drops daily, and/or recalcitrant inflammation necessitating corticosteroid-sparing immunosuppressive therapy...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Gaia Griguolo, Stephane Pouderoux, Maria Vittoria Dieci, William Jacot, Céline Bourgier, Federica Miglietta, Nelly Firmin, Pierfranco Conte, Marie Viala, Valentina Guarneri, Amélie Darlix
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the solid tumors most commonly associated with leptomeningeal disease (LMD). LMD carries a devastating prognosis; however, disease presentation and prognostic factors are uncertain. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: In order to describe patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and factors associated with survival in a contemporary multicentric cohort, 153 consecutive BC patients diagnosed with LMD at two European institutions (2002-2017) were included...
August 17, 2018: Oncologist
Lola Fashoyin-Aje, Martha Donoghue, Huanyu Chen, Kun He, Janaki Veeraraghavan, Kirsten B Goldberg, Patricia Keegan, Amy E McKee, Richard Pazdur
On September 22, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval for pembrolizumab (Keytruda, Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ) for the treatment of patients with recurrent, locally advanced or metastatic, gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma with disease progression on or after two or more systemic therapies, including fluoropyrimidine- and platinum-containing chemotherapy and, if appropriate, HER2/neu-targeted therapy, and whose tumors express programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), as determined by an FDA-approved test...
August 17, 2018: Oncologist
Juliana VanderPluym, David W Dodick, Richard B Lipton, Yuju Ma, Pippa S Loupe, Marcelo E Bigal
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of fremanezumab on the functional status on headache-free days in phase 2 episodic migraine (EM) and chronic migraine (CM) studies. METHODS: Functional status data were collected prospectively via the electronic headache diary on all headache-free days by patients answering questions regarding work/school/household chore performance, speed of work completion, concentration, and feeling of fatigue. Individuals with EM receiving monthly doses of fremanezumab 225 mg (n = 96) or 675 mg (n = 97) or placebo (n = 104) were compared...
August 17, 2018: Neurology
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