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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557831/unravel-a-neuroactive-sha-sulfation-pattern-with-neurogenesis-activity-by-a-library-of-defined-oligosaccharides
#1
Wang Yao, Man Chen, Xiaodong Dou, Hongwei Jin, Xiao Zhang, Yong Zhu, Meng Sha, Zhenming Liu, Xiangbao Meng, Liangren Zhang, Shigong Zhu, Zhongjun Li
Sulfated hyaluronic acid (sHA) is chemically synthetic mimetic of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) presenting promising biological functions. Specific sulfation pattern, termed as sulfation code plays critical roles in regulating the binding mode between GAG and proteins. As a structural analogue of chondroitin sulfate (CS), sHA bears much higher molecular weight and is nearly free of other proteoglycan contaminants. These properties make sHA a better bioscaffold to build safer and more functionalized material. However, chemical sulfonation process on naked HA polysaccharide produces random sulfation patterns which makes it difficult in disclosing the SAR...
December 4, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557785/neuronal-receptors-display-cytoskeleton-independent-directed-motion-on-the-plasma-membrane
#2
Ruth D Taylor, Martin Heine, Nigel J Emptage, Laura C Andreae
Directed transport of transmembrane proteins is generally believed to occur via intracellular transport vesicles. However, using single-particle tracking in rat hippocampal neurons with a pH-sensitive quantum dot probe that specifically reports surface movement of receptors, we have identified a subpopulation of neuronal EphB2 receptors that exhibit directed motion between synapses within the plasma membrane itself. This receptor movement occurs independently of the cytoskeleton but is dependent on cholesterol and is regulated by neuronal activity...
December 5, 2018: iScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557779/impact-of-moderate-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-on-histaminergic-neurons-histidine-decarboxylase-levels-and-histamine-h-2-receptors-in-adult-rat-offspring
#3
Suzy Davies, Carmen Ballesteros-Merino, Nyika A Allen, Morgan W Porch, Morgan E Pruitt, Kyle H Christensen, Martina J Rosenberg, Daniel D Savage
We have reported that moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) elevates histamine H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamatergic neurotransmission in dentate gyrus (DG), and that the H3 receptor antagonist ABT-239 ameliorates PAE-induced deficits in DG long-term potentiation. Here, we investigated whether PAE alters other markers of histaminergic neurotransmission. Long-Evans rat dams voluntarily consumed either a 0% or a 5% ethanol solution 4 h each day throughout gestation. Young adult female offspring from each prenatal treatment group were used in histidine decarboxylase (HDC) immunohistochemical studies of histamine neuron number in ventral hypothalamus, quantitative Western blotting studies of HDC expression in multiple brain regions, radiohistochemical studies of H2 receptor density in multiple brain regions, and in biochemical studies of H2 receptor-effector coupling in dentate gyrus...
July 22, 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557654/5-methylcytosine-and-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-in-brains-of-patients-with-multiple-system-atrophy-and-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Oliver Kaut, Klaus Kuchelmeister, Christoph Moehl, Ullrich Wüllner
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized pathologically by α-synuclein aggregates preferentially found in oligodendroglial cells. DNA methylation has emerged as a mechanism of regulation of α-synuclein expression. Reduced 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) DNA methylation of α-synuclein has been found in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) methylation is another epigenetic modification of DNA. It is involved in the de-methylation of DNA, gene regulation, and DNA repair mechanisms...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557575/bioluminescence-imaging-of-arc-expression-in-mouse-brain-under-acute-and-chronic-exposure-to-pesticides
#5
Hironori Izumi, Tetsuya Ishimoto, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Hisashi Mori
Exposure to pesticides can induce neurobehavioral effects in rodents, as well as in other mammals, including humans. However, the effects of the toxicity of pesticides on the central nervous system (CNS) remain largely unclear. The expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein gene (Arc) is induced in a neuronal-activity-dependent manner and is implicated in synaptic and experience-dependent plasticity. We previously developed Arc-promoter-driven luciferase transgenic (Tg) mouse strains to monitor the neuronal-activity-dependent gene expression under physiological and pathological conditions in vivo...
December 14, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557564/ku-596-decreases-mitochondrial-superoxide-and-improves-bioenergetics-following-downregulation-of-manganese-superoxide-dismutase-in-diabetic-sensory-neurons
#6
Zhenyuan You, Zheng Zhang, Brian S J Blagg, Rick T Dobrowsky
Neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are key pathophysiologic mechanisms of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). KU-596 is a small molecule modulator of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) that can reverse clinically relevant measures of DPN in diabetic animal models. Mechanistically, drug efficacy requires Hsp70 and correlates with improving mitochondrial maximal respiratory capacity (MRC) and decreasing oxidative stress in diabetic sensory neurons. The goal of this study was to determine if ex vivo treatment of diabetic neurons with KU-596 improves MRC by decreasing glucose-induced oxidative stress in an Hsp70-dependent manner...
December 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557410/compartment-models-for-the-electrical-stimulation-of-retinal-bipolar-cells
#7
Frank Rattay, Hassan Bassereh, Isabel Stiennon
Bipolar cells of the retina are among the smallest neurons of the nervous system. For this reason, compared to other neurons, their delay in signaling is minimal. Additionally, the small bipolar cell surface combined with the low membrane conductance causes very little attenuation in the signal from synaptic input to the terminal. The existence of spiking bipolar cells was proven over the last two decades, but until now no complete model including all important ion channel types was published. The present study amends this and analyzes the impact of the number of model compartments on simulation accuracy...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557385/cholinesterase-inhibitor-rivastigmine-enhances-nerve-growth-factor-induced-neurite-outgrowth-in-pc12-cells-via-sigma-1-and-sigma-2-receptors
#8
Kazuki Terada, Keisuke Migita, Yukari Matsushima, Yumi Sugimoto, Chiaki Kamei, Taichi Matsumoto, Masayoshi Mori, Kazuhisa Matsunaga, Jiro Takata, Yoshiharu Karube
Rivastigmine (Riv) is a potent and selective cholinesterase (acetylcholinesterase, AChE and butyrylcholinesterase, BuChE) inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To elucidate whether Riv causes neuronal differentiation, we examined its effect on nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. At concentrations of 0-100 μM, Riv was non-toxic in PC12 cells. Riv caused dose-dependent (10-100 μM) enhancement of NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, which was completely inhibited by the TrkA antagonist GW-441756...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557375/multiscale-dynamics-of-interstimulus-interval-integration-in-visual-cortex
#9
J Alegre-Cortés, C Soto-Sánchez, E Fernandez
Although the visual cortex receives information at multiple temporal patterns, much of the research in the field has focused only on intervals shorter than 1 second. Consequently, there is almost no information on what happens at longer temporal intervals. We have tried to address this question recording neuronal populations of the primary visual cortex during visual stimulation with repetitive grating stimuli and intervals ranging from 1 to 7 seconds. Our results showed that firing rate and response stability were dependent of interval duration...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557356/familial-episodic-limb-pain-in-kindreds-with-novel-nav1-9-mutations
#10
Risako Kabata, Hiroko Okuda, Atsuko Noguchi, Daiki Kondo, Michimasa Fujiwara, Kenichiro Hata, Yoshifumi Kato, Ken Ishikawa, Manabu Tanaka, Yuji Sekine, Nozomi Hishikawa, Tomoyuki Mizukami, Junichi Ito, Manami Akasaka, Ken Sakurai, Takeshi Yoshida, Hironori Minoura, Takashi Hayashi, Kohei Inoshita, Misayo Matsuyama, Noriko Kinjo, Yang Cao, Sumiko Inoue, Hatasu Kobayashi, Kouji H Harada, Shohab Youssefian, Tsutomu Takahashi, Akio Koizumi
We previously performed genetic analysis in six unrelated families with infantile limb pain episodes, characterized by cold-induced deterioration and mitigation in adolescence, and reported two new mutations p.R222H/S in SCN11A responsible for these episodes. As no term described this syndrome (familial episodic pain: FEP) in Japanese, we named it as". In the current study, we recruited an additional 42 new unrelated Japanese FEP families, between March 2016 and March 2018, and identified a total of 11 mutations in SCN11A: p...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557348/cpla2%C3%AE-sympathetic-neurons-exhibit-increased-membrane-excitability-and-loss-of-n-type-ca2-current-inhibition-by-m1-muscarinic-receptor-signaling
#11
Liwang Liu, Joseph V Bonventre, Ann R Rittenhouse
Group IVa cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) mediates GPCR-stimulated arachidonic acid (AA) release from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) located in plasma membranes. We previously found in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons that PLA2 activity is required for voltage-independent N-type Ca2+ (N-) current inhibition by M1 muscarinic receptors (M1Rs). These findings are at odds with an alternative model, previously observed for M-current inhibition, where PIP2 dissociation from channels and subsequent metabolism by phospholipase C suffices for current inhibition...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557298/%C3%AE-actin-regulates-a-heterochromatin-landscape-essential-for-optimal-induction-of-neuronal-programs-during-direct-reprograming
#12
Xin Xie, Robertas Jankauskas, Aslam M A Mazari, Nizar Drou, Piergiorgio Percipalle
During neuronal development, β-actin serves an important role in growth cone mediated axon guidance. Consistent with this notion, in vivo ablation of the β-actin gene leads to abnormalities in the nervous system. However, whether β-actin is involved in the regulation of neuronal gene programs is not known. In this study, we directly reprogramed β-actin+/+ WT, β-actin+/- HET and β-actin-/- KO mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEFs) into chemically induced neurons (CiNeurons). Using RNA-seq analysis, we profiled the transcriptome changes among the CiNeurons...
December 17, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557266/stem-cell-therapies-for-alzheimer-s-disease-is-it-time
#13
Sheng-Min Wang, Chang-Uk Lee, Hyun Kook Lim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stem cell therapy has the potential to modify the disease of Alzheimer's disease. This article aims to describe the mechanisms of action, preclinical animal studies, human clinical trials, and challenges for the future direction of stem cell therapy for Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Stem cells of diverse origins (embryonic, placental or umbilical cord blood, and induced pluripotent stem cells) and cell types (neural and mesenchymal stem cells) are widely studied in both animals and humans...
December 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557202/immature-electrophysiological-properties-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons-transplanted-into-the-mouse-cortex-for-7-weeks
#14
Tasuku Kayama, Kazuki Okamoto, Mengxuan Gao, Yuji Ikegaya, Takuya Sasaki
The transplantation of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cells has emerged as a potential clinical approach for the treatment of brain diseases. Recent studies with animal disease models have shown that hiPSC-derived neurons transplanted into the brain, especially the nigrostriatal area, could restore degenerated brain functions. Further works are required to test whether hiPSC-derived neurons can also gain functional properties for other cortical areas. In this study, hiPSC-derived neurospheres were transplanted into the adult mouse hippocampus and sensory cortex...
December 15, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30557159/csf-extracellular-vesicles-and-neurofilament-light-protein-as-biomarkers-of-cns-injury-in-hiv-infected-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#15
Debjani Guha, Shibani S Mukerji, Sukrutha Chettimada, Vikas Misra, David R Lorenz, Susan Morgello, Dana Gabuzda
OBJECTIVE: The relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) extracellular vesicles (EVs) to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in HIV-infected individuals is unclear. Here, we characterize CSF EVs and their association with CNS injury-related biomarkers (neurofilament light [NFL], S100B, neopterin) and NCI in HIV+ subjects on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). DESIGN: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of CSF samples from HIV+ subjects on cART. METHODS: NFL, S100B, and neopterin were measured by ELISA in 190 CSF samples from 112 subjects (67 HIV+ and 45 HIV-)...
December 14, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556914/vglut3-gates-psychomotor-effects-induced-by-amphetamine
#16
Nina Mansouri-Guilani, Véronique Bernard, Erika Vigneault, Vincent Vialou, Stéphanie Daumas, Salah El Mestikawy, Giuseppe Gangarossa
Several subtypes of modulatory neurons co-express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) in addition to their cognate vesicular transporters. These neurons are believed to establish new forms of neuronal communication. The atypical vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) is of particular interest since in the striatum this subtype is found in tonically active cholinergic interneurons (TANs) and in a subset of 5-HT fibers. The striatum plays a major role in psychomotor effects induced by amphetamine. Whether and how VGLUT3-operated glutamate/ACh or glutamate/5HT co-transmissions modulates psychostimulants-induced maladaptive behaviors is still unknown...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556910/japanese-encephalitis-virus-induced-let-7a-b-interacted-with-the-notch-tlr7-pathway-in-microglia-and-facilitated-neuronal-death-via-caspase-activation
#17
Sriparna Mukherjee, Irshad Akbar, Bharti Kumari, Sudhanshu Vrati, Anirban Basu, Arup Banerjee
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) released from the activated microglia upon neurotropic virus infection may exacerbate the neuronal damage. Here, we identified let-7a and let-7b (let-7a/b) as one of the essential miRNAs overexpressed upon Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) infection and released in the culture supernatant of the JEV-infected microglial cells through extracellular vesicles. The let-7a/b were previously reported to modulate inflammation in microglial cells through Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) pathways; though their role in accelerating JEV pathogenesis remain unexplored...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556815/protection-of-tissue-physicochemical-properties-using-polyfunctional-crosslinkers
#18
Young-Gyun Park, Chang Ho Sohn, Ritchie Chen, Margaret McCue, Dae Hee Yun, Gabrielle T Drummond, Taeyun Ku, Nicholas B Evans, Hayeon Caitlyn Oak, Wendy Trieu, Heejin Choi, Xin Jin, Varoth Lilascharoen, Ji Wang, Matthias C Truttmann, Helena W Qi, Hidde L Ploegh, Todd R Golub, Shih-Chi Chen, Matthew P Frosch, Heather J Kulik, Byung Kook Lim, Kwanghun Chung
Understanding complex biological systems requires the system-wide characterization of both molecular and cellular features. Existing methods for spatial mapping of biomolecules in intact tissues suffer from information loss caused by degradation and tissue damage. We report a tissue transformation strategy named stabilization under harsh conditions via intramolecular epoxide linkages to prevent degradation (SHIELD), which uses a flexible polyepoxide to form controlled intra- and intermolecular cross-link with biomolecules...
December 17, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556810/g-i-o-protein-coupled-receptors-in-dopamine-neurons-inhibit-the-sodium-leak-channel-nalcn
#19
Fabian Philippart, Zayd M Khaliq
Dopamine (D2) receptors provide autoinhibitory feedback onto dopamine neurons through well-known interactions with voltage-gated calcium channels and G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. Here, we reveal a third major effector involved in D2R modulation of dopaminergic neurons - the sodium leak channel, NALCN. We found that activation of D2 receptors robustly inhibits isolated sodium leak currents in wild-type mice but not in NALCN conditional knockout mice. Intracellular GDP-bS abolished the inhibition, indicating a G protein-dependent signaling mechanism...
December 17, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30556640/vitamin-e-mechanism-of-transport-and-regulation-in-the-cns
#20
REVIEW
Paris Lee, Lynn M Ulatowski
Although vitamin E has been recognized as a critical micronutrient to neuronal health for more than half a century, vitamin E transport and regulation in the brain remain a mystery. Currently, the majority of what is known about vitamin E transport has been delineated in the liver. However, clues from the pathogenesis of neurological-related vitamin E deficient diseases point to compromised neuronal integrity and function, underlining the critical need to understand vitamin E regulation in the CNS. Additionally, most of the same molecular players involved in vitamin E transport in the liver are also found in CNS, including sterol SRB1, TTP, and ABCA/ABCG, suggesting similar intracellular pathways between these organ systems...
December 17, 2018: IUBMB Life
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