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Dennis Paliga, Fabian Raudzus, Stephen H Leppla, Rolf Heumann, Sebastian Neumann
The orphan transcription factor nuclear receptor-related 1 protein (Nurr1, also known as NR4A2) plays a key role in embryonic development and maintenance of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Nurr1 deficiency is associated with Parkinson's disease where dopaminergic neurons degenerate suggesting that counter-regulation of Nurr1 activity may have therapeutic effects. Here, we bacterially expressed and isolated a human Nurr1 fusion protein containing a N-terminal cell delivery domain derived from detoxified anthrax lethal factor followed by wild type ubiquitin with deubiquitinating enzyme recognition site for intracellular cleavage...
August 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
N V Yaglova, S S Obernikhin, D A Tsomartova, S V Nazimova, V V Yaglov
Transcription factor PRH/Hhex suppresses cell proliferation and contributes to regulation of prenatal and postnatal ontogeny. Neurons of the peripheral nervous system and chromaffin cells were previously considered as non-expressing PRH/Hhex in postnatal development. In our study, the expression of PRH/Hhex in chromaffin cells of rat adrenal glands and association between the decrease of proliferation and activation of PRH/Hhex expression were demonstrated.
August 18, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
V M Chertok, V A Nevzorova, N V Zakharchuk
We measured the content of HIF-1α and HIF-2α-immunopositive neurons and microvessels in the brain of Wistar rats during the first 24 h of tissue hypoxia induced by subcutaneous injection of cobalt dichloride (50 mg/kg). In control rats (without hypoxia), immunohistochemical marker HIF-2α in cortex of parietal lobe was not detected, and HIF-1α was detected only in few weakly stained pale neurons and capillaries. In 30 min after injection of the cobalt salt, the number of HIF-1α+ neurons increased by 25...
August 18, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
P N Shevtsov, E F Shevtsova, O K Savushkina, G Sh Burbaeva, S O Bachurin
Phosphorylation of τ-protein, a component of microtubules in brain neurons, is a key pathomorphological sign of Alzheimer's disease. The development of this intracellular defect can be promoted by Al3+ , Fe3+ , and Zn2+ ions. The concentrations of these ions in the brain are considerably elevated in Alzheimer's disease. We performed a comparative study of phosphorylation of microtubular proteins of rat brain in the presence of Al3+ , Fe3+ , and Zn2+ ions in concentrations of 10-500 μM and microtubular proteins of brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease...
August 18, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Mercè Masana, Sören Westerholz, Anja Kretzschmar, Giulia Treccani, Claudia Liebl, Sara Santarelli, Carine Dournes, Maurizio Popoli, Mathias V Schmidt, Theo Rein, Marianne B Müller
Identifying molecular targets that are able to buffer the consequences of stress and therefore restore brain homeostasis is essential to develop treatments for stress-related disorders. Down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma 1 (DRR1) is a unique stress-induced protein in the brain and has been recently proposed to modulate stress resilience. Interestingly, DRR1 shows a prominent expression in the limbic system of the adult mouse. Here, we analyzed the neuroanatomical and cellular expression patterns of DRR1 in the adult mouse brain using in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence and Western blot...
August 18, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Hongluan Yu, Cuiqin Fan, Lejin Yang, Shuyan Yu, Qiqi Song, Peng Wang, Xueqin Mao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ginsenoside Rg1 has been demonstrated to exhibit neuroprotective effects in various studies. This study aimed to investigate the neuronal mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective and antidepressant-like effects of ginsenoside Rg1 in a rat model of depression. METHODS: Chronic unpredictable mild stress was used to induce depression-like behaviors in rats. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe neuronal synapses within the basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
August 17, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Samarth Agarwal, Sunny Goel, Ruchir Aeron, Satya Narayan Sankwar
Accidental placement of Foley catheter in ureter is a rare phenomenon. It is more common in females with neurogenic bladder who have hypocontractile bladder or there can be iatrogenic placement during surgical procedures. We describe a case of a female suffering from upper motor neuronal lesion due to trauma at T8 level (American Spinal Injury grade A) following which she developed neurogenic bladder. A Foley catheter was unintentionally placed in the ureter and subsequently removed through a novel technique of percutaneous ultrasound-guided balloon puncture...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Carlos Mesak, Douglas Marcel Dos Reis Sampaio, Raíssa de Oliveira Ferreira, Bruna de Oliveira Mendes, Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues, Guilherme Malafaia
The toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) has been the subject of several investigations; however, concentrations much higher than the ones potentially found in the environment are often tested. In addition, groups of animals such as birds have not been used as model in studies in this field, fact that creates an important ecotoxicological gap in them. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of the exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles on the anti-predatory behavior of chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus)...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yue Zhang, Lichao Wang, Kewu Zeng, Kui Wang, Xiaoda Yang
Vanadium compounds have arisen as potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancers over the past decades. A few studies suggested that vanadyl complexes may discriminate between the cancerous and the normal cells. Here, we reported the investigation on the pro-apoptotic effect and the underlying mechanism of bis(acetylacetonato) oxovanadium(IV) ([VO(acac)2 ]) on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in comparison with that of mouse primary cortex neurons. The experimental results revealed that [VO(acac)2 ] showed about 10-fold higher cytotoxicity (IC50 ~16 μM) on the neuroblastoma cells than on normal neurons (IC50 ~250 μM)...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Jin-Jun Ding, Rong-Xin Zou, Hui-Ming He, Zhi-Yi Lou, Yi Xu, Hui-Li Wang
Lead (Pb) exposure impairs the nervous system, of which the injury of cognitive development is obvious. But the mechanism of Pb induced disorders of neuro-transmission remain elusive. In this study, primary hippocampal neurons were exposed to Pb at the dosage of 5 μM from days in vitro (DIV) 3 to DIV14 and the electrophysiological recordings were performed at DIV14. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat pups were exposed to Pb from parturition to weaning indirectly from their mothers whose drinking water containing 250 ppm Pb, then directly exposed to Pb at the dosage of 250 ppm from postnatal day (PND) 21 to PND30...
August 16, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Masoumeh Faezi, Solmaz Nasseri Maleki, Nahid Aboutaleb, Mahin Nikougoftar
OBJECTIVE: The mesenchymal stem cells derived from human amniotic membrane have the ability to secrete and release some factors that can promote the repair of damaged tissues. This secretome contains proteins and factors that reduce apoptosis and increase angiogenesis in the ischemia/reperfusion models. The present study was conducted to determine whether this secretome provides protection against transient focal cerebral ischemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat model of focal cerebral ischemia was established through middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 60 min and 24 h reperfusion...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Noemi Picco, Thomas E Woolley
The successful development of the mammalian cerebral neocortex is linked to numerous cognitive functions such as language, voluntary movement, and episodic memory. Neocortex development occurs when neural progenitor cells divide and produce neurons. Critically, although the progenitor cells are able to self-renew they do not reproduce themselves endlessly. Hence, to fully understand the development of the neocortex we are faced with the challenge of understanding temporal changes in cell division strategy. Our approach to modelling neuronal production uses non-autonomous ordinary differential equations and allows us to use a ternary coordinate system in order to define a strategy space, through which we can visualise evolving cell division strategies...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Vladislav Myrov, Alexey Sedov, Ekaterina Salova, Alexey Tomskiy, Elena Belova
The analysis of neuronal activity in human brain is a complicated task as it meets several limitations, including small sample sizes, dependent variables in the dataset and the short duration of recordings that entangles the analysis procedure. Here, we present the comparative research of neuronal activity in subthalamic nucleus (STN) of 8 Parkinsonian patients undergoing DBS surgery in awake state and under propofol anaesthesia using different statistical approaches. We studied 25 parameters of single unit activity and performed a direct comparison of the parameters between the groups to characterise the changes in STN activity under anaesthesia...
August 16, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Jorge R de Sousa, Raimunda S S Azevedo, Arnaldo J Martins Filho, Marialva T F Araujo, Ermelinda R C Moutinho, Barbara C Baldez Vasconcelos, Ana C R Cruz, Consuelo S Oliveira, Lívia C Martins, Beatriz H Baldez Vasconcelos, Livia M N Casseb, Jannifer O Chiang, Juarez A S Quaresma, Pedro F C Vasconcelos
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA flavivirus that possesses a genome approximately 10.7 Kb in length. Although pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and apoptotic markers belonging to the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways are suggested to be involved in fatal cases of ZIKV-induced microcephaly, their exact roles and associations are unclear. To address this, brain tissue samples were collected from 10 individuals, five of whom were diagnosed as ZIKV-positive with microcephaly and a further five were flavivirus-negative controls that died because of other causes...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Vanessa Estato, Joice Stipursky, Fabiana Gomes, Tally Chalolachvilli Mergener, Edwards Frazão-Teixeira, Silvana Allodi, Eduardo Tibiriçá, Helene Santos Barbosa, Daniel Adesse
Toxoplasmosis is one of the leading parasitic diseases worldwide. Some data suggest that chronic acquired toxoplasmosis could be linked to behavioral alterations in humans. The parasite infects neurons, forming immunologically silent cysts. Cerebral microcirculation homeostasis is determinant to brain functions, and pathological states can alter capillarity or blood perfusion, leading to neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. Albino mice were infected with Toxoplasma gondii (ME49 strain) and analyzed after 10, 40, and 180 days...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Minoru Nodera, Masayoshi Oikawa, Kazuhiko Nakazato, Takafumi Ishida, Yasuchika Takeishi
Several studies have shown that neural remodeling in stellate ganglia (SG) is induced by myocardial infarction (MI). It remains unclear whether neural remodeling after MI is limited in SG within the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). MI was induced in a rat model by ligation of the left anterior descending artery. Neural remodeling in the intermediolateral nucleus (IML) and SG was assessed by immunohistochemistry 2 weeks after MI. The mRNA and protein expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase receptor (TrkB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were measured by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting 1 week after MI...
August 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Joanna Borowska-Fielding, Natalia Murataeva, Ben Smith, Anna-Maria Szczesniak, Emma Leishmann, Laura Daily, Tom Toguri, Cecelia Hillard, Julian Romero, Heather Bradshaw, Melanie Kelly, Alex Straiker
The cannabinoid receptor CB2 plays a significant role in the regulation of immune function whereas neuronal expression remains a subject of contention. Multiple studies have described CB2 in retina and a recent study showed that CB2 deletion altered retinal visual processing. We revisited CB2 expression using immunohistochemistry and a recently developed CB2-eGFP reporter mouse. We examined the consequence of acute vs. prolonged CB2 deactivation on the electroretinogram (ERG) responses. We also examined lipidomics in CB2 knockout mice and potential changes in microglia using Scholl analysis...
August 16, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Evan L Nichols, Lauren A Green, Cody J Smith
BACKGROUND: Glial cell ensheathment of specific components of neuronal circuits is essential for nervous system function. Although ensheathment of axonal segments of differentiated neurons has been investigated, ensheathment of neuronal cell somas, especially during early development when neurons are extending processes and progenitor populations are expanding, is still largely unknown. METHODS: To address this, we used time-lapse imaging in zebrafish during the initial formation of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
August 18, 2018: Neural Development
Jade B Jackson, Alexandra Woolgar
Our ability to flexibly switch between different tasks is a key component of cognitive control. Non-human primate (NHP) studies (e.g., Freedman, Riesenhuber, Poggio, & Miller, 2001) have shown that prefrontal neurons are re-used across tasks, re-configuring their responses to code currently relevant information. In a similar vein, in the human brain, the "multiple demand" (MD) system is suggested to exert control by adjusting its responses, selectively processing information in line with our current goals (Duncan, 2010)...
July 25, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Tomer Fekete, David B Omer, Kazunori O'Hashi, Amiram Grinvald, Cees van Leeuwen, Oren Shriki
Critical dynamics are thought to play an important role in neuronal information-processing: near critical networks exhibit neuronal avalanches, cascades of spatiotemporal activity that are scale-free, and are considered to enhance information capacity and transfer. However, the exact relationship between criticality, awareness, and information integration remains unclear. To characterize this relationship, we applied multi-scale avalanche analysis to voltage-sensitive dye imaging data collected from animals of various species under different anesthetics...
August 15, 2018: NeuroImage
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