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Juan Ignacio Muñoz-Manco, Johanna Andrea Gutiérrez-Vargas, Gloria Patricia Cardona-Gómez
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral ischemia is the third cause of death risk in Colombia and the first cause of physical disability worldwide. Different studies on the silencing of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) have shown that reducing its activity is beneficial in ischemic contexts. However, its effect on neural cell production after cerebral ischemia has not been well studied yet. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate CDK5 silencing on the production of neurons and astrocytes after a focal cerebral ischemia in rats...
September 1, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Hui Ye, Xiang-Yu Cui, Hui Ding, Su-Ying Cui, Xiao Hu, Yu-Tong Liu, Hui-Ling Zhao, Yong-He Zhang
Background: Previous anatomical and behavioral studies have shown that melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is involved in the modulation of emotional states. However, little is known about brain regions other than the dorsal raphe nucleus that relate the MCH-ergic system to depressive states. Numerous studies have shown that the locus coeruleus (LC) is involved in the regulation of depression and sleep. Although direct physiological evidence is lacking, previous studies suggest that MCH release in the LC decreases neuronal discharge...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Mattéa J Finelli, Davide Aprile, Enrico Castroflorio, Alexander Jeans, Matteo Moschetta, Lauren Chessum, Matteo T Degiacomi, Julia Grasegger, Alexis Lupien-Meilleur, Andrew Bassett, Elsa Rossignol, Philippe M Campeau, Michael R Bowl, Fabio Benfenati, Anna Fassio, Peter L Oliver
Mutations in the Tre2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC)1 domain family member 24 (TBC1D24) gene are associated with a range of inherited neurological disorders, from drug-refractory lethal epileptic encephalopathy and DOORS syndrome (Deafness, Onychodystrophy, Osteodystrophy, mental Retardation, Seizures) to non-syndromic hearing loss. TBC1D24 has been implicated in neuronal transmission and maturation, although the molecular function of the gene and the cause of the apparently complex disease spectrum remain unclear. Importantly, heterozygous TBC1D24 mutation carriers have also been reported with seizures, suggesting that haploinsufficiency for TBC1D24 is significant clinically...
October 17, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Juan Roa, Manuel Tena-Sempere
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2018: Endocrinology
R N Mustafin, R F Enikeeva, S B Malykh, R G Valinurov, E K Khusnutdinova
Molecular genetic studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have demonstrated the involvement of multiple genes in the etiology of ADHD. A polygenic hypothesis of the etiopathogenesis was formulated without clear knowledge of common mechanisms of ADHD development. Twin, family and adoption studies have established the heritability of 70-80% for ADHD. Association studies have shown the relationship between ADHD and genes of dopaminergic (DRD4, DRD5, SLC6A3), serotoninergic (HTR1B, 5-HTTLPR), glutamatergic (mGluR, NDRG2) systems, metabolic pathways (SLC2A3, SLC6A4, CDH13, CFOD1, GFOD1), membrane proteins (KChIP1, ITGA1, SNAP-25) as well as tumour-suppressor (NDRG2, NF1) and cytokine genes...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
O V Kurushina, V V Myroshnikova, P S Krivonozhkina
The familial form of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (ffCJD) refers to a group of rare and severe neurodegenerative diseases associated with pathologic prion protein accumulation. The cause of disease is genetically determined. The disease has a continuously progressive course leading to death in 100% of cases. The symptoms of dementia dominate in the clinical picture. The authors describe a clinical case of subacute dementia in a 32-year-old patient. The disease had a progressive course. A preliminary diagnosis of ffCJD was established after neurological, psychiatric, genetic examinations and dynamic observation...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
I V Ekimova, A R Gazizova, M N Karpenko, D V Plaksina
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of incurable socially significant diseases. Success in the PD treatment is associated with the development of the technology of preclinical diagnosis and neuroprotective treatment of the disease. In the experimental model of the preclinical PD stage in rats created by intranasal administration of the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin, signs of depression as an anhedonia symptom were detected for the first time. Anhedonia was combined with the death of about one third of dopamine (DA)-ergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain and their axons in the ventral striatum; and a decrease of dopamine concentration in the ventral striatum (by 40%) and the tyrosine hydroxylase level in surviving DA-ergic neurons...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
N N Lebedeva, E D Karimova, S E Burkitbaev, V Yu Maltsev, A B Guekht
AIM: To reveal EEG patterns and activation of neural network changes during perception and realization of a simple motor act in healthy subjects and patients with affective disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The patient group consisted of 15 people with affective disorders, the control group included 11 normals. As task subjects were asked to observe the movement of the experimenter hand (clenching of the hand), then submit this motion and then repeat it by themselves...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Ciaran S Hill, David K Menon, Michael P Coleman
The antiapoptotic, neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 reduces neurological deficits when administered to murine in-vivo models of traumatic brain injury. P7C3-A20 is thought to exert its activity through small-molecule activation of the enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase. This enzyme converts nicotinamide to nicotinamide mononucleotide, the precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthesis. Alterations to this bioenergetic pathway have been shown to induce Wallerian degeneration (WD) of the distal neurite following injury...
October 16, 2018: Neuroreport
Hwayoung Choi, Kyung-Jin You, Nitish V Thakor, Marc H Schieber, Hyun-Chool Shin
In this paper, we investigate the relationship between single and multi-finger movements. By exploiting the neural correlation between the temporal firing patterns between movements, we show that the Pearson's correlation coefficient for the physically related movement pairs are greater than those of others; the firing rates of the neurons that are tuned to a single-finger movements also increases when the corresponding multi-finger movements are instructed. We also use a hierarchical cluster analysis to verify not only the relationship between the single and multi-finger movements, but also the relationship between the flexion and extension movements...
October 12, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Qiaoli Huang, Jianrong Jia, Qiming Han, Huan Luo
Storing temporal sequences of events (i.e., sequence memory) is fundamental to many cognitive functions. However, how the sequence order information is maintained and represented in working memory and its behavioral significance, particularly in human subjects, remains unknown. Here, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) in combination with a temporal response function (TRF) method to dissociate item-specific neuronal reactivations. We demonstrate that serially remembered items are successively reactivated during memory retention...
October 18, 2018: ELife
Yuichiro Fukumoto, Kenji F Tanaka, Bijay Parajuli, Keisuke Shibata, Hideyuki Yoshioka, Kazuya Kanemaru, Christian Gachet, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Schuichi Koizumi, Hiroyuki Kinouchi
Extracellular ATP, which is released from damaged cells after ischemia, activates P2 receptors. P2Y1 receptors (P2Y1 R) have received considerable attention, especially in astrocytes, because their activation plays a central role in the regulation of neuron-to-glia communication. However, the functions or even existence of P2Y1 R in microglia remain unknown, despite the fact that many microglial P2 receptors are involved in several brain diseases. Herein, we demonstrate the presence and functional capability of microglial P2Y1 R to provide neuroprotective effects following ischemic stress...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Mathieu Di Miceli, Adesina Omoloye, Benjamin Gronier
BACKGROUND: Psychostimulants like methylphenidate or D-amphetamine are often prescribed for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders in children. Whether such drugs can be administered into a developing brain without consequences in adulthood is still an open question. METHODS: Here, using in vivo extracellular electrophysiology in anesthetised preparations, combined with behavioural assays, we have examined the long-term consequences in adulthood of a chronic methylphenidate oral administration (5 mg/kg/day, 15 days) in early adolescent (post-natal day 28) and late adolescent (post-natal day 42) rats, by evaluating body weight change, sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia), locomotor sensitivity to D-amphetamine and electrical activities of ventral tegmental area dopamine and dorsal raphe nucleus serotonin neurons...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Gina Hadley, Daniel J Beard, Yvonne Couch, Ain A Neuhaus, Bryan A Adriaanse, Gabriele C DeLuca, Brad A Sutherland, Alastair M Buchan
The significant morbidity that accompanies stroke makes it one of the world's most devastating neurological disorders. Currently, proven effective therapies have been limited to thrombolysis and thrombectomy. The window for the administration of these therapies is narrow, hampered by the necessity of rapidly imaging patients. A therapy that could extend this window by protecting neurons may improve outcome. Endogenous neuroprotection has been shown to be, in part, due to changes in mTOR signalling pathways and the instigation of productive autophagy...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Xianmin Kong, Shanshan Tian, Tao Chen, Yinghui Huang
The design of pattern that limit the hippocampal cells growth is an important explore for realizing a simplified artificial neuronal network in vitro. In this study, we examined the pattern in micro-fluidic chip to stipulate the hippocampal cells adhesion, growth and the formation of a functional neuronal network in vitro. Patch clamp recording technique was used to detect the growth situation and biological function of the haippocampal cells on the micro-fluidic chip which could simulate environment in vivo...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
İsmail Ünal, Ünsal V Üstündağ, Perihan S Ateş, Gizem Eğilmezer, Ahmet A Alturfan, Türkan Yiğitbaşı, Ebru Emekli-Alturfan
Rotenone is a commonly used pesticide that inhibits complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport system. Rotenone exposed rats demonstrate many characteristics of Parkinson Disease (PD). Oxidative stress is one of the hallmarks of PD, being the major sources of ROS in the DA neurons. In recent years the strong connection between the intestinal environment and the function of the central nervous system (CNS) has gained widespread popularity. In order to explain the mechanism underlying the GI dysfunction in PD, we aimed to investigate oxidant-antioxidant status in the brain and intestine, as well as locomotor activity, in rotenone exposed zebrafish...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Etienne Desrochers, Jonathan Harnie, Adam Doelman, Marie-France Hurteau, Alain Frigon
KEY POINTS: The control of locomotion is thought to be generated by activating groups of muscles that perform similar actions, which are termed muscle synergies. Here, we investigated if muscle synergies are controlled at the level of the spinal cord. We did this by comparing muscle activity in the legs of cats during stepping on a treadmill before and after a complete spinal transection that abolishes commands from the brain. We show that muscle synergies were maintained following spinal transection, validating the concept that muscle synergies for locomotion are primarily controlled by circuits of neurons within the spinal cord...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
George Mihai Nitulescu, Maryna Van De Venter, Georgiana Nitulescu, Anca Ungurianu, Petras Juzenas, Qian Peng, Octavian Tudorel Olaru, Daniela Grădinaru, Aristides Tsatsakis, Dimitris Tsoukalas, Demetrios A Spandidos, Denisa Margina
Protein kinase B (Akt), similar to many other protein kinases, is at the crossroads of cell death and survival, playing a pivotal role in multiple interconnected cell signaling mechanisms implicated in cell metabolism, growth and division, apoptosis suppression and angiogenesis. Akt protein kinase displays important metabolic effects, among which are glucose uptake in muscle and fat cells or the suppression of neuronal cell death. Disruptions in the Akt‑regulated pathways are associated with cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurological diseases...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Yuan Zhou, Li-Li Wen, Han-Dong Wang, Xiao-Ming Zhou, Jiang Fang, Jian-Hong Zhu, Ke Ding
Background: The increasing frequency of explosive injuries has increased interest in blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). Various shock tube models have been used to study bTBI. Mild-to-moderate explosions are often overlooked because of the slow onset or mildness of the symptoms. However, heavy gas cylinders and large volume chambers in the model may increase the complexity and danger. This study sought to design a modified model to explore the effect of moderate explosion on brain injury in mice...
October 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
A F Dawood, M M Sabry, S A Estaphan, E A Mohamed, S F Younes, L A Rashed, A W Elzainy
Apelin, a peptide hormone that has been linked to insulin resistance, obesity and glucose metabolism, coexists with arginine vasopressin (AVP) in hypothalamic magnocellular neurons that control body fluid homeostasis. The significant correlation between serum glucose and serum osmolarity in uncontrolled DM indicates the need for adequate compensation, but how apelin and AVP contribute to this is still unsettled. This study aims to investigate the interaction between apelin and AVP in osmotic regulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore the underlying mechanism...
September 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
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