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Munir A Khan, Jeff Richardson
AIMS: This paper investigates the distributional implications for eight population groups of using six different instruments to measure wellbeing and to prioritise access to health services. Specifically, it examines the importance of different physical and psycho-social problems for the scores obtained using each instrument and whether scores differ because of differences in the concept measured by the instrument or because of the instrument's construction. METHODS: Patients with seven chronic conditions and a sample of the 'healthy' public were administered six instruments: two utility instruments; two self-rating scales; a subjective wellbeing instrument and the ICECAP measure of capability...
August 18, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Rui Guo, Wenya Zhang, Ying Yang, Jian Ding, Wenzhi Yang, Yingmei Zhang
Environmental pollution is known to adversely affect amphibian reproduction and survival, however, the knowledge of environmental heavy metal pollution on fitness of male amphibian is largely unknown. The present study aimed to explore the variation in fitness of male Bufo raddei, a widespread anuran in northwest China, subjected to long-term heavy metal stress in Baiyin (BY) city. BY is heavily polluted by heavy metals mainly copper, zinc, lead and cadmium; meanwhile, Liujiaxia (LJX), a relatively unpolluted area, was chosen as control...
August 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Reda Ibrahim, Jeremy Ben-Shoshan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Yue Zhao, Jean Andrey, Peter Deadman
INTRODUCTION: Roundabouts, as a form of intersection traffic control, are being constructed increasingly because of their promise to improve both efficiency and safety. However, roundabout performance varies from one context to another; and information on their performance during inclement weather is limited. METHODS: To evaluate the safety effects of converting signal-controlled intersections to modern roundabouts in a region that historically was unfamiliar with this type of traffic control, an empirical Bayes approach was used to analyze...
September 2018: Journal of Safety Research
Shay Rotics, Michael Kaatz, Sondra Turjeman, Damaris Zurell, Martin Wikelski, Nir Sapir, Ute Eggers, Wolfgang Fiedler, Florian Jeltsch, Ran Nathan
1.Early arrival at breeding grounds is of prime importance for migrating birds as it is known to enhance breeding success. Adults, males and higher quality individuals typically arrive earlier, and across years, early arrival has been linked to warmer spring temperatures. However, the mechanisms and potential costs of early arrival are not well understood. 2.To deepen the understanding of arrival date differences between individuals and years, we studied them in light of the preceding spring migration behaviour and atmospheric conditions en route...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Zhisheng Yang, Zonglei Li, Simon Zaslawski, Luc Thévenaz, Marcelo A Soto
The performance of unipolar unicolor coded Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) is evaluated based on both Simplex and Golay codes. Four major detrimental factors that limit the system performance, including decoded-gain trace distortion, coding pulse power non-uniformity, polarization pulling and higher-order non-local effects, are thoroughly investigated. Through theoretical analysis and an experimental validations, solutions and optimal design conditions for unipolar unicolor coded BOTDA are clearly established...
June 25, 2018: Optics Express
Jiawen Yang, Zhihong Zhu, Jianfa Zhang, Wei Xu, Chucai Guo, Ken Liu, Mengjian Zhu, Haitao Chen, Renyan Zhang, Xiaodong Yuan, Shiqiao Qin
In general, there is a fundamental trade-off between the operational bandwidth and the attainable absorption. So, obtaining broadband wave absorption of a low reference standard such as 90% is not very difficult. However, when trying to obtain higher absorption such as 99%, the bandwidth will drop dramatically. Here, we demonstrate that broadband near-perfect absorption of over 99% absorption with a 60% relative bandwidth can be obtained utilizing single-layered and nonstructured graphene loaded with periodical dielectric wires...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Stefani Daryanto, Bojie Fu, Wenwu Zhao
With the proliferation of woody plant species in much of the world's grasslands, human has manipulated landscape fire to return their forage provisioning service. Yet other ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, erosion control) in the post-managed areas compared to those previously available in the shrub-encroached area are largely unknown, including trade-offs between ecosystem services. Using data from previous publications, we quantitatively synthesized the sustainability of fire as shrub management practice, expressed as its efficacy to control shrubs and its capacity to maintain different ecosystem services...
August 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yating Hu, Yue Wu, John Wang
Of the transition metals, Mn has the greatest number of different oxides, most of which have a special tunnel structure that enables bulk redox reactions. The high theoretical capacitance and capacity results from a greater number of accessible oxidation states than other transition metals, wide potential window, and the high natural abundance make MnOx species promising electrode materials for energy storage applications. Although MnOx electrode materials have been intensely studied over the past decade, their electrochemical performance is still insufficient for practical applications...
August 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
H Dittberner, A Korte, T Mettler-Altmann, A P M Weber, G Monroe, J de Meaux
Stomata control gas exchanges between the plant and the atmosphere. How natural variation in stomata size and density contributes to resolve trade-offs between carbon uptake and water-loss in response to local climatic variation is not yet understood. We developed an automated confocal microscopy approach to characterize natural genetic variation in stomatal patterning in 330 fully-sequenced Arabidopsis thaliana accessions collected throughout the European range of the species. We compared this to variation in water-use efficiency, measured as carbon isotope discrimination (δ13 C)...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Louis Begel, Tigran Galstian
We propose a simple technique allowing the correction of the inherent wavefront asymmetry in electrically variable liquid crystal lenses with relatively small diameters. This is achieved by splitting the peripheral hole patterned electrode of the lens in the direction of the ground-state anisotropy axis. Optical aberrations are measured before and after the split. It is demonstrated that a significant correction is achieved with a trade-off of trefoil increase in the direction of the split. This increase is then eliminated by the further segmentation of the peripheral electrode...
June 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Yi Guo, Minghao Sun, Hongqing Liang, Wen Ying, Xianqing Zeng, Yulong Ying, Shudong Zhou, Chengdu Liang, Zhan Lin, Xinsheng Peng
Minimizing the shuttle effect of polysulfides is crucial for practical application of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. However, the trade-off between effective suppression of the shuttle effect and fast redox reaction kinetics is inevitable for separator-based Li-S batteries. Herein, via a self-confined solid-conversion process, we develop a polystyrene sulfonate threaded well-intergrown HKUST-1 (Cu3(BTC)2) coated Celgard separator (PSS@HKUST-1/Celgard, PHC) for high performance Li-S batteries. The PHC membrane favors the interception and accommodation of long-chain polysulfides...
August 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Farnoush Farahpour, Mohammadkarim Saeedghalati, Verena Brauer, Daniel Hoffmann
We introduce an Interaction- and Trade-off-based Eco-Evolutionary Model (ITEEM), in which species are competing in a well-mixed system, and their evolution in interaction trait space is subject to a life-history trade-off between replication rate and competitive ability. We demonstrate that the shape of the trade-off has a fundamental impact on eco-evolutionary dynamics, as it imposes four phases of diversity, including a sharp phase transition. Despite its minimalism, ITEEM produces a remarkable range of patterns of eco-evolutionary dynamics that are observed in experimental and natural systems...
August 17, 2018: ELife
Yujin Chen, Ruizhi Chen, Mengyun Liu, Aoran Xiao, Dewen Wu, Shuheng Zhao
Indoor localization is one of the fundamentals of location-based services (LBS) such as seamless indoor and outdoor navigation, location-based precision marketing, spatial cognition of robotics, etc. Visual features take up a dominant part of the information that helps human and robotics understand the environment, and many visual localization systems have been proposed. However, the problem of indoor visual localization has not been well settled due to the tough trade-off of accuracy and cost. To better address this problem, a localization method based on image retrieval is proposed in this paper, which mainly consists of two parts...
August 16, 2018: Sensors
Rubab Amin, Jacob B Khurgin, Volker J Sorger
Electro-optic modulators perform a key function for data processing and communication. Rapid growth in data volume and increasing bits per second rates demand increased transmitter and thus modulator performance. Recent years have seen the introduction of new materials and modulator designs to include polaritonic optical modes aimed at achieving advanced performance in terms of speed, energy efficiency, and footprint. Such ad hoc modulator designs, however, leave a universal design for these novel material classes of devices missing...
June 11, 2018: Optics Express
Shay Elmalem, Raja Giryes, Emanuel Marom
Modern consumer electronics market dictates the need for small-scale and high-performance cameras. Such designs involve trade-offs between various system parameters. In such trade-offs, Depth Of Field (DOF) is a significant issue very often. We propose a computational imaging-based technique to overcome DOF limitations. Our approach is based on the synergy between a simple phase aperture coding element and a convolutional neural network (CNN). The phase element, designed for DOF extension using color diversity in the imaging system response, causes chromatic variations by creating a different defocus blur for each color channel of the image...
June 11, 2018: Optics Express
Yang Yue, Qiang Wang, Jon Anderson
Residual IQ skew in a coherent transmitter severely degrades the performance of long-haul coherent optical communication systems. The impairment is particularly detrimental for a high baud-rate system using quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Furthermore, Nyquist pulse shaping increases the spectral efficiency for WDM systems. However, sharp roll-off of Nyquist pulse shaping further reduces the tolerance to residual IQ skew. Thus, certain trade-offs between spectral efficiency and roll-off factor should be made to improve the tolerance of residual IQ skew...
June 11, 2018: Optics Express
Wenping Cui, Pankaj Mehta
In the immune system, T cells can quickly discriminate between foreign and self ligands with high accuracy. There is evidence that T-cells achieve this remarkable performance utilizing a network architecture based on a generalization of kinetic proofreading (KPR). KPR-based mechanisms actively consume energy to increase the specificity beyond what is possible in equilibrium. An important theoretical question that arises is to understand the trade-offs and fundamental limits on accuracy, speed, and dissipation (energy consumption) in KPR and its generalization...
2018: PloS One
Luiza Rodrigues Alves Abreu, Virgínia Mara Pereira Ribeiro, Gabriela Canabrava Gouveia, Eduardo Penteado Cardoso, Fabio Luiz Buranelo Toral
The knowledge of genetic trends and trade-offs between growth and reproductive traits might be useful to understand the evolution of these traits in livestock and natural populations of animals. We estimated the genetic trends and trade-offs between pre-weaning growth and calving intervals of Nellore animals from a commercial farm. Two-trait animal models were used to estimate covariance components and breeding values (EBV) for direct and maternal genetic effects of pre-weaning growth and direct genetic effects of calving intervals...
2018: PloS One
Sang-Hoon Lee, Jung-Yong Lee
In this study, we report a homo-tandem structure of small molecular organic solar cells (SMOSCs) using identical single-junction devices as sub-cells. The trade-off between the absorption and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of single-junction devices tends to limit the external quantum efficiency (EQE). However, multiple-stacked thin cells with maximized IQE in homo-tandem structures amplify the absorption to achieve the ideal EQE. As a result, a high power conversion efficiency of 7.81% is achieved in tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP):C70 -based homo-tandem SMOSCs, which is 21...
July 9, 2018: Optics Express
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