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trade- off

Haomin Song, Wei Wu, Jian-Wei Liang, Partha Maity, Yuying Shu, Nam Sun Wang, Omar F Mohammed, Boon S Ooi, Qiaoqiang Gan, Dongxia Liu
Photocatalytic CO2 reduction with water to hydrocarbons represents a viable and sustainable process toward greenhouse gas reduction and fuel/chemical production. Development of more efficient catalysts is the key to mitigate the limits in photocatalytic processes. Here, a novel ultrathin-film photocatalytic light absorber (UFPLA) with TiO2 films to design efficient photocatalytic CO2 conversion processes is created. The UFPLA structure conquers the intrinsic trade-off between optical absorption and charge carrier extraction efficiency, that is, a solar absorber should be thick enough to absorb majority of the light allowable by its bandgap but thin enough to allow charge carrier extraction for reactions...
November 2018: Global Challenges
Elisabet Lindgren, Francesca Harris, Alan D Dangour, Alexandros Gasparatos, Michikazu Hiramatsu, Firouzeh Javadi, Brent Loken, Takahiro Murakami, Pauline Scheelbeek, Andy Haines
Malnutrition in all forms, ranging from undernourishment to obesity and associated diet-related diseases, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, while food systems often have major environmental impacts. Rapid global population growth and increases in demands for food and changes in dietary habits create challenges to provide universal access to healthy food without creating negative environmental, economic, and social impacts. This article discusses opportunities for and challenges to sustainable food systems from a human health perspective by making the case for avoiding the transition to unhealthy less sustainable diets (using India as an exemplar), reducing food waste by changing consumer behaviour (with examples from Japan), and using innovations and new technologies to reduce the environmental impact of healthy food production...
2018: Sustainability science
Måns Nilsson, Elinor Chisholm, David Griggs, Philippa Howden-Chapman, David McCollum, Peter Messerli, Barbara Neumann, Anne-Sophie Stevance, Martin Visbeck, Mark Stafford-Smith
Pursuing integrated research and decision-making to advance action on the sustainable development goals (SDGs) fundamentally depends on understanding interactions between the SDGs, both negative ones ("trade-offs") and positive ones ("co-benefits"). This quest, triggered by the 2030 Agenda, has however pointed to a gap in current research and policy analysis regarding how to think systematically about interactions across the SDGs. This paper synthesizes experiences and insights from the application of a new conceptual framework for mapping and assessing SDG interactions using a defined typology and characterization approach...
2018: Sustainability science
Burcu Beykal, Fani Boukouvala, Christodoulos A Floudas, Efstratios N Pistikopoulos
The (global) optimization of energy systems, commonly characterized by high-fidelity and large-scale complex models, poses a formidable challenge partially due to the high noise and/or computational expense associated with the calculation of derivatives. This complexity is further amplified in the presence of multiple conflicting objectives, for which the goal is to generate trade-off compromise solutions, commonly known as Pareto-optimal solutions. We have previously introduced the p-ARGONAUT system, parallel AlgoRithms for Global Optimization of coNstrAined grey-box compUTational problems, which is designed to optimize general constrained single objective grey-box problems by postulating accurate and tractable surrogate formulations for all unknown equations in a computationally efficient manner...
August 4, 2018: Computers & Chemical Engineering
Konstantinos C Koskinas, Gjin Ndrepepa, Lorenz Räber, Alexios Karagiannis, Sebastian Kufner, Thomas Zanchin, Julia Hieber, Lukas Hunziker, Katharina Mayer, Robert A Byrne, Dik Heg, Stephan Windecker, Adnan Kastrati
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of prognostically relevant myocardial injury after percutaneous coronary interventions remains poorly defined. The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) proposed marked biomarker elevations to define periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI). These consensus-based thresholds have not been validated in the era of high-sensitivity cardiac troponins. We sought to assess the prognostic impact of SCAI-defined PMI and explore optimal prognostic thresholds of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) after elective percutaneous coronary interventions...
December 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
Xiaolin Fang, Ming Yang, Wenjia Wu
Security is a critical concern in low-power IoT (Internet of Things) wireless sensors because these resource constrained devices are easy to attack and meanwhile the energy constraint sensors will consume a lot of energy to run algorithms for security purposes. We study the energy efficiency data transmission problem in IoT sensors that use capacitors to harvest wireless energy while considering the energy cost for running security algorithms. Energy harvesting with capacitors has the characteristic that the energy harvesting rate varies over time, and it is getting slower and slower as the capacitor gets more and more wireless energy...
December 12, 2018: Sensors
Sérgio Sabino, Nuno Horta, António Grilo
In the past, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) were mostly used in military operations to prevent pilot losses. Nowadays, the fast technological evolution has enabled the production of a class of cost-effective UAVs that can service a plethora of public and civilian applications, especially when configured to work cooperatively to accomplish a task. However, designing a communication network among the UAVs is a challenging task. In this article, we propose a centralized UAV placement strategy, where UAVs are used as flying access points forming a mesh network, providing connectivity to ground nodes deployed in a target area...
December 11, 2018: Sensors
Jian Li, Lu Liu, Hao Hu, Qiuhong Zhao, Libin Guo
Inventory management of deteriorating drugs has attracted considerable attention recently in hospitals. Drugs are a kind of special product. Two characteristics of some drugs are the shorter shelf life and high service level. This causes hospitals a great deal of difficulty in inventory management of perishable drugs. On one hand, hospitals should increase the drug inventory to achieve a higher service level. On the other hand, hospitals should decrease the drug inventory because of the short shelf life of drugs...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Patrick S Hogan, Joseph K Galaro, Vikram S Chib
The perceived effort level of an action shapes everyday decisions. Despite the importance of these perceptions for decision-making, the behavioral and neural representations of the subjective cost of effort are not well understood. While a number of studies have implicated anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in decisions about effort/reward trade-offs, none have experimentally isolated effort valuation from reward and choice difficulty, a function that is commonly ascribed to this region. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to monitor brain activity while human participants engaged in uncertain choices for prospective physical effort...
December 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Asko Lõhmus, Piret Lõhmus, Kadri Runnel
Finding standard cost-effective methods for monitoring biodiversity is challenging due to trade-offs between survey costs (including expertise), specificity, and range of applicability. These trade-offs cause a lack of comparability among datasets collected by ecologists and conservationists, which is most regrettable in taxonomically demanding work on megadiverse inconspicuous taxon groups. We have developed a site-scale survey method for diverse sessile land organisms, which can be analyzed over multiple scales and linked with ecological insights and management...
2018: PloS One
Ilona Nenko, Adam D Hayward, Mirre J P Simons, Virpi Lummaa
Reproduction is predicted to trade-off with long-term maternal survival, but the survival costs often vary between individuals, cohorts and populations, limiting our understanding of this trade-off, which is central to life-history theory. One potential factor generating variation in reproductive costs is variation in developmental conditions, but the role of early-life environment in modifying the reproduction-survival trade-off has rarely been investigated. We quantified the effect of early-life environment on the trade-off between female reproduction and survival in pre-industrial humans by analysing individual-based life-history data for >80 birth cohorts collected from Finnish church records, and between-year variation in local crop yields, annual spring temperature, and infant mortality as proxies of early-life environment...
2018: PloS One
Peng Jin, Susana Agustí
Ocean warming with climate change is forcing marine organisms to shift their distributions polewards and phenology. In warm tropical seas, evolutionary adaptation by local species to warming will be crucial to avoid predicted desertification and reduction in diversity. However, little is known about the adaptation of phytoplankton in warm seas. Across the ocean, diatomic microalgae are the main primary producers in cold waters; they also contribute to tropical communities where they play a necessary role in the biological pump...
December 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Guillermo Navalón, Jen A Bright, Jesús Marugán-Lobón, Emily J Rayfield
Extensive research on avian adaptive radiations has led to a presumption that beak morphology predicts feeding ecology in birds. However, this ecomorphological relationship has only been quantified in a handful of avian lineages, where associations are of variable strength, and never at a broad macroevolutionary scale. Here, we used shape analysis and phylogenetic comparative methods to quantify the relationships between beak shape, mechanical advantage, and two measures of feeding ecology (feeding behaviour and semi-quantitative dietary preferences) in a broad sample of modern birds, comprising most living orders...
December 8, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Asrul Akmal Shafie, Annushiah Vasan Thakumar, Ching Jou Lim, Nan Luo, Kim Rand-Hendriksen, Faridah Aryani Md Yusof
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop an EQ-5D-5L value set reflecting the health preferences of the Malaysian adult population. METHODS: Respondents were sampled with quotas for urbanicity, gender, age, and ethnicity to ensure representativeness of the Malaysian population. The study was conducted using a standardized protocol involving the EuroQol Valuation Technology (EQ-VT) computer-assisted interview system. Respondents were administered ten composite time trade-off (C-TTO) tasks and seven discrete choice experiment (DCE) tasks...
December 11, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Acampa Wanda, Capussela Tiziana, Cuocolo Alberto, Di Lillo Francesca, Punzo Giorgio, Quarto Maria, Roberti Giuseppe, Russo Paolo, Serra Marcello
In this work, we evaluated the performance of the prototype SFOV MediPROBE developed at the University of Naples Federico II through the protocol proposed by (Bhatia B.S., Bugby S.L., Lees J.E., Perkins A.C. A scheme for assessing the performance characteristics of a small field of-view gamma cameras. Physica. Medica., 31 (1), pp. 98-103. (2015) doi: 10.1016/j.ejmp.2014.08.004). We extensively investigated a new device configuration where the pinhole collimator was placed outside the housing of the probe, in order to increase the system spatial resolution, and the pixel size was doubled, in order to reduce the charge sharing effect...
December 11, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Adrian Brückner, Romina Schuster, Katja Wehner, Michael Heethoff
Background: Trait based functional and community ecology is en vogue . Most studies, however, ignore phenotypical diversity by characterizing entire species considering only trait means rather than their variability. Phenotypical variability may arise from genotypical differences or from ecological factors (e.g., nutritionally imbalanced diet), and these causes can usually not be separated in natural populations. We used a single genotype from a parthenogenetic model system (the oribatid mite Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki) to exclude genotypical differences...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Shreyas Gokhale, Arolyn Conwill, Tanvi Ranjan, Jeff Gore
Migration influences population dynamics on networks, thereby playing a vital role in scenarios ranging from species extinction to epidemic propagation. While low migration rates prevent local populations from becoming extinct, high migration rates enhance the risk of global extinction by synchronizing the dynamics of connected populations. Here, we investigate this trade-off using two mutualistic strains of E. coli that exhibit population oscillations when co-cultured. In experiments, as well as in simulations using a mechanistic model, we observe that high migration rates lead to synchronization whereas intermediate migration rates perturb the oscillations and change their period...
December 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Audrey Durand, Theresa Wiesner, Marc-André Gardner, Louis-Émile Robitaille, Anthony Bilodeau, Christian Gagné, Paul De Koninck, Flavie Lavoie-Cardinal
Traditional approaches for finding well-performing parameterizations of complex imaging systems, such as super-resolution microscopes rely on an extensive exploration phase over the illumination and acquisition settings, prior to the imaging task. This strategy suffers from several issues: it requires a large amount of parameter configurations to be evaluated, it leads to discrepancies between well-performing parameters in the exploration phase and imaging task, and it results in a waste of time and resources given that optimization and final imaging tasks are conducted separately...
December 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Martin Keller, Yves-Alain Kuhn, Fabian Lüthy, Wolfgang Taube
Keller, M, Kuhn, YA, Lüthy, F, and Taube, W. How to serve faster in tennis: the influence of an altered focus of attention and augmented feedback on service speed in elite players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Different approaches, such as providing augmented feedback (AF) or adopting an external focus of attention (EF), have been shown to directly enhance performance in recreational athletes. Furthermore, research has shown that combining AF with EF (AF + EF) results in superior performance compared to AF and EF alone...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Haoran Yu, Paul A Dalby
The directed evolution of enzymes for improved activity or substrate specificity commonly leads to a trade-off in stability. We have identified an activity-stability trade-off and a loss in unfolding cooperativity for a variant (3M) of Escherichia coli transketolase (TK) engineered to accept aromatic substrates. Molecular dynamics simulations of 3M revealed increased flexibility in several interconnected active-site regions that also form part of the dimer interface. Mutating the newly flexible active-site residues to regain stability risked losing the new activity...
December 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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