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Fernanda Wirth, Maria Isabel Azevedo, Luciano Z Goldani
There are limited data on the molecular epidemiology of cryptococcosis in Brazil. Here, we report on the identification of the molecular pattern of the Cryptococcus species that caused meningitis in patients admitted in a Brazilian reference tertiary care hospital, and review the published studies addressing the molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus in Brazil. Our study has shown the predominance of molecular type VNII in predominantly HIV-infected patients with meningoencephalitis admitted to a tertiary care hospital in the southern area of Brazil...
November 30, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Laura Friggeri, Tatiana Y Hargrove, Girish Rachakonda, Anna L Blobaum, Paxtyn Fisher, Gabriel Melo de Oliveira, Cristiane França da Silva, Maria de Nazaré Correia Soeiro, W David Nes, Craig W Lindsley, Fernando Villalta, F Peter Guengerich, Galina I Lepesheva
Sterol 14α-demethylases (CYP51) are the cytochrome P450 enzymes essential for sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes and therapeutic targets for antifungal azoles. Multiple attempts to repurpose antifungals for treatment of human infections with protozoa (Trypanosomatidae) have been undertaken, yet so far none of them revealed sufficient efficacy. VNI and its derivative VFV are two potent experimental inhibitors of Trypanosomatidae CYP51, effective in vivo against Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis, and sleeping sickness and currently under consideration as antiprotozoal drug candidates...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Lumena P Machado Siqueira, Viviane M Favero Gimenes, Roseli Santos de Freitas, Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Lucas Xavier Bonfietti, Afonso Rafael da Silva, Letícia B Souza Santos, Adriana L Motta, Flavia Rossi, Gil Benard, João N de Almeida
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main pathogenic species of invasive cryptococcosis among the Cryptococcus species. Taxonomic studies have shown that these two taxa have different genotypes or molecular types with biological and eco-epidemiological peculiarities. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) has been proposed as an alternative method for labor-intensive methods for C. neoformans and C. gattii genotypes differentiation. However, Vitek MS™, one of the commercial MALDI-TOF MS instruments, has not been yet been evaluated for this purpose...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Kamthorn Yolsuriyanwong, Eric Marcotte, Mukund Venu, Bipan Chand
BACKGROUND: Thoracic and foregut operations can cause vagal nerve injury resulting in delayed gastric emptying or gastroparesis. However, the cause of gastroparesis in these patients is not always from a vagal injury. We hypothesize that vagal nerve integrity (VNI) testing may better define who has vagal nerve dysfunction. This information may change subsequent operations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of VNI testing in patients with prior thoracic or gastric surgery...
October 25, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
K Pakshir, H Fakhim, A Vaezi, J F Meis, M Mahmoodi, K Zomorodian, J Javidnia, S Ansari, F Hagen, H Badali
OBJECTIVE: Cryptococcosis is a major opportunistic fungal infection caused by members of the genus Cryptococcus, mainly those belonging to the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complexes. Here, we report a comprehensive molecular epidemiological study of the environmental distribution of Cryptococcus isolates in Shiraz, Iran with review of litreature. METHOD: A total of 406 samples were obtained from Eucalyptus trees and 139 samples from pigeon droppings...
October 12, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Qinqin Yuan, Jumei Zhang, Jinghan Zou, Hongjun Fan, Ling Jiang, Hua Xie
Mass-selected heteronuclear vanadium-nickel carbonyl anions VNi(CO) n - ( n = 2-6) were investigated by photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations to obtain their chemical bonding and intrinsic electronic structure in the gas phase. The calculated energies (adiabatic detachment energies)/vertical detachment energies (VDEs) match well with experimental values: 1.30/1.49, 1.66/1.95, 2.22/2.48, 2.70/2.89, and 2.95/3.15 eV. The VDE value of VNi(CO) n - increases with an increase of cluster size, implying that the negative electron is stabilized upon the bonding of CO molecules...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Cristian Anacona, Fabiola E González C, Luis Reinel Vásquez-A, Patricia Escandón
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is a systemic opportunistic mycosis, caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, which affects mainly the central nervous system of immunocompromised patients; no reports have been made on the isolation of the fungus from the environment of Popayán, Colombia. AIMS: The main objective of this investigation was to determinate the incidence of C. neoformans in the urban perimeter in the City of Popayán, Colombia. METHODS: A total of 303 samples from droppings of Columba livia and Bubulcus ibis were collected between September 2012 and June 2013...
July 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Joslaine de Oliveira Nunes, Rosianne Assis de Sousa Tsujisaki, Maína de Oliveira Nunes, Gláucia Moreira Espíndola Lima, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury Pontes, Marilene Rodrigues Chang
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to describe cryptococcal meningitis (CM) cases and the associated demographic, clinical, and microbiological data obtained from cities in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul in the Midwestern region of Brazil. METHODS: The data from 129 patients with laboratory-confirmed CM admitted from 1997 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The molecular types of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolated from cerebrospinal fluid were analyzed to determine their geographic distribution...
July 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Laura Friggeri, Tatiana Y Hargrove, Zdzislaw Wawrzak, Anna L Blobaum, Girish Rachakonda, Craig W Lindsley, Fernando Villalta, W David Nes, Maurizio Botta, F Peter Guengerich, Galina I Lepesheva
Because of the increase in the number of immunocompromised patients, the incidence of invasive fungal infections is growing, but the treatment efficiency remains unacceptably low. The most potent clinical systemic antifungals (azoles) are the derivatives of two scaffolds: ketoconazole and fluconazole. Being the safest antifungal drugs, they still have shortcomings, mainly because of pharmacokinetics and resistance. Here, we report the successful use of the target fungal enzyme, sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51), for structure-based design of novel antifungal drug candidates by minor modifications of VNI [( R)- N-(1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1 H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl)-4-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)benzamide)], an inhibitor of protozoan CYP51 that cures Chagas disease...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Diego Fernando Silva Rocha, Katia Santana Cruz, Carla Silvana da Silva Santos, Lizandra Stephanny Fernandes Menescal, João Ricardo da Silva Neto, Silviane Bezerra Pinheiro, Lucyane Mendes Silva, Luciana Trilles, João Vicente Braga de Souza
Cryptococcosis is considered endemic in Amazonas state, occurring more frequently in individuals with AIDS, who are predominantly infected by Cryptococcus neoformans molecular type VNI. Infections by Cryptococcus gattii VGII predominate in immunocompetent hosts from the American continent and are associated with outbreaks in North America, particularly the subtypes VGIIa and VGIIb, which are also present in the Brazilian Amazon region. Despite few environmental studies, several aspects of the molecular epidemiology of this disease in Amazonas remain unclear, including the limited use of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to evaluate the genetic population structure of clinical isolates, mainly C...
2018: PloS One
Massimo Cogliati, Mala Rakoto Andrianarivelo, Mohamed Ellabib, Emmanuel N Nnadi, Muriel Cornet
Prevalence of molecular type VNII among Cryptococcus neoformans species complex is probably underestimated since it can be distinguished from VNI only using molecular typing methods such as URA5-RFLP, AFLP, MLST, or whole genome sequencing. Previously, we described a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method able to identify VNI, VNIV, and VNIII hybrids, but, at that time, VNII molecular type was not described yet. In this study, 16 VNII global isolates were analyzed by our multiplex PCR method, and results showed that it was able to produce a specific pattern for all the studied VNII isolates, which was different from those of VNI, VNIV, and VNIII...
May 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Marina Muñoz, Milena Camargo, Juan D Ramírez
Members of the Cryptococcus complex, includes Cryptococcus neoformans (most common fungal infection of the brain) and Cryptococcus gattii (high-impact emerging pathogen worldwide). Currently, the fungal multilocus sequence typing database (Fungal MLST Database) constitutes a valuable data repository of the genes used for molecular typing of these pathogens. We analyzed the data available in the Fungal MLST Database for seven housekeeping genes, with the aim to evaluate its contribution in the description of intra-taxa diversity, population genetic structure, and evolutionary patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Joudeh B Freij, Man Shun Fu, Carlos M De Leon Rodriguez, Amanda Dziedzic, Anne E Jedlicka, Quigly Dragotakes, Diego C P Rossi, Eric H Jung, Carolina Coelho, Arturo Casadevall
The genus Cryptococcus includes several species pathogenic for humans. Until recently, the two major pathogenic species were recognized to be Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii We compared the interaction of murine macrophages with three C. gattii species complex strains (WM179, R265, and WM161, representing molecular types VGI, VGIIa, and VGIII, respectively) and one C. neoformans species complex strain (H99, molecular type VNI) to ascertain similarities and differences in the yeast intracellular pathogenic strategy...
July 2018: Infection and Immunity
Yanyong Wang, Man Qiao, Yafei Li, Shuangyin Wang
Intrinsically inferior electrocatalytic activity of NiFe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanosheets is considered as a limiting factor to inhibit the electrocatalytic properties for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Proper defect engineering to tune the surface electronic configuration of electrocatalysts may significantly improve the intrinsic activity. In this work, the selective formation of cation vacancies in NiFe LDHs nanosheets is successfully realized. The as-synthesized NiFe LDHs-VFe and NiFe LDHs-VNi electrocatalysts show excellent activity for OER, mainly attributed to the introduction of rich iron or nickel vacancies in NiFe LDHs nanosheets, which efficiently tune the surface electronic structure increasing the adsorbing capacity of OER intermediates...
April 2018: Small
Leonardo Euripedes Andrade-Silva, Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Thatiana Bragine Ferreira, Anderson Vilas-Boas, Delio José Mora, Verônica Morais Manzato, Fernanda Machado Fonseca, Kelli Buosi, Juliana Andrade-Silva, Bruno da Silva Prudente, Natalia Evelyn Araujo, Helioswilton Sales-Campos, Marcus Vinicius da Silva, Virmondes Rodrigues Júnior, Wieland Meyer, Mario Léon Silva-Vergara
Cryptococcal infections are mainly caused by members of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex (molecular types VNI, VNII, VNB, VNIV and the AD hybrid VNIII). PCR of the mating type loci and MLST typing using the ISHAM-MLST consensus scheme were used to evaluate the genetic relationship of 102 (63 clinical and 39 environmental) C. neoformans isolates from Uberaba, Brazil and to correlate the obtained genotypes with clinical, antifungal susceptibility and virulence factor data. All isolates were mating type alpha...
2018: PloS One
Patricia Escandón, Jairo Lizarazo, Clara Inés Agudelo, Elizabeth Castañeda
The passive and voluntary surveillance of cryptococcosis in Colombia since 1997 has seen an increasing participating rate, revealing its importance to both in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent people. The present work details the national data gathered in 1997-2016, through a retrospective analysis of the information collected in the survey. From a total of 1974 cases reported, an overall incidence of 0.23 cases per 100,000 people was found. This incidence rose to 1.1 cases per 1000 people in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) population...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Patricia Fernanda Herkert, Jacques F Meis, Gabriel Lucca de Oliveira Salvador, Renata Rodrigues Gomes, Vania Aparecida Vicente, Marisol Dominguez Muro, Rosangela Lameira Pinheiro, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo, Alexandre Vargas Schwarzbold, Carla Sakuma de Oliveira, Marcelo Simão Ferreira, Flávio Queiroz-Telles, Ferry Hagen
PURPOSE: Cryptococcosis is acquired from the environment by the inhalation of Cryptococcus cells and may establish from an asymptomatic latent infection into pneumonia or meningoencephalitis. The genetic diversity of a Cryptococcus neoformans species complex has been investigated by several molecular tools, such as multi-locus sequence typing, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), restriction fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite analysis. This study aimed to investigate the genotype distributions and antifungal susceptibility profiles of C...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Massimo Cogliati, Anna Prigitano, Maria Carmela Esposto, Luisa Romanò, Anna Grancini, Alberto Zani, Anna Maria Tortorano
In the present study clinical data and isolates from cases of cryptococcosis recorded during clinical surveys carried out in Italy from 1997 to 2016, were investigated. Molecular typing and antifungal susceptibility testing were performed in order to delineate the epidemiological trend of cryptococcosis in Italy and to define wild-type population for four different antifungal compounds. During the studied period, a total of 302 cases collected from 32 centers of 11 Italian regions were recorded. Analysis of clinical data showed a significant increase of frequency (from 7% to 38%) of cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients primarily with hematologic malignancies and solid organ transplantations...
January 23, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Galina Lepesheva, Plamen Christov, Gary A Sulikowski, Kwangho Kim
The study and development of azole-based CYP51 inhibitors is an active area of research across disciplines of biochemistry, pharmacology and infectious disease. Support of in vitro and in vivo studies require the development of robust asymmetric routes to single enantiomer products of this class of compounds. Herein, we describe a scalable and enantioselective synthesis to VNI and VFV, the two potent inhibitors of protozoan sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) that are currently under consideration for clinical trials for Chagas disease...
November 8, 2017: Tetrahedron Letters
Mohamed El Hussein, Vincent Salyers, Joseph Osuji
Nursing students and nurses often struggle with understanding pathophysiology concepts. Seventy-five students participated in two phases of an exploratory study that evaluated knowledge of pathophysiology concepts when taught using an innovation known as "visual narrative illustrations" (VNIs). Students taught using VNIs performed significantly better on a knowledge posttest and commented that the VNI humor and visual images helped them learn complex concepts. Used in combination with other teaching strategies, VNIs enhanced knowledge and understanding of pathophysiology concepts...
March 2018: Nursing Education Perspectives
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