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Synthetic Drugs of Addiction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117325/fetal-death-associated-with-the-use-of-3-4-mdphp-and-%C3%AE-php
#1
Piotr Adamowicz, Piotr Hydzik
INTRODUCTION: The second largest group of new drugs monitored by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is synthetic cathinones. Substances that are controlled by the law are immediately replaced by new uncontrolled derivatives that cause constant and dynamic changes on the drug market. Some of the most recent synthetic cathinones that have appeared on the "legal highs" market are 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (3,4-MDPHP) and α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (α-PHP)...
August 17, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115765/cannabinoid-disruption-of-learning-mechanisms-involved-in-reward-processing
#2
Carl R Lupica, Alexander F Hoffman
The increasing use of cannabis, its derivatives, and synthetic cannabinoids for medicinal and recreational purposes has led to burgeoning interest in understanding the addictive potential of this class of molecules. It is estimated that ∼10% of marijuana users will eventually show signs of dependence on the drug, and the diagnosis of cannabis use disorder (CUD) is increasing in the United States. The molecule that sustains the use of cannabis is Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), and our knowledge of its effects, and those of other cannabinoids on brain function has expanded rapidly in the past two decades...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027157/the-new-classes-of-synthetic-illicit-drugs-can-significantly-harm-the-brain-a-neuro-imaging-perspective-with-full-review-of-mri-findings
#3
S Creagh, D Warden, M A Latif, A Paydar
Synthetic drugs contain substances that are pharmacologically similar to those found in traditional illicit drugs. Some of the most commonly abused synthetic drugs include synthetic marijuana, bath salts, ecstasy, N-bomb, methamphetamine and anabolic steroids. Many of them share the same chemical properties and physiologic responses with the drugs they mimic and may exaggerate the pathologic response in the brain leading to addiction. These drugs have detrimental (and often irreversible) effects on the brain and primarily affect the central nervous system by two mechanisms: 1) Neural hyper stimulation via increasing activation of certain neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin), 2) Cause significant reduction in CNS neural connectivity affecting various brain regions such as the basal ganglia, hippocampus, cerebellum, parietal lobe, and globus pallidus...
2018: Clinical radiology & imaging journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021888/selective-neuronal-silencing-using-synthetic-botulinum-molecules-alleviates-chronic-pain-in-mice
#4
Maria Maiarù, Charlotte Leese, Michelangelo Certo, Irene Echeverria-Altuna, Antonina S Mangione, Jason Arsenault, Bazbek Davletov, Stephen P Hunt
Chronic pain is a widespread debilitating condition affecting millions of people worldwide. Although several pharmacological treatments for relieving chronic pain have been developed, they require frequent chronic administration and are often associated with severe adverse events, including overdose and addiction. Persistent increased sensitization of neuronal subpopulations of the peripheral and central nervous system has been recognized as a central mechanism mediating chronic pain, suggesting that inhibition of specific neuronal subpopulations might produce antinociceptive effects...
July 18, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904327/pregabalin-misuse-and-abuse-in-jordan-a-qualitative-study-of-user-experiences
#5
Amneh Al-Husseini, Mayyada Wazaify, Marie Claire Van Hout
Pregabalin is currently approved for the treatment of epilepsy, generalized anxiety disorder, neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia. A qualitative study was undertaken in Jordan, where concerns have been raised about its unprescribed availability in community pharmacies and thereby its abuse. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all patients with a history of pregabalin use in two Jordanian addiction treatment centers. All were male patients aged 21-30 years ( n  = 11). The majority was poly-drug abusers and had a previous history of substance abuse (tramadol, Captagon, synthetic cannabinoids, and marijuana) ...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782941/dopamine-and-serotonin-metabolism-associated-with-morphine-reward-and-its-inhibition-with-buspirone-a-study-in-the-rat-striatum
#6
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem, Shazia Nawaz, Tabinda Salman
Adaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate nucleus (CN) dopamine neurotransmission are involved in behavioral sensitization and enhanced incentive motivation towards drug paired stimuli which lead to drug addiction. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) can modulate dopamine neurotransmission to reduce rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. A recent study from our laboratory shows that rewarding effects of morphine are inhibited in rats co-treated with buspirone. To understand the neurochemical mechanism involved in morphine addiction and its inhibition with buspirone, present study determines the effects of buspirone, morphine and their co-administration on the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine in the NAc and CN...
July 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778945/self-administration-of-the-synthetic-cathinone-mdpv-enhances-reward-function-via-a-nicotinic-receptor-dependent-mechanism
#7
Jean R Geste, Marjory Pompilus, Marcelo Febo, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is an addictive synthetic drug with severe side effects. Previous studies have shown that MDPV has positive reinforcing properties. However, little is known about the effect of MDPV self-administration on the state of the brain reward system and the neuronal mechanisms by which MDPV mediates its effects. The goal of the present studies was to determine the effect of MDPV self-administration on reward function and the role of cholinergic neurotransmission in the reinforcing effects of MDPV...
July 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773359/-psychoactive-substances-use-in-r%C3%A3-union-island-and-mayotte-french-departments-in-indian-ocean
#8
Amélie Daveluy, Françoise Haramburu
INTRODUCTION: The government plan for the fight against drugs and addictive behaviors 2013-2017 includes several actions concerning French overseas territories, in particular to strengthen information on drug addiction. The Interministerial mission for combating drugs and addictive behaviors (MILD&CA) has commissioned the Bordeaux addictovigilance center to strengthen exchanges on addictovigilance with Réunion Island and Mayotte and to make an inventory of problematic drug use in these two French departments of Indian Ocean...
February 27, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768112/-marvin-the-paranoid-android-the-case-of-an-alpha-pvp-user-in-the-expanding-galaxy-of-nps
#9
Simonato Pierluigi, Bulsis Laura, Negri Attilio, Bansal Gurjeet K, Pessa Gloria, Mioni Davide, Giuseppe Borgherini, Martinotti Giovanni, Schifano Fabrizio, Giulia Perini, Corazza Ornella
Alpha-PVP can be defined as a novel psychoactive substance (NPS)-more specifically, a novel synthetic cathinone with unpredictable stimulant effects in humans. "Marvin" arrived at a Dual Diagnosis Unit at Parco dei Tigli, Italy. He underwent a 30-day rehabilitation program to overcome his problematic Alpha-PVP use as a psychonaut. We conducted an online search to understand the properties of Alpha-PVP and its presence in scientific literature, reviewing official reports and the online drug market (e...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722437/the-opioid-oxycodone-use-dependently-inhibits-the-cardiac-sodium-channel-na-v-1-5
#10
Jannis E Meents, Krisztina Juhasz, Sonja Stölzle-Feix, Vera Peuckmann-Post, Roman Rolke, Angelika Lampert
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Oxycodone is a potent semi-synthetic opioid that is commonly used for the treatment of severe acute and chronic pain. However, treatment with oxycodone can lead to cardiac electrical changes, such as long QT syndrome, potentially inducing sudden cardiac arrest. Here, we investigate whether the cardiac side effects of oxycodone can be explained by modulation of the cardiac Nav 1.5 sodium channel. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Heterologously expressed human Nav 1...
July 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708042/the-epidemiology-of-5-methoxy-n-n-dimethyltryptamine-5-meo-dmt-use-benefits-consequences-patterns-of-use-subjective-effects-and-reasons-for-consumption
#11
Alan K Davis, Joseph P Barsuglia, Rafael Lancelotta, Robert M Grant, Elise Renn
BACKGROUND/AIM: 5-Methoxy- N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a psychoactive compound found in several plants and in high concentrations in Bufo alvarius toad venom. Synthetic, toad, and plant-sourced 5-MeO-DMT are used for spiritual and recreational purposes and may have psychotherapeutic effects. However, the use of 5-MeO-DMT is not well understood. Therefore, we examined patterns of use, motivations for consumption, subjective effects, and potential benefits and consequences associated with 5-MeO-DMT use...
July 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675893/characteristics-of-opioid-maintained-clients-smoking-fentanyl-patches-the-importance-of-confirmatory-drug-analysis-illustrated-by-a-case-series-and-mini-review
#12
Andreas Kimergård, Jacklyn Dunne, Anette Bøgen, Peter Hindersson, Torben Breindahl
The increase in opioid prescribing in many European countries over the last decade has raised concerns about associated diversion, overdose, and mortality. Fentanyl is one of these synthetic opioids that is typically prescribed as a transdermal patch for pain that requires continuous pain relief and has been the focus of investigation due to reports of overdose and death. We report a case series of 14 drug addiction treatment entrants, who entered treatment in a service located in the region of Southern Denmark from August 2015 to December 2015 for smoking fentanyl patches...
June 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567545/a-commentary-on-the-effects-of-methamphetamine-and-the-status-of-methamphetamine-abuse-among-youths-in-south-korea-japan-and-china
#13
REVIEW
Nam Ji Kwon, Eunyoung Han
Methamphetamine (MA) abuse continues in East Asia and shows an increasing trend among youths in South Korea, Japan, and China. Although the negative effects of MA abuse on youth are considered as significant problems, few studies have been conducted on the topic in these countries. This paper focuses on the effects of MA on the human body and current MA abuse among youths in South Korea, Japan, and China. To investigate the negative effects of MA on the human body, we searched the keywords "MA," "human," and "effect" for studies published from 2013 to 2017...
May 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559524/activity-based-detection-of-cannabinoids-in-serum-and-plasma-samples
#14
Annelies Cannaert, Jolien Storme, Cornelius Hess, Volker Auwärter, Sarah M R Wille, Christophe P Stove
BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids are the largest group of new psychoactive substances monitored by the European Monitoring Centre of Drugs and Drug Addiction. The rapid proliferation of novel analogs makes the detection of these new derivatives challenging and has initiated considerable interest in the development of so-called "untargeted" screening strategies to detect these compounds. METHODS: We developed new, stable bioassays in which cannabinoid receptor activation by cannabinoids led to recruitment of truncated β-arrestin 2 (βarr2) to the cannabinoid receptors, resulting in functional complementation of a split luciferase, allowing readout via bioluminescence...
June 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476799/effects-of-rhynchophylline-on-the-hippocampal-mirna-expression-profile-in-ketamine-addicted-rats
#15
Chan Li, Genghong Tu, Chaohua Luo, Youli Guo, Miao Fang, Chen Zhu, Hancheng Li, Jinying Ou, Yuting Zhou, Wei Liu, Ken Kin Lam Yung, Zhixian Mo
In the past few years, ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, has been widely abused worldwide as a new type of synthetic drug, severely affecting the physical and mental health of ketamine abusers. Previous studies have suggested that rhynchophylline can alleviate drug abuse and reverse the conditioned place preference caused by the abuse. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important factors regulating gene expression and are involved in the drug addiction process. The hippocampus is a critical area in the brain involved in causing drug addiction...
August 30, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388323/effects-of-repeated-long-term-psychosocial-stress-and-acute-cannabinoid-exposure-on-mouse-corticostriatal-circuitries-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#16
Jordi Tomas-Roig, Fabiana Piscitelli, Vanesa Gil, Ester Quintana, Lluís L Ramió-Torrentà, Jose Antonio Del Río, Timothy Patrick Moore, Hope Agbemenyah, Gabriela Salinas, Claudia Pommerenke, Stephan Lorenzen, Tim Beißbarth, Sigrid Hoyer-Fender, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke
INTRODUCTION: Vulnerability to psychiatric manifestations is achieved by the influence of genetic and environment including stress and cannabis consumption. Here, we used a psychosocial stress model based on resident-intruder confrontations to study the brain corticostriatal-function, since deregulation of corticostriatal circuitries has been reported in many psychiatric disorders. CB1 receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system and particularly, in both cortex and striatum brain structures...
June 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378213/-ecstasy-to-addiction-mechanisms-and-reinforcing-effects-of-three-synthetic-cathinone-analogs-of-mdma
#17
Sean B Dolan, Zhenglan Chen, Renqi Huang, Michael B Gatch
This study aimed to address the mechanisms and reinforcing effects of three synthetic cathinone analogs of MDMA commonly reported in "Ecstasy" formulations: methylone, butylone, and pentylone. Whole-cell patch clamp techniques were used to assess the mechanism of each compound at the dopamine and serotonin transporters. Separate groups of rats were trained to discriminate methamphetamine, DOM, or MDMA from vehicle. Substitution studies were performed in each group and antagonism studies with SCH23390 were performed against each compound that produced substitution...
May 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376443/old-and-new-synthetic-cannabinoids-lessons-from-animal-models
#18
Mary Tresa Zanda, Liana Fattore
Synthetic cannabinoids have long been studied for their therapeutic potentials. However, during the last decade, new generations of synthetic cannabinoid agonists appeared on the drug market. These new psychoactive substances are currently sold as 'marijuana-like' products as they claim to mimic the effects of the psychoactive component of cannabis, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Yet, their effects are more intense and potent than THC, typically last longer and are often associated to serious psychiatric consequences...
February 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366664/brain-disposition-metabolism-and-behavioral-effects-of-the-synthetic-opioid-ah-7921-in-rats
#19
Jacopo Lucchetti, Claudio M Marzo, Alice Passoni, Federico Moro, Angelo di Clemente, Renzo Bagnati, Luigi Cervo, Marco Gobbi
3,4-Dichloro-N-benzamide (AH-7921) is a cyclohexyl-methylbenzamide derivative with analgesic activity, whose abuse was associated with several fatal intoxications, included in Schedule I of UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. We validated an HPLC-MS/MS method to investigate its brain disposition and metabolism after single and repeated injections; in parallel, we evaluated its central behavioral effects. After an intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg, the analgesic effect appeared after 5 min and persisted up to 4 h; brain absorption was rapid (tmax 30 min) and large (brain-to-plasma ratio 16), with active concentration >700 ng/g...
May 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302228/cannabis-cannabinoids-and-health
#20
Genevieve Lafaye, Laurent Karila, Lisa Blecha, Amine Benyamina
Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance in the world. Though it was long considered to be a "soft" drug, studies have proven the harmful psychiatric and addictive effects associated with its use. A number of elements are responsible for the increased complications of cannabis use, including the increase in the potency of cannabis and an evolution in the ratio between the two primary components, Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC) and cannabidiol (toward a higher proportion of Δ9 -THC), Synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use has rapidly progressed over the last few years, primarily among frequent cannabis users, because SCs provide similar psychoactive effects to cannabis...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
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