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Brain And Inflammation

Dalal Alali, Kirrie Ballard, Hans Bogaardt
BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) refers to a chronic inflammation of the central nervous system including the brain and spinal cord. Dysphagia is one of the symptoms that represent challenges in clinical practice for the management of MS patients. Dysphagia can result in serious complications leading to morbidity and death in late stages of MS. However, little attention is given to dysphagia, its symptoms and how it affects the quality of life of adults with MS. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to identify the frequency of dysphagia in adults with MS and determine the main symptoms suggestive of dysphagia and its impact on the patients' quality of life...
August 8, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Zhen Xu, Wei-Hua Shi, Longbiao Xu, Min-Feng Shao, Zu-Peng Chen, Guo-Chong Zhu, Qun Hou
Early brain injury (EBI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) contributes to high morbidity and mortality. Although it is well recognized that acute neuroinflammation reaction is one of the most important triggers of EBI, pharmacotherapy proved to be clinically effective against the initiating of neuroinflammation after SAH is lacking. The resident microglia and infiltrated peripheral monocyte are two main types of immune cells in central nervous system (CNS) and control the inflammation process in brain after SAH...
August 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Brian H Kim, Steven W Levison
The cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is highly induced after encephalopathic brain injury, with data showing that it can both contribute to the pathophysiology and aid in disease resolution. In the immature brain, sustained TGFβ-signaling after injury may prolong inflammation to both exacerbate acute stage damage and perturb the normal course of development. Yet in adult encephalopathy, elevated TGFβ1 may promote a reparative state. In this review, we highlight the context-dependent actions of TGFβ-signaling in the brain during resolution of encephalopathy and focus on neuronal survival mechanisms that are affected by TGFβ1 ...
August 17, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Bruno Lima Giacobbo, Janine Doorduin, Hans C Klein, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Elke Bromberg, Erik F J de Vries
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most studied neurotrophins in the healthy and diseased brain. As a result, there is a large body of evidence that associates BDNF with neuronal maintenance, neuronal survival, plasticity, and neurotransmitter regulation. Patients with psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders often have reduced BDNF concentrations in their blood and brain. A current hypothesis suggests that these abnormal BDNF levels might be due to the chronic inflammatory state of the brain in certain disorders, as neuroinflammation is known to affect several BDNF-related signaling pathways...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Dan Lu, Yanfang Liu, Hongcheng Mai, Jiankun Zang, Lingling Shen, Yusheng Zhang, Anding Xu
Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a serious complication that stimulates inflammation during reperfusion therapy after acute ischemic stroke. Rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxymethyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, might improve the outcome of HT by inhibiting neuroinflammation. This study aimed to explore the protective effects of rosuvastatin against HT after recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment in mice with experimental stroke via the attenuation of inflammation. A total of one hundred sixty-nine male BALB/c mice were used in the experiment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Sonja Orlovska-Waast, Ole Köhler-Forsberg, Sophie Wiben Brix, Merete Nordentoft, Daniel Kondziella, Jesper Krogh, Michael Eriksen Benros
Infections and inflammatory processes have been associated with the development of schizophrenia and affective disorders; however, no study has yet systematically reviewed all available studies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune alterations. We aimed to systematically review the CSF immunological findings in schizophrenia spectrum and affective disorders. We identified all studies investigating CSF inflammatory markers in persons with schizophrenia or affective disorders published prior to March 23, 2017 searching PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE, Psychinfo, and LILACS...
August 16, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Shang-Der Chen, Jenq-Lin Yang, Wei-Chao Hwang, Ding-I Yang
Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a member of the hedgehog (Hh) family, was originally recognized as a morphogen possessing critical characters for neural development during embryogenesis. Recently, however, Shh has emerged as an important modulator in adult neural tissues through different mechanisms such as neurogenesis, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and autophagy. Therefore, Shh may potentially have clinical application in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries. In this article, we present some examples, including ours, to show different aspects of Shh signaling and how Shh agonists or mimetics are used to alter the neuronal fates in various disease models, both in vitro and in vivo...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tahereh Setayesh, Armen Nersesyan, Miroslav Mišík, Franziska Ferk, Sabine Langie, Vanessa M Andrade, Alexander Haslberger, Siegfried Knasmüller
Health authorities are alarmed worldwide about the increase of obesity and overweight in the last decades which lead to adverse health effects including inflammation, cancer, accelerated aging and infertility. We evaluated the state of knowledge concerning the impact of elevated body mass on genomic instability. Results of investigations with humans (39 studies) in which DNA damage was monitored in lymphocytes and sperm cells, are conflicting and probably as a consequence of heterogeneous study designs and confounding factors (e...
July 2018: Mutation Research
Jingyi Liu, David L Penn, Ethan Katznelson, Mina G Safain, Ian F Dunn, Edward R Laws
BACKGROUND: Sellar infections represent less than 1% of all sellar lesions and can be life-threatening. These infections occur de novo in up to 70% of patients, or can less commonly develop after surgical treatment of another primary lesion, such as a pituitary adenoma. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a unique case of a 27 year-old woman with a recurrent pituitary adenoma treated with two prior transsphenoidal resections. She ultimately presented with hypopituitarism, followed by headaches, malaise, chills, and visual field and acuity deficits nine years after her second transsphenoidal resection...
August 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Zhengrui Zhang, Zhenkui Qin
Midkine (Mdk)is a cytokine involved in controlling tissue repair and new tissue development, and regulating inflammation involved in several signaling pathway, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathways. But the role of Mdk in the development of Cynoglossus semilaevis is poorly understood. In this study, the Midkine of C. semilaevis (CsMdk) was cloned, and its spatiotemporal expression pattern and structural characteristics were analyzed. Furthermore, the essential genes related to nervous system development and germ layer formation marker gene were identified by qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization after overexpression the CsMdk via zebrafish model...
August 13, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Nellie A Martin, Arkadiusz Nawrocki, Viktor Molnar, Maria L Elkjaer, Eva K Thygesen, Miklos Palkovits, Peter Acs, Tobias Sejbaek, Helle H Nielsen, Zoltan Hegedus, Finn Sellebjerg, Tihamer Molnar, Eudes G V Barbosa, Nicolas Alcaraz, Ferenc Gallyas, Asa F Svenningsen, Jan Baumbach, Hans Lassmann, Martin R Larsen, Zsolt Illes
OBJECTIVE: Here, we applied a multi-omics approach (i) to examine molecular pathways related to de- and remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions; and (ii) to translate these findings to the CSF proteome in order to identify molecules that are differentially expressed among MS subtypes. METHODS: To relate differentially expressed genes in MS lesions to de- and remyelination, we compared transcriptome of MS lesions to transcriptome of cuprizone (CPZ)-induced de- and remyelination...
2018: PloS One
Jin-Tao Liu, Sheng-Xi Wu, Hua Zhang, Fang Kuang
Inflammation is implicated in epileptogenesis. Activated microglia and macrophages (MG/MΦ) are found in the brains of patients with epilepsy-related diseases and animal models of epilepsy. It is not yet known how the MG/MΦ activation phenotype affects pathological changes in the brain after a single seizure. In this study, we had 2 main purposes: first, to characterize post-status epilepticus (SE) inflammation by tracking MG/MΦ polarization, and, second, to explore the role of an innate immune receptor adaptor protein, namely, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), in the induction of SE in a mouse model...
August 15, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Xin-Ru Gu, Si-Yue Fang, Wei Ren, Hong-Jie Wang, Jian Yang, Nan Si, Bao-Lin Bian, Hai-Yu Zhao
To study the pharmacokinetics of active ingredients (alkaloids, iridoids and flavonoids) in Huanglian Jiedu decoction (HLJDD) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model rats, and investigate its mechanism in treatment of AD. All of rats were divided into normal control group ( n =6), shame operation group ( n =6) and model group ( n =12). Rats in shame operation group received daily subcutaneous injection of D-galactose (D-gal 50 mg·kg⁻¹) for a total of 45 d to induce subacute aging model. Based on the operation of shame operation group, the rats in model group were given with an injection of Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ (4...
July 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Maciej Liczek, Iga Panek, Piotr Damiański, Olga Jęczeń, Jędrzej Jaźwiec, Piotr Kuna, Michał Panek
The aim of the study was to find out scientific evidence on the possible use of the combined angiotensin II receptor antagonist and neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI) in patients with right heart failure (RHF) in the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It has been proven that a lack of neprilysin or its reduced expression in hypoxia leads to exacerbation of pulmonary arterial remodelling (PAR) or pulmonary hypertension (PH) in the mechanism related to the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) resulting in the proliferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition...
August 15, 2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
Zhi-Zhun Mo, Zhi-Xiu Lin, Zi-Ren Su, Lin Zheng, Hui-Lin Li, Jian-Hui Xie, Yan-Fang Xian, Tie-Gang Yi, Shui-Qing Huang, Jian-Ping Chen
Angelica sinensis (AS, Danggui in Chinese) is an important herbal component of various traditional formulae for the management of asthenia and its tonic effects. Although AS has been shown to ameliorate cognitive damage and nerve toxicity in D-galactose (D-gal)-elicited senescent mice brain, its effects on liver and kidney injury have not yet been explored. In this work, mice were subjected to hypodermic injection with D-gal (200 mg/kg) and orally gavaged with AS (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg) once a day for 8 successive weeks...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Kannika Permpoonputtana, Patlada Tangweerasing, Sujira Mukda, Parichart Boontem, Chutikorn Nopparat, Piyarat Govitrapong
Aging is often accompanied by a decline in cognitive function in conjunction with a variety of neurobiological changes, including neuroinflammation. Melatonin is a key endogenous indoleamine secreted by the pineal gland that plays a crucial role in the regulation of circadian rhythms, is a potent free radical scavenger, has anti-inflammatory activity and serves numerous other functions. However, the role of melatonin in sterile inflammation in the brain has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we investigated the neuroinflammation status in aged mouse brains...
2018: EXCLI journal
Ming-Yii Huang, Chia-En Tu, Shu-Chi Wang, Yung-Li Hung, Chia-Cheng Su, Shih-Hua Fang, Chi-Shuo Chen, Po-Len Liu, Wei-Chung Cheng, Yu-Wei Huang, Chia-Yang Li
BACKGROUND: Inflammation has been found to be associated with many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's and dementia. Attenuation of microglia-induced inflammation is a strategy that impedes the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to simulate murine microglia cells (BV2 cells) as an experimental model to mimic the inflammatory environment in the brain. In addition, we examined the anti-inflammatory ability of corylin, a main compound isolated from Psoralea corylifolia L...
August 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Emanuele Schiavon, Joshua L Smalley, Sherylanne Newton, Nigel H Greig, Ian D Forsythe
Hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice) is caused by raised levels of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood. When severe, susceptible brain regions including the cerebellum and auditory brainstem are damaged causing neurological sequelae such as ataxia, hearing loss and kernicterus. The mechanism(s) by which bilirubin exerts its toxic effect have not been completely understood to date. In this study we investigated the acute mechanisms by which bilirubin causes the neurotoxicity that contributes to hearing loss. We developed a novel mouse model that exhibits the neurological features seen in human Bilirubin-Induced Neurological Dysfunction (BIND) syndrome that we assessed with a behavioural score and auditory brainstem responses (ABR)...
2018: PloS One
Yingzhu Feng, Chien-Sheng Chen, Jessica Ho, Donna Pearce, Shaohui Hu, Bochu Wang, Prashant Desai, Kwang Sik Kim, Heng Zhu
Bacterial meningitis in neonates and infants is an acute lethal disease and occurs in response to microbial exploitation of the blood brain barrier (BBB), resulting in the intracranial inflammation. Several pathogens, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), can cause this devastating disease; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which these pathogens exploit the BBB remain incompletely understood. To identify important players on both the pathogen and host sides that govern the E. coli-BBB cell interactions, we took advantage of the E...
August 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Dorota Sikorska, Anna Olewicz-Gawlik, Ewa Baum, Krzysztof Pawlaczyk, Andrzej Oko
BACKGROUND: High mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is associated with the presence of nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as malnutrition. However, hypoalbuminemia in patients undergoing PD may have gender-dependent consequences. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between hypoalbuminemia, overhydration (OH), inflammation, and cardiovascular risk, depending on gender. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The group studied consisted of 54 PD patients: 26 male (mean age: 59 ±19 years) and 28 female (mean age: 52 ±15 years) patients...
August 14, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
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