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Brain And Inflammation

Aurelie Leplus, Inger Lauritzen, Christophe Melon, Lydia Kerkerian-Le Goff, Denys Fontaine, Frederic Checler
Recent studies have suggested deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a promising therapy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Particularly, the stimulation of the forniceal area was found to slow down the cognitive decline of some AD patients, but the biochemical and anatomical modifications underlying these effects remain poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of chronic forniceal stimulation on amyloid burden, inflammation, and neuronal loss in a transgenic Alzheimer rat model TgF344-AD, as well as in age-matched control rats...
October 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Ram B Singh, Krasimira Hristova, Jan Fedacko, Galal El-Kilany, Germaine Cornelissen
The underlying mechanism for clinical and biochemical manifestations of chronic heart failure (HF) may be due in part to neurohumoral adaptations, such as activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems in the periphery and the brain. Internet search and discussion with colleagues are the methods for this study. Since chronic HF is associated with autonomic imbalance with increased sympathetic nerve activity and a withdrawal of parasympathetic activity, it may be considered a brain disease...
October 20, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Bradlee L Heckmann, Bart Tummers, Douglas R Green
Programmed cell death (PCD) plays critical roles in development, homeostasis, and both control and progression of a plethora of diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative pathologies. Besides classical apoptosis, several different forms of PCD have now been recognized, including necroptosis. The way a cell dies determines the reaction of the surrounding environment, and immune activation in response to cell death proceeds in a manner dependent on which death pathways are activated. Apoptosis and necroptosis are major mechanisms of cell death that typically result in opposing immune responses...
October 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Kathrin M Kniewallner, Bettina M Foidl, Christian Humpel
Platelets are anuclear blood cells and play a major role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Platelets express amyloid-precursor protein (APP), release beta-amyloid (Aβ) and are stimulated (pre-activated) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesize that such stimulated platelets severely damage brain vessels which subsequently leads to cerebrovascular damage in AD. In order to study this issue we isolated platelets from AD mice (expressing APP with the Swedish-Dutch-Iowa mutations), labeled them with the red fluorescent dye PKH26 and transcardially infused these freshly isolated platelets into the brains of anesthetized healthy C57BL6 wildtype mice...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mark E M Obrenovich
'Leaky gut' syndrome, long-associated with celiac disease, has attracted much attention in recent years and for decades, was widely known in complementary/alternative medicine circles. It is often described as an increase in the permeability of the intestinal mucosa, which could allow bacteria, toxic digestive metabolites, bacterial toxins, and small molecules to 'leak' into the bloodstream. Nervous system involvement with celiac disease is know to occur even at subclinical levels. Gluten and gluten sensitivity are considered to trigger this syndrome in individuals genetically predisposed to celiac disease...
October 18, 2018: Microorganisms
Lindsay T Michalovicz, Alicia R Locker, Kimberly A Kelly, Julie V Miller, Zachary Barnes, Mary Ann Fletcher, Diane B Miller, Nancy G Klimas, Mariana Morris, Stephen M Lasley, James P O'Callaghan
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom disorder experienced by as many as a third of the veterans of the 1991 Gulf War; the constellation of "sickness behavior" symptoms observed in ill veterans is suggestive of a neuroimmune involvement. Various chemical exposures and conditions in theater have been implicated in the etiology of the illness. Previously, we found that GW-related organophosphates (OPs), such as the sarin surrogate, DFP, and chlorpyrifos, cause neuroinflammation. The combination of these exposures with exogenous corticosterone (CORT), mimicking high physiological stress, exacerbates the observed neuroinflammation...
October 16, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Soren Hayrabedyan, Krassimira Todorova, Marialuigia Spinelli, Eytan R Barnea, Martin Mueller
The central pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the sequential proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) agglomeration. The clearance of Aβ may be induced by the large zinc-binding protease insulin degrading enzyme (IDE). IDE is the common link between AD and Type II diabetes as insulin is an IDE target as well. Not surprisingly, the search for safe and effective drugs modulating IDE is ongoing. A new pregnancy derived peptide, PreImplantation Factor (PIF), inhibits neuro-inflammation and crosses the blood-brain-barrier...
September 21, 2018: Oncotarget
William J Huffman, Saraswathi Subramaniyan, Ramona M Rodriguiz, William C Wetsel, Warren M Grill, Niccolò Terrando
BACKGROUND: The vagus nerve is involved in regulating immunity and resolving inflammation. Current strategies aimed at modulating neuroinflammation and cognitive decline, in many cases, are limited and ineffective. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a minimally invasive, targeted, vagus nerve stimulation approach (pVNS), and we tested its efficacy with respect to microglial activation and amelioration of cognitive dysfunction following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxemia in mice...
October 9, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Tu Mai, Nicole Y Fatheree, Wallace Gleason, Yuying Liu, Jon Marc Rhoads
Infant colic is a characteristic group of behaviors seen in young infants. The most prominent feature is prolonged crying. Additional characteristics, including clenching of the fists and flexion of the hips, have led to the suggestion that these behaviors are related to abdominal discomfort. In this article, we show emerging evidence to support the concept that infant colic could represent gut inflammation and microbial dysbiosis that impacts brain function and even brain development.
December 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Simona Adesso, Irene Paterniti, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Masaki Fujioka, Giuseppina Autore, Tim Magnus, Aldo Pinto, Stefania Marzocco
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) involves multiple organ dysfunction, and the neurological complications that are often present in CKD patients support the idea of a crosstalk between the kidneys and the brain. Evidence suggests a possible role for products accumulating in these patients as uremic toxins in various CKD complications, including neurodegeneration. Indoxyl sulfate (IS), derived from tryptophan metabolism, is well-known as a uremic nephron-vascular toxin, and recent evidence suggests it also has a role in the immune response and in neurodegeneration...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Isabel Barroeta-Espar, Laura D Weinstock, Beatriz G Perez-Nievas, Avery C Meltzer, Michael Siao Tick-Chong, Ana C Amaral, Melissa E Murray, Krista L Moulder, John C Morris, Nigel J Cairns, Joseph E Parisi, Val J Lowe, Ronald C Petersen, Julia Kofler, Milos D Ikonomovic, Oscar López, William E Klunk, Richard P Mayeux, Matthew P Frosch, Levi B Wood, Teresa Gomez-Isla
Our group has previously studied the brains of some unique individuals who are able to tolerate robust amounts of Alzheimer's pathological lesions (amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) without experiencing dementia while alive. These rare resilient cases do not demonstrate the patterns of neuronal/synaptic loss that are normally found in the brains of typical demented Alzheimer's patients. Moreover, they exhibit decreased astrocyte and microglial activation markers GFAP and CD68, suggesting that a suppressed neuroinflammatory response may be implicated in human brain resilience to Alzheimer's pathology...
October 15, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Prajitha N, Athira Ss, Mohanan Pv
Fever is one of the cardinal symptoms of onset of an infection or inflammation and is the common clinical indicator for medical consultation in mammalian host worldwide. Simply, fever manifested with elevation of body temperature from normal physiological range represents adaptive response of immune system on challenge with an infectious and non-infectious circumstance. Fever usually initiated in the periphery as a result of interaction of immune cells with exogenous or endogenous pyrogens. Peripheral pyrogenic signals gain access to the central nervous system via humoral and neural route...
October 15, 2018: Immunology Letters
Yanrong Zhu, Ke Wang, Zhiqiang Ma, Dong Liu, Yang Yang, Meng Sun, Aidong Wen, Yuewen Hao, Shanbo Ma, Fang Ren, Zhenlong Xin, Yue Li, Shouyin Di, Juntian Liu
Sepsis-induced brain injury is frequently encountered in critically ill patients with severe systemic infection. Butein (3,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone) has been demonstrated as the neuro-protective agent via reducing inflammation and oxidative stress on neurons. Moreover, activation of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) inhibits apoptosis, oxidation and inflammation thus alleviating sepsis-induced multiorgan injuries. In present study, we show that butein administrated intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg) saved mice from sepsis-induced lethality by increasing 7-day survival rate after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery...
October 15, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Charlotte E Pelgrim, Julia D Peterson, Harry R Gosker, Annemie M W J Schols, Ardy van Helvoort, Johan Garssen, Gert Folkerts, Aletta D Kraneveld
COPD is a chronic lung disease characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation due to airway and/or alveolar abnormalities. Furthermore, COPD is often characterized by extrapulmonary manifestations and comorbidities worsening COPD progression and quality of life. A neglected comorbidity in COPD management is mental health impairment defined by anxiety, depression and cognitive problems. This paper summarizes the evidence for impaired mental health in COPD and focuses on current pharmacological intervention strategies...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Jiefeng Xu, Qijiang Chen, Xiaohong Jin, Chunshuang Wu, Zilong Li, Guangju Zhou, Yongan Xu, Anyu Qian, Yulin Li, Mao Zhang
Rapid induction of hypothermia early after resuscitation can be an effective strategy against post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS). Preliminary data suggested that continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) might be an efficient method to rapidly induce hypothermia. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of cooling induced by CRRT and its effects on the outcomes of PCAS in a porcine model.Thirty-two male domestic pigs weighing 36 ± 2 kg were randomized into 4 groups: sham control (n = 5), normothermia (n = 9), surface cooling (SC, n = 9), and CRRT (n = 9)...
October 17, 2018: Shock
Gina Hadley, Daniel J Beard, Yvonne Couch, Ain A Neuhaus, Bryan A Adriaanse, Gabriele C DeLuca, Brad A Sutherland, Alastair M Buchan
The significant morbidity that accompanies stroke makes it one of the world's most devastating neurological disorders. Currently, proven effective therapies have been limited to thrombolysis and thrombectomy. The window for the administration of these therapies is narrow, hampered by the necessity of rapidly imaging patients. A therapy that could extend this window by protecting neurons may improve outcome. Endogenous neuroprotection has been shown to be, in part, due to changes in mTOR signalling pathways and the instigation of productive autophagy...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Judit Zsuga, Csaba E More, Tamas Erdei, Csaba Papp, Szilvia Harsanyi, Rudolf Gesztelyi
Introduction: The term "diseasome of physical inactivity" was coined by Pedersen to explain clustering of chronic diseases linked to physical inactivity. Accordingly, physical inactivity per se contributes to the accumulation of visceral fat, which, generates chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, contributes to emergence of chronic, non-communicable diseases. Diversity of these disorders posits the possible involvement of a supraphysiological system. Methods: Hypothesis driven literature search and deductive reasoning was used to review relevant literature and formulate a novel theory...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Hidemi Yoshida, Tadaatsu Imaizumi, Tomoh Matsumiya, Kazuhiko Seya, Shogo Kawaguchi, Hiroshi Tanaka
The innate immune system is a prerequisite for biophylactic ability, but its dysregulation can cause inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. To determine a safe method of controlling inflammatory reactions in the brain, we examined the effects of gnetin C, a natural resveratrol dimer, on C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CCL5 (pro-inflammatory chemokines) production observed after treatment with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly IC; a synthetic analog of dsRNA as a Toll-like receptor 3 (TRL3) ligand, 30 μg/mL] in cultured human astrocytoma U373MG and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
2018: Biomedical Research
Huanan Wang, Miyuki Hirabayashi, James K Chambers, Kazuyuki Uchida, Hiroyuki Nakayama
The present study describes the association between inflammatory cell types and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) antigen in the brain of 4 cats diagnosed as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Immunohistochemically, FIPV antigens were detected in the inflammatory foci of the leptomeninges, choroid plexus and ventricles in 3 of the 4 cats. In 3 cases, inflammatory foci mainly consisted of CD204- and Iba1-positive macrophages, and the FIPV antigens were found in the macrophages. In the other case which was negative for FIPV antigen, severe inflammation predominantly consisting of CD20-positive B lymphocytes was observed in the leptomeninges and subventricles, accompanied with diffuse proliferation of gemistocytic astrocytes...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Decai Tian, Xiaodong Zhu, Rong Xue, Peng Zhao, Yuanrong Yao
History In November 2012, a previously healthy 31-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a 2-month history of right-sided numbness, diplopia, and intermittent nausea and dizziness. She did not have a history of fever, weight loss, headache, photophobia, seizure, or extremity weakness. Physical examination revealed left abduction limitation and right-sided hypoesthesia. Kernig and Brudzinski signs were absent, and pathergy test results were negative. Laboratory evaluation revealed normal complete and differential blood counts, normal serum chemistry, and normal immune function...
November 2018: Radiology
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