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Brain And Inflammation

Ana Clara Liberman, Emiliano Trias, Luana da Silva Chagas, Pablo Trindade, Marissol Dos Santos Pereira, Damian Refojo, Cecilia Hedin-Pereira, Claudio A Serfaty
An extensive microglial-astrocyte-monocyte-neuronal cross talk seems to be crucial for normal brain function, development, and recovery. However, under certain conditions neuroinflammatory interactions between brain cells and neuroimmune cells influence disease outcome and brain pathology. Microglial cells express a range of functional states with dynamically pleomorphic profiles from a surveilling status of synaptic transmission to an active player in major events of development such as synaptic elimination, regeneration, and repair...
December 5, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Laken N Cooper, Ila Mishra, Noah T Ashley
Lack of sleep incurs physiological costs that include increased inflammation and alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Specifically, sleep restriction or deprivation leads to increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and elevated glucocorticoids in rodent models, but whether birds exact similar costs is unknown. In this study, we examined whether zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), an avian model species, exhibits physiological costs of sleep loss by using a novel automated sleep fragmentation/deprivation method, wherein a horizontal wire sweeps across a test cage to disrupt sleep every 120 s...
January 2019: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Sniya Valsa Sudhakar, Karthik Muthusamy, Manohar Shroff
Brain has been considered as an immune-privileged site for centuries owing to the presence of blood-brain barrier, absent lymphatic drainage, and antigen-presenting cells. However, the present prevailing concept is of immune surveillance where brain is continuously surveyed by immune cells. However, the presence of immune cells in central nervous system (CNS) brings the risk of inflammation and autoimmunity involving both T and B cell mediated pathways. These mechanisms form the underlying pathology in a wide spectrum of pediatric CNS diseases manifesting as acquired neurological deficits...
December 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Mohammad Amani, Ghaffar Shokouhi, Ali-Akbar Salari
RATIONALE: Considerable clinical and experimental studies have shown that depression-related disorders are the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD), affecting as many as 20-40% of patients. An increasing amount of evidence shows that monoamine-based antidepressant treatments are not completely effective for depression treatment in patients with dementia. Minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline antibiotic, has been gaining research and clinical attention for the treatment of different neuropsychiatric disorders, and more recently depression symptom in humans...
December 4, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Hsing-Hsien Wu, Ko-Chi Niu, Cheng-Hsien Lin, Hung-Jung Lin, Ching-Ping Chang, Chia-Ti Wang
High-mountain sickness is characterized by brain and pulmonary edema and cognitive deficits. The definition can be fulfilled by a rat model of high-altitude exposure (HAE) used in the present study. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2 T) and to determine the underlying mechanisms. Rats were subjected to an HAE (9.7% O2 at 0.47 absolute atmosphere of 6,000 m for 3 days). Immediately after termination of HAE, rats were treated with HBO2 T (100% O2 at 2.0 absolute atmosphere for 1 hour per day for 5 consecutive days) or non-HBO2 T (21% O2 at 1...
2018: BioMed Research International
Emese Prandovszky, Ye Li, Sarven Sabunciyan, Curtis B Steinfeldt, Lauro Nathaniel Avalos, Kristin L Gressitt, James R White, Emily G Severance, Mikhail V Pletnikov, Jianchun Xiao, Robert H Yolken
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite with worldwide distribution. Felines are the definitive hosts supporting the complete life cycle of T. gondii. However, other warm-blooded animals such as rodents and humans can also be infected. Infection of such secondary hosts results in long-term infection characterized by the presence of tissue cysts in the brain and other organs. While it is known that T. gondii infection in rodents is associated with behavioral changes, the mechanisms behind these changes remain unclear...
2018: Scientifica
Corona Solana, Raquel Tarazona, Rafael Solana
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Although the aetiology of AD is not clear, both environmental factors and heritable predisposition may contribute to disease occurrence. In addition, inflammation and immune system alterations have been linked to AD. The prevailing hypothesis as cause of AD is the deposition in the brain of amyloid beta peptides (A β ). Although A β have a role in defending the brain against infections, their accumulation promotes an inflammatory response mediated by microglia and astrocytes...
2018: International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
Martha Legorreta-Herrera, Karen E Nava-Castro, Margarita I Palacios-Arreola, Rosalía Hernández-Cervantes, Jesús Aguilar-Castro, Luis A Cervantes-Candelas, Jorge Morales-Montor
Cerebral malaria (CM) is the major complication associated with death in malaria patients, and its pathogenesis is associated with excessive proinflammatory cytokine production. Notably, the severity and mortality of natural infections with Plasmodium are higher in males than females, suggesting that sexual hormones influence both the pathogenesis of and immune response in CM. However, no studies on inflammation mediators in the brains of both sexes have been reported. In this work, the mRNA expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 β , IFN- γ , TNF- α , and IL-2 were measured in the preoptic area, hypothalamus, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, frontal cortex, and lateral cortex regions of gonadectomized female and male CBA/Ca mice infected with P...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Kaya Xu, Jea-Young Lee, Yuji Kaneko, Julian P Tuazon, Fernando Vale, Harry van Loveren, Cesario V Borlongan
Despite mounting evidence of a massive peripheral inflammatory response accompanying stroke, the ability of intracerebrally transplanted cells to migrate to the periphery and sequester systemic inflammation remains unexamined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells intracerebrally transplanted in the brain of adult rats subjected to experimental stroke can migrate to the spleen, a vital organ that confers peripheral inflammation after stroke. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats received sham or experimental stroke via the one-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion model...
December 4, 2018: Haematologica
Yanli Wang, Yanling Wang, Ran Sun, Xingrao Wu, Xu Chu, Shuhu Zhou, Xibin Hu, Lingyun Gao, Qingxia Kong
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common and often refractory brain disease that is closely correlated with inflammation. Alpha-methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT) is recognized as a surrogate marker for epilepsy, characterized by high uptake in the epileptic focus. There are many advantages of using the magnetic targeting drug delivery system of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to treat many diseases, including epilepsy. We hypothesized that AMT and an IL-1β monoclonal antibody (anti-IL-1β mAb) chelated to SPIONs would utilize the unique advantages of SPIONs and AMT to deliver the anti-IL-1β mAb across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) as a targeted therapy...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Talitha C Ford, Luke A Downey, Tamara Simpson, Grace McPhee, Chris Oliver, Con Stough
A diet rich in B-group vitamins is essential for optimal body and brain function, and insufficient amounts of such vitamins have been associated with higher levels of neural inflammation and oxidative stress, as marked by increased blood plasma homocysteine. Neural biomarkers of oxidative stress quantified through proton magnetic spectroscopy (1H-MRS) are not well understood, and the relationship between such neural and blood biomarkers is seldom studied. The current study addresses this gap by investigating the direct effect of 6-month high-dose B-group vitamin supplementation on neural and blood biomarkers of metabolism...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
Norman Truong, Evan Kurt, Sasha Cai Lesher-Perez, Tatiana Segura
Gene delivery using injectable hydrogels can serve as a potential method for regulated tissue regeneration in wound healing. Our microporous annealed particle (MAP) hydrogel has been shown to promote cellular infiltration in both skin and brain wounds, while reducing inflammation. Although the scaffold itself can promote healing, likely other signals will be required to promote healing of hard to treat wounds. Gene delivery is one approach to introduce desired bioactive signals. In this study, we investigated how the properties of MAP hydrogels influence non-viral gene delivery of polymer condensed plasmid to cells seeded within the MAP gel...
December 4, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Murat Sütçü, Hacer Aktürk, Sezen Gülümser-Şişko, Manolya Acar, Oğuz Bülent Erol, Ayper Somer, Bilge Bilgiç, Nuran Salman
Sütçü M, Aktürk H, Gülümser-Şişko S, Acar M, Erol OB, Somer A, Bilgiç B, Salman N. Granulomatous amebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba in an immuncompetent child. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 340-343. Acanthamoeba may lead to granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) with high mortality rates generally in patients with immunosupression and/or chronic disease. Here, we present a rare GAE case, who was a previously healthy child. A Georgian 9 year old boy presented with focal seizure on his left arm and confusion...
2018: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Nobuo Sanjo, Yurie Nose, Yukiko Shishido-Hara, Saneyuki Mizutani, Yoshiki Sekijima, Hitoshi Aizawa, Toru Tanizawa, Takanori Yokota
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we analyzed the inflammatory profiles of brain tissues obtained from patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) due to John Cunningham (JC) virus infection to identify potential prognostic factors. METHODS: The study included seven patients (two men, five women) who had been pathologically diagnosed with PML, and all of whom were HIV negative. Fixed brain samples were analyzed via hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Klüver-Barrera (KB) staining...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Karin M E Andersson, Caroline Wasén, Lina Juzokaite, Lovisa Leifsdottir, Malin C Erlandsson, Sofia T Silfverswärd, Anna Stokowska, Marcela Pekna, Milos Pekny, Kjell Olmarker, Rolf A Heckemann, Marie Kalm, Maria I Bokarewa
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory joint disease with a neurological component including depression, cognitive deficits, and pain, which substantially affect patients' quality of daily life. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling is one of the factors in RA pathogenesis as well as a known regulator of adult neurogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between IGF1R signaling and the neurological symptoms in RA. In experimental RA, we demonstrated that arthritis induced enrichment of IBA1+ microglia in the hippocampus...
December 3, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xiujuan Mi, Li Ran, Lixue Chen, Guangcheng Qin
BACKGROUND: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an important anatomical structure of the central nervous system (CNS) that limits the penetration of a variety of substances from the blood into the parenchyma. Dysfunction of the BBB is involved in various CNS disorders, including stroke, inflammation, and pain. However, the evidence concerning its role in migraine is insufficient. OBJECTIVE: This study will investigate whether recurrent headache increases BBB permeability and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a rat model...
November 2018: Pain Physician
Célia Fourrier, Clémentine Bosch-Bouju, Raphaël Boursereau, Julie Sauvant, Agnès Aubert, Lucile Capuron, Guillaume Ferreira, Sophie Layé, Nathalie Castanon
Although the high prevalence of anxiety in obesity increasingly emerges as significant risk factor for related severe health complications, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Considering that chronic inflammation is a key component of obesity and is well known to impact brain function and emotional behavior, we hypothesized that it may similarly contribute to the development of obesity-related anxiety. This hypothesis was experimentally tested by measuring whether chronic food restriction, a procedure known to reduce inflammation, or chronic anti-inflammatory treatment with ibuprofen improved anxiety-like behavior and concomitantly decreased peripheral and/or hippocampal inflammation characterizing a model of severe obesity, the db/db mice...
November 30, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Shinji Oki
Reserch progresses in understanding the pathogenicity of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last couple of decade has enabled us to develop new drug entities available in the clinic. However, we still have not succeeded in preventing conversion from relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) to secondary progressive MS (SP-MS) and curing this intractable form of MS. Furthermore, diagnosis is usually retrospective and subjective, relying on gradual worsening of neurological signs/symptoms. This is obviously due to the lack of understanding for the pathogenicity driving disease progression in MS and of reliable biomarkers reflecting the progressive or stationary disease status...
November 30, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Benjamin Y Klein, Hadassah Tamir, Muhammad Anwar, Robert J Ludwig, Jasmine H Kaidbey, Sara B Glickstein, Martha G Welch
The goal of this protocol is to isolate oxytocin-receptor rich brain nuclei in the neonatal brain before and after first colostrum feeding. The expression of proteins known to respond to metabolic stress was measured in brain-nuclei isolates using Western blotting. This was done to assess whether metabolic stress-induced nutrient insufficiency in the body triggered neuronal stress. We have previously demonstrated that nutrient insufficiency in neonates elicits metabolic stress in the gut. Furthermore, colostrum oxytocin modulates cellular stress response, inflammation, and autophagy markers in newborn rat gut villi prior to and after first feed...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jérôme Mairesse, Manuela Zinni, Julien Pansiot, Rahma Hassan-Abdi, Charlie Demene, Marina Colella, Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue, Aline Rideau Batista Novais, Mickael Tanter, Stefania Maccari, Pierre Gressens, Daniel Vaiman, Nadia Soussi-Yanicostas, Olivier Baud
Prematurity and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are frequent conditions associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes. We have previously identified early deregulation of genes controlling neuroinflammation as a putative mechanism linking FGR and abnormal trajectory of the developing brain. While the oxytocin system was also found to be impaired following adverse perinatal events, its role in the modulation of neuroinflammation in the developing brain is still unknown. We used a double-hit rat model of perinatal brain injury induced by gestational low protein diet (LPD) and potentiated by postnatal injections of subliminal doses of interleukin-1β (IL1β) and a zebrafish model of neuroinflammation...
December 2, 2018: Glia
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