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Line Infection

Saeed El Zein, Jean El-Sheikh, Aline Zakhem, Dima Ibrahim, Ali Bazarbashi, Souha S Kanj
PURPOSE: Mucormycosis (MCM) is a rare fungal infection affecting people with impaired immunity. Data related to MCM from Lebanon are scarce. The aim of this study is to shed light on the epidemiology, incidence, and outcome of patients with MCM hospitalized at a tertiary care center in Lebanon. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review between Jan 1, 2008 and Jan 10, 2018. All patients with proven or probable MCM were included. RESULTS: A total of 20 patients were included...
August 18, 2018: Infection
Qian Jiang, Gang Liu, Jiashun Chen, Kang Yao, Yulong Yin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) act as virulence factors that trigger intestinal inflammation and thereby compromise the production of pigs worldwide. Intestinal diseases and dysfunction have been attributed to endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and the subsequent apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells. Therefore It is important to explore whether LPSs aggravate ERS-mediated apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells. METHODS: ERS and inflammation models were established in porcine cell line J2 (IPEC-J2) and the cells were treated with tunicamycin or LPS at specific times...
August 17, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Paul Ward, Kifle Woldemichael, Lillian Mwanri
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence, trend and associated factors for immunological failure (IF), and the magnitude of antiretroviral therapy (ART) shift among adults infected with HIV in Southwest Ethiopia. SETTING: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken using the data from ART clinic at Jimma University Teaching Hospital from 21 June 2003 to 15 March 2015. PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective analysis of 4900 HIV-infected adult patient records dating from June 2003 to March 2015 was conducted...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Claire L Harris, Richard B Pouw, David Kavanagh, Ruyue Sun, Daniel Ricklin
The complement system is well known for its role in innate immunity and in maintenance of tissue homeostasis, providing a first line of defence against infection and playing a key role in flagging apoptotic cells and debris for disposal. Unfortunately complement also contributes to pathogenesis of a number of diseases; in some cases driving pathology, and in others amplifying or exacerbating the inflammatory and damaging impact of non-complement disease triggers. The role of complement in pathogenesis of an expanding number of diseases has driven industry and academia alike to develop an impressive arsenal of anti-complement drugs which target different proteins and functions of the complement cascade...
August 15, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Sebastian Pfeilmeier, Jeoffrey George, Arry Morel, Sonali Roy, Matthew Smoker, Lena Stransfeld, J Allan Downie, Nemo Peeters, Jacob G Malone, Cyril Zipfel
Interfamily transfer of plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) represents a promising biotechnological approach to engineer broad-spectrum, and potentially durable, disease resistance in crops. It is however unclear whether new recognition specificities to given pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) affect the interaction of the recipient plant with beneficial microbes. To test this in a direct reductionist approach, we transferred the Brassicaceae-specific PRR ELONGATION FACTOR-THERMO UNSTABLE RECEPTOR (EFR), conferring recognition of the bacterial EF-Tu protein, from Arabidopsis thaliana to the legume Medicago truncatula...
August 18, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Zhanqi Dong, Zhigang Hu, Qi Qin, Feifan Dong, Liang Huang, Jiangqiong Long, Peng Chen, Cheng Lu, Minhui Pan
CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for the treatment of infectious diseases. In our previous study, we knocked out the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) key genes and BmNPV-dependent host factor to generate transgenic antiviral strains. To further expand the range of target genes for BmNPV and more effectively prevent and control pathogenic infections, we performed gene editing and antiviral analysis by constructing a target-directed baculovirus early transcriptional activator immediate early-0 (ie-0) and ie-2 transgenic silkworm line...
August 18, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Chin-An Yang, Sandra Bauer, Yu-Chen Ho, Franziska Sotzny, Jan-Gowth Chang, Carmen Scheibenbogen
BACKGROUND: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a chronic debilitating disease with huge social-economic impact. It has been suggested that immune dysregulation, nitrooxidative stress, and metabolic impairment might contribute to disease pathogenesis. However, the etiology of ME/CFS remains largely unclear, and diagnostic/prognostic disease markers are lacking. Several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA, > 200 bp) have been reported to play roles in immunological diseases or in stress responses...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Maureen Oliveira, Ruxandra-Ilinca Ibanescu, Kaitlin Anstett, Thibault Mésplède, Jean-Pierre Routy, Marjorie A Robbins, Bluma G Brenner
BACKGROUND: Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are recommended for first-line HIV therapy based on their relatively high genetic barrier to resistance. Although raltegravir (RAL) and elvitegravir (EVG) resistance profiles are well-characterized, resistance patterns for dolutegravir (DTG), bictegravir (BIC), and cabotegravir (CAB) remain largely unknown. Here, in vitro drug selections compared the development of resistance to DTG, BIC, CAB, EVG and RAL using clinical isolates from treatment-naïve primary HIV infection (PHI) cohort participants (n = 12), and pNL4...
August 17, 2018: Retrovirology
Yichao Jin, Zhen Guan, Xiaochuan Wang, Zhiqiong Wang, Rong Zeng, Liangheng Xu, Ping Cao
5-Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy(ALA-PDT) has been widely used for cervical cancer treatment, but the mechanisms are still not fully delineated. Here we showed that ALA-PDT significantly upregulated HMGB1 while downregulated miR-34a expression levels in cervical cancer tissues, and the percentages of mature DCs(mDCs) were increased in ALA-PDT treated patients' peripheral blood. After treating HPV-positive Hela, SiHa, Caski and HPV-negative C33 A cervical cancer cell lines with ALA-PDT, HPV-positive cells' proliferative ability was significantly inhibited and apoptosis rates were elevated, while no significant changes were found in HPV-negative C33 A cell line...
August 14, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Parvin Ramak, Gholam Reza Talei
Prevotella intermedia is associated with periodontal diseases and endodontic infections. Periodontitis can be suppressed by utilizing the antiseptics, which target the infectious bacteria. The member of Stachys sp. has been used traditionally in the form of decoction or infusion for management of infectious diseases. The subject of this article was to evaluate the chemical composition, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effect of Stachys koelzii essential oil and its main components against Prevotella intermedia. GC-FID and GC-MS analysis were used to determine the chemical composition...
August 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Vanessa D'Urbano, Elisa De Crignis, Maria Carla Re
Mammalian cells have evolved several mechanisms to prevent or block lentiviral infection and spread. Among the innate immune mechanisms, the signaling cascade triggered by type I interferon (IFN) plays a pivotal role in limiting the burden of HIV-1. In presence of IFN, human cells upregulate the expression of a number of genes, referred to as IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), many of them acting as antiviral restriction factors (RFs). RFs are dominant proteins that target different essential steps of the viral cycle, thereby providing an early line of defense against the virus...
August 16, 2018: Current HIV Research
Mounir Adnane, Kieran G Meade, Cliona O'Farrelly
Cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM), the product of epithelial cells lining the uterus, cervix and vagina, is secreted to facilitate uterine lubrication and microbial clearance. Predominantly composed of water and mucins, CVM also contains high levels of immuno-active proteins such as immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin and lysozyme which protect against infection by blocking adhesion and mediating microbial killing. The repertoire of cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial peptides is predominantly generated by the secretions of endometrial epithelial cells into the uterine lumen and concentrated in the CVM...
August 16, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Yujiao Zhou, Feifei Liu, Chengmin Li, Guo Shi, Xiaolei Xu, Xue Luo, Yuanling Zhang, Jingjie Fu, Aizhong Zeng, Limin Chen
Dendritic cells (DCs) harboring tumor-associated antigen are supposed to be a potential immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aspartate- β -hydroxylase (AAH), an overexpressed tumor-associated cell surface protein, is considered as a promising biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC. In this study, we constructed adenovirus vector encoding AAH gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology and preliminarily explored the antitumor effects of DC vaccines harboring AAH. Firstly, the total AAH mRNA was extracted from human HCC tissues; the cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR, verified, and sequenced after TA cloning...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Sanaa Al Ahdab, Milena Jurisevic, Sulaiman Mouselli
Pharmaceutical sector of Syrian Arab Republic before the war was characterized by bold and successful development since the late 1980s. With the beginning of war in the country back in March 2011, momentum has changed significantly. Traumatism, communicable diseases related to morbidity and mortality as well as wound infections became particularly hot public health concern. This relates not only to the direct victims of military conflict but also to the displaced civilians, refugees, and ordinary citizens alike...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Lotfollah Davoodi, Babak Masoum, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Hamed Jafarpour, Mohammad Reza Haghshenas, Tahoora Mousavi
An estimated 185 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Combination therapy with pegylated interferon-α (peg IFN) and ribavirin is the first line of treatment against the psychiatric side effects, including mood disorders, anxiety and irritability. In the present study, all of the studies electronically published between 2000 and 2016 were retrieved using databases including Scopus, PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information, Science Direct and Google Scholar. All of the articles were independently evaluated by two reviewers and the results were compared, followed by removal of duplicate, irrelevant and re-published studies after reviewing...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Qiang Li, Juan Guo, Kaixiang Chao, Jinye Yang, Weiyun Yue, Dongfang Ma, Baotong Wang
Stripe rust, caused by the biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici ( Pst ), is one of the most widespread and destructive wheat diseases worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars is an effective approach for controlling this disease. However, because host resistance genes were easily overcome by new virulent Pst races, there is a continuous demand for identifying new effective wheat stripe rust resistance genes and develop closely linked markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS). Baidatou, an old Chinese wheat landrace, has been grown for several decades in Longnan region, Gansu Province, where stripe rust epidemics are frequent and severe...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shuai Zhao, Yi Feng, Jing Hu, Yang Li, Zhongbao Zuo, Jing Yan, Jing Zhang, Pi Cao, Wei Xu, Fan Li, Yuxueyun Li, Lingjie Liao, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Hui Xing
To investigate the prevalence and temporal trend of transmitted drug resistance (TDR), a nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted among 5627 ART naïve newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals in 2015 in China. Totally 4704 partial pol sequences were obtained. Among them, the most common HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) or subtype was CRF01_AE (39.0%), followed by CRF07_BC (35.6%), CRF08_BC (8.9%), and subtype B (5.5%). TDR mutations were found in 3.6% of the cases, with 1.1% harboring TDR to protease inhibitors (PIs), 1...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tapan M Kadia, Jorge Cortes, Farhad Ravandi, Elias Jabbour, Marina Konopleva, Christopher B Benton, Jan Burger, Koji Sasaki, Gautam Borthakur, Courtney D DiNardo, Naveen Pemmaraju, Naval Daver, Alessandra Ferrajoli, Xuemei Wang, Keyur Patel, Jeffrey L Jorgensen, Sa Wang, Susan O'Brien, Sherry Pierce, Carla Tuttle, Zeev Estrov, Srdan Verstovsek, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Hagop Kantarjian
BACKGROUND: Front-line therapy for elderly or unfit patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) remains unsatisfactory with poor outcomes and excessive toxicity. We studied a new low-intensity regimen of cladribine combined with low-dose cytarabine alternating with decitabine, aimed at improving outcomes in this population. Based on our previous experience, we hypothesised that this combination would be safe and more effective than current approaches with hypomethylating agents. METHODS: In this single-arm, open-label, single-centre phase 2 study, we enrolled patients aged 60 years or older with previously untreated AML or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome who had adequate organ function and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less...
August 13, 2018: Lancet Haematology
Chuanzhong Zhang, Hong Gao, Rongpeng Li, Dan Han, Le Wang, Junjiang Wu, Pengfei Xu, Shuzhen Zhang
Phytophthora sojae is a destructive pathogen of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] causing stem and root rot to soybean plants worldwide. However, the pathogenesis and molecular mechanism of plant defense responses against P. sojae are largely unclear. Herein, we document the underlying mechanisms and function of a novel BTB/POZ protein in soybean, GmBTB/POZ, which contains a BTB/POZ domain found in certain animal transcriptional regulators, in host soybean plants in response to P. sojae. It is located in the cell nucleus and transcriptionally up-regulated by P...
August 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Justin Beardsley, Catriona L Halliday, Sharon C-A Chen, Tania C Sorrell
The incidence of serious fungal infections is increasing rapidly, and yet the rate of new drugs becoming available to treat them is slow. The limited therapeutic armamentarium is a challenge for clinicians, because the available drugs are often toxic, expensive, difficult to administer, ineffective or a combination of all four. Given this setting, the emergence of resistance is especially concerning, and a review of the topic is timely. Here we discuss antifungal drug resistance in Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp...
August 16, 2018: Future Microbiology
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