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Line Infection

Wenyi Gu, Surong Sun, Andrew Kahn, Dalton Dacus, Sebastian O Wendel, Nigel McMillan, Nicholas A Wallace
High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the causative agent in virtually every cervical cancer as well as a host of other anogenital and oropharyngeal malignancies. These viruses must activate DNA repair pathways to facilitate their replication, while avoiding the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis that can accompany DNA damage. HPV oncoproteins facilitate each of these goals, but also reduce genome stability. Our data dissect the cytotoxic and cytoprotective characteristics of HPV oncogenes in cervical cancer cells...
December 2, 2018: Gene
Paula C Aulicino, Ines Zapiola, Silvia Kademian, María M Valle, Silvina Fernandez Giuliano, Rosana Toro, Gabriela Barbas, Ana M Cañizal, Paula Mayon, Marcelo D Golemba, Marcela Ortiz de Zarate, Marisa S Corazza, Analía Cudola, Débora Mecikovsky, Rosa Bologna, Andrea Mangano, Luisa Sen
Objectives: To assess the prevalence and patterns of pre-treatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) and HIV-1 subtype in infants from Argentina with exposure to different antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Patients and methods: HIV-1 genotyping was performed in 115 infants (median age = 2.3 months) born between 2007 and 2014 to screen for drug resistance mutations (DRMs) before starting first-line ART. HIV-1 subtype was characterized by phylogenetic and recombination analysis...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Frans Everson, Amanda Genis, Temitope Ogundipe, Patrick De Boever, Nandu Goswami, Amanda Lochner, Dee Blackhurst, Hans Strijdom
HIV-infection, certain antiretroviral drug classes, especially protease inhibitors (PI), and obesity are associated with increased ischaemic heart disease (IHD) risk. However, the effect of PI-free fixed dose combination (FDC) antiretroviral therapy (ART) on hearts exposed to ischaemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) is unknown, particularly in obesity. This is becoming relevant as World Health Organisation guidelines recommend a FDC ART containing (non-) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tenofovir (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC) and efavirenz (EFV)) as first-line HIV treatment...
2018: PloS One
Michael M Kheir, Timothy L Tan, Noam Shohat, Carol Foltz, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as the first-line testing for evaluation of suspected periprosthetic joint infection, in addition to synovial white blood-cell (WBC) count and polymorphonuclear percentage. However, the sensitivity and other diagnostic measures of these tests using a standardized definition of periprosthetic joint infection and the influence of organisms on these inflammatory markers remain inadequately investigated...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Aurora Pop-Vicas, Stephen Johnson, Nasia Safdar
OBJECTIVE: Current practice guidelines recommend cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefotetan, or ampicillin-sulbactam as first-line antibiotic prophylaxis in hysterectomy. We undertook this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine whether cefazolin, with limited antianaerobic spectrum, is as effective in preventing surgical site-infection (SSI) as the other first-choice antimicrobials that have more extensive antianaerobic activity. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Central, and EMBASE for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCT) in any language up to January 23, 2018...
December 5, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Peter W French, Russell Ludowyke, Gilles J Guillemin
We review several lines of evidence that point to a potential fungal origin of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is the most common form of motor neuron disease (MND) in adults. It is a progressive and fatal disease. Approximately 90% cases of ALS are sporadic, and 5-10% are due to genetic mutations (familial). About 25 genes implicated in familial ALS have been identified so far, including SOD1 and TARDBP, the gene encoding 43 kDa transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein (TDP-43). Despite intensive research over many decades, the aetiology of sporadic ALS is still unknown...
December 5, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Regianne Maciel Dos Santos Correa, Tatiane Cristina Mota, Adriana Costa Guimarães, Laís Teixeira Bonfim, Rommel Rodriguez Burbano, Marcelo de Oliveira Bahia
Fluconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal that is well-established as the first-line treatment for Candida albicans infections. Despite its extensive use, reports on its genotoxic/mutagenic effects are controversial; therefore, further studies are needed to better clarify such effects. African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of fluconazole and were then evaluated for different parameters, such as cytotoxicity (MTT/cell death by fluorescent dyes), genotoxicity/mutagenicity (comet assay/micronucleus test), and induction of oxidative stress (DCFH-DA assay)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Nida Mubin, Mohd Saad Umar, Swaleha Zubair, Mohammad Owais
In the present study, we investigated potential of chitosan-based nanoparticles (CNPs) to deliver loaded therapeutic molecules to pathogen harboring macrophages. We fabricated stable CNPs employing ionic cross-linking method and evaluated their potential to target RAW 264.7 cells. The physicochemical characterization of as-synthesized CNPs was determined using electron microscopy, infrared microscopy and zeta potential measurement. Next, cellular uptake and intracellular localization studies of CNPs were followed in living RAW264...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pramod Kumar Gupta, Savita Kulkarni
Plethora of clinical and scientific information obtained in recent past has strengthened the idea that targeting critical constituents of host immune system may have beneficial outcomes for the treatment of tuberculosis. Macrophages being the primary host for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, offer an attractive target for modulation. Owing to their negligible toxicity, plant derived polysaccharides with the ability to activate macrophages; are suitable candidates for immunomodulation. In the present study, effects of polysaccharide rich extract (PRE) isolated from Tinospora cordifolia, on the survival of intracellular MTB strains and activation of macrophages were investigated...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Salvatore Pisanu, Tiziana Cubeddu, Carla Cacciotto, Ylenia Pilicchi, Daniela Pagnozzi, Sergio Uzzau, Stefano Rocca, Maria Filippa Addis
Paratuberculosis (PTB) or Johne's disease is a contagious enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Ovine PTB is less understood than bovine PTB, especially concerning paucibacillary infection and its evolution into clinical disease. We combined shotgun proteomics, histopathology and immunohistochemistry for the characterization of ileal tissues collected from seven asymptomatic sheep negative to serum ELISA, positive to feces and tissue MAP IS900 and F57 PCR, histologically classified as paucibacillary, actively infected, together with 3 MAP-free controls (K)...
December 4, 2018: Veterinary Research
Yingtong Cui, Xuejuan Zhang, Wen Wang, Zhengwei Huang, Ziyu Zhao, Guanlin Wang, Shihao Cai, Hui Jing, Ying Huang, Xin Pan, Chuanbin Wu
Netilmicin (NTM) is one of the first-line drugs for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) therapy, but its nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity caused by intravenous injection restrict its clinical application. Dry powder inhalation (DPI) is a popular local drug delivery system that is introduced as a solution. Due to the nature of NTM hygroscopicity that hinders its direct use through DPI, in this study, L-leucine (LL) was added into NTM dry powder to reduce its moisture absorption rate and improve its aerosolization performance...
December 1, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Ryan M Brown, Gregory D Wiens, Irene Salinas
Commensal microorganisms present at mucosal surfaces play a vital role in protecting the host organism from bacterial infection. There are multiple factors that contribute to selecting for the microbiome, including host genetics. Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of Bacterial Cold Water Disease in salmonids, accounts for acute losses in wild and farmed Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The U.S. National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture has used family-based selective breeding to generate a line of rainbow trout with enhanced resistance to F...
December 1, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Cissy Kityo, Alexander J Szubert, Abraham Siika, Robert Heyderman, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Abbas Lugemwa, Shalton Mwaringa, Anna Griffiths, Immaculate Nkanya, Sheila Kabahenda, Simon Wachira, Godfrey Musoro, Chatu Rajapakse, Timothy Etyang, James Abach, Moira J Spyer, Priscilla Wavamunno, Linda Nyondo-Mipando, Ennie Chidziva, Kusum Nathoo, Nigel Klein, James Hakim, Diana M Gibb, A Sarah Walker, Sarah L Pett
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, individuals infected with HIV who are severely immunocompromised have high mortality (about 10%) shortly after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART). This group also has the greatest risk of morbidity and mortality associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), a paradoxical response to successful ART. Integrase inhibitors lead to significantly more rapid declines in HIV viral load (VL) than all other ART classes. We hypothesised that intensifying standard triple-drug ART with the integrase inhibitor, raltegravir, would reduce HIV VL faster and hence reduce early mortality, although this strategy could also risk more IRIS events...
December 2018: PLoS Medicine
Giovanni Di Perri, Andrea Calcagno, Alice Trentalange, Stefano Bonora
Treatment of HIV infection has consistently evolved in the last three decades. A steady improvement in efficacy tolerability, safety and practical aspects of treatment intake has made HIV infection much easier to manage over the long term, and in optimal treatment conditions the life expectancy of persons living with HIV infection now approaches the values of the general population. The last category of antiretrovirals to be fully developed for clinical use is the one of strand-transfer integrase inhibitors (INSTIs)...
December 4, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Elisabeth G Bjørnsen, Lavanya Thiruchelvam-Kyle, Sigurd E Hoelsbrekken, Camilla Henden, Per C Saether, Preben Boysen, Michael R Daws, Erik Dissen
NK cells kill cancer cells and infected cells upon activation by cell surface receptors. Human NKp30 is an activating receptor expressed by all mature NK cells. The B7 family member B7H6 has been identified as one ligand for NKp30. Several alternative ligands have also been reported, and the field remains unsettled. To this end, we have identified full-length functional B7H6 orthologs in rat and cattle, demonstrated by phylogenetic analysis and transfection experiments. In cell-cell contact-dependent assays, chimeric NKp30 reporter cells responded strongly to B7H6 in rat and cattle...
December 4, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
R Abrahão, R C Ribeiro, D Y Lichtensztajn, A S Rosenberg, T H M Keegan
BACKGROUND: This population-based study considered the influence of rituximab on the survival of children (0-19 years), adolescents, and young adults (AYAs, 20-39 years) with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), including patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: Data on 642 children and AYAs diagnosed with DLBCL during 2001-2014 were obtained from the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry in California. Facility-level reports provided treatment details...
December 4, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
António M Mendes, Isaie J Reuling, Carolina M Andrade, Thomas D Otto, Marta Machado, Filipa Teixeira, Joana Pissarra, Nataniel Gonçalves-Rosa, Dolores Bonaparte, João Sinfrónio, Mandy Sanders, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan, Chris I Newbold, Matthew Berriman, Cynthia K Lee, Yimin Wu, Christian F Ockenhouse, Robert W Sauerwein, Miguel Prudêncio
Whole-sporozoite vaccination/immunization induces high levels of protective immunity in both rodent models of malaria and in humans. Recently, we generated a transgenic line of the rodent malaria parasite P. berghei ( Pb ) that expresses the P. falciparum ( Pf ) circumsporozoite protein ( Pf CS), and showed that this parasite line ( Pb Vac) was capable of (1) infecting and developing in human hepatocytes but not in human erythrocytes, and (2) inducing neutralizing antibodies against the human Pf parasite. Here, we analyzed Pb Vac in detail and developed tools necessary for its use in clinical studies...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Sarah E Macdonald, Pauline M van Diemen, Henny Martineau, Mark P Stevens, Fiona M Tomley, Richard A Stabler, Damer P Blake
Eimeria tenella can cause the disease coccidiosis in chickens. The direct and often detrimental impact of this parasite on chicken health, welfare and productivity is well recognised, however less is known about the secondary effects infection may have on other gut pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of human bacterial food-borne disease in many countries and has been demonstrated to exert negative effects on poultry welfare and production in some broiler lines. Previous studies have shown that concurrent Eimeria infection can influence colonisation and replication of bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella Typhimurium...
December 3, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Ana Motos, Joseph L Kuti, Gianluigi Li Bassi, Antoni Torres, David P Nicolau
Describing the disposition of antimicrobials agents at the site of infection is crucial to guide optimal dosing for investigational agents. For antibiotics in development for nosocomial pneumonia, concentrations are frequently determined in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the lung from a bronchoscopy at a single time point. The influence of profiles constructed from a single ELF concentration point for each subject has never been reported. This study compares the pharmacokinetics of two β-lactams, ceftolozane and piperacillin, among different ELF sampling approaches using simulated human regimens in a swine pneumonia model...
December 3, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Wellington F da Silva, Lidiane Inês da Rosa, Gabriel Lacerda Marquez, Lucas Bassolli, Luciana Tucunduva, Douglas Rafaele Almeida Silveira, Valeria Buccheri, Israel Bendit, Eduardo Magalhães Rego, Vanderson Rocha, Elvira D R P Velloso
INTRODUCTION: Although a considerable improvement in survival of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been seen over the past decades, real-life outcomes seem to be worse than those reported by prospective studies. We aim to describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of adult patients diagnosed with APL in an academic hospital from the University of Sao Paulo. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 61 patients with APL diagnosed between January 2007 and May 2017...
November 12, 2018: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
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