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Line Infection

Jason P Burnham, Rebecca P Rojek, Marin H Kollef
Central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are responsible for ∼1/3 of all deaths from healthcare-associated infections in the United States. Of these, multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are responsible for 20% to 67%. However, whether catheter removal affects clinical outcomes for MDRO CLABSIs has not been studied. Our objective was to determine the relationship between failure to remove a central venous catheter (CVC) and 30-day all-cause mortality in patients with MDRO CLABSIs. We used a retrospective cohort from Barnes-Jewish Hospital (1/1/2009-10/1/2015) to study patients with a multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species, Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter species, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa CLABSI...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andrea Wolfler, Gianfranco Raimondi, Cecilia Pagan de Paganis, Elena Zoia
INTRODUCTION: Bronchiolitis is one of the most frequent reasons for PICU admission in children less than 1 year of age. It causes a wide spectrum of clinical scenarios from mild to severe respiratory failure and supportive therapy range from HFNC to nonconventional ventilation and ECMO in the most severe forms. Aim of this article is to review the available ventilation mode in children with bronchiolitis and the scientific evidence. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The main medical databases were explored to search for clinical trials that address management strategies for respiratory support of infants with RSV infection...
October 18, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Sudhanshu Abhishek, Uma Nahar Saikia, Amod Gupta, Reema Bansal, Vishali Gupta, Nirbhai Singh, Suman Laal, Indu Verma
Background: Intraocular tuberculosis (IOTB), an extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis of the eye, has unique and varied clinical presentations with poorly understood pathogenesis. As it is a significant cause of inflammation and visual morbidity, particularly in TB endemic countries, it is essential to study the pathogenesis of IOTB. Clinical and histopathologic studies suggest the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Methods: A human retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE-19) cell line was infected with a virulent strain of M...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jeffrey D Brand, Ahmed Lazrak, John E Trombley, Ren-Jay Shei, A Timothy Adewale, Jennifer L Tipper, Zhihong Yu, Amit R Ashtekar, Steven M Rowe, Sadis Matalon, Kevin S Harrod
Severe influenza (IAV) infection can develop into bronchopneumonia and edema, leading to acquired respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pathophysiology. Underlying causes for pulmonary edema and aberrant fluid regulation largely remain unknown, particularly regarding the role of viral-mediated mechanisms. Herein, we show that distinct IAV strains reduced the functions of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) in murine respiratory and alveolar epithelia in vivo, as assessed by measurements of nasal potential differences and single-cell electrophysiology...
October 18, 2018: JCI Insight
Davor Nestić, Taco G Uil, Jiangtao Ma, Soumitra Roy, Jort Vellinga, Andrew H Baker, Jerome Custers, Dragomira Majhen
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are being explored as vectors for gene transfer and vaccination. Human adenovirus type 26 (HAdV26), which belongs to the largest subgroup of adenoviruses, species D, has a short fiber and a so far unknown natural tropism. Due to its low seroprevalence, HAdV26 has been considered a promising vector for the development of vaccines. Despite the fact that the in vivo safety and immunogenicity of HAdV26 has been extensively studied, the basic biology of this virus, with regard to receptor use, cell attachment, internalization and intracellular trafficking is poorly understood...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
Tara A Russell, Elyse Fritschel, Jennifer Do, Melanie Donovan, Maureen Keckeisen, Vatche G Agopian, Douglas G Farmer, Tisha Wang, Zachary Rubin, Ronald W Busuttil, Fady M Kaldas
BACKGROUND: Increases in liver transplant patient perioperative acuity have resulted in frail immunosuppressed patients at elevated risk for nosocomial infections. Avoiding central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) is paramount to facilitate transplantation and post-transplant recovery. In 2015, our liver transplant intensive care unit (ICU) CLABSIs accounted for more than 25% of all CLABSI at our institution. We therefore undertook a multidisciplinary collaborative among clinical epidemiology, nursing, transplant surgery, and critical care to eliminate CLABSI events...
October 14, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Indah K Murni, Trevor Duke, Andrew J Daley, Sharon Kinney, Yati Soenarto
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) is associated with high mortality rates. Evaluating factors to predict mortality is important for prevention and improving clinical outcomes. AIM: To evaluate the clinical predictors of mortality in paediatric nosocomial bloodstream infection. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted from 1 December 2010 until 28 February 2013 in a teaching hospital in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. All patients admitted consecutively to the paediatric ICU (PICU) and paediatric wards after > 48 h of hospitalisation were eligible...
October 17, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Vanika Garg, Aamir W Khan, Himabindu Kudapa, Sandip M Kale, Annapurna Chitikineni, Sun Qiwei, Mamta Sharma, Chuanying Li, Baohong Zhang, Xin Liu, P B Kavi Kishor, Rajeev K Varshney
Ascochyta blight (AB) is one of the major biotic stresses known to limit the chickpea production worldwide. To dissect the complex mechanisms of AB resistance in chickpea, three approaches, namely, transcriptome, small RNA and degradome sequencing were used. The transcriptome sequencing of 20 samples including two resistant genotypes, two susceptible genotypes and one introgression line under control and stress conditions at two time points (3rd and 7th day post inoculation) identified a total of 6767 differentially expressed genes (DEGs)...
October 16, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Thomas Daix, Estelle Guérin, Elsa Tavernier, Jean-Philippe Marsaud, Adélaïde Hacan, François Gauthier, Alessandro Piccardo, Philippe Vignon, Jean Feuillard, Bruno François
BACKGROUND: Similarly, to sepsis, cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induces major changes in leukocyte subsets. Immature granulocytes (IGs) increase both in sepsis and after open-heart surgery. Secondary infections are a major complication of cardiac surgery with CPB. We hypothesized that the assessment of leukocyte subsets with multicolor flow cytometry (FCM) could help the front-line clinician to better identify patients at high risk of infectious complications in this clinical setting...
October 16, 2018: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
Mariia Novikova, Lucas J Adams, Juan Fontana, Anna T Gres, Muthukumar Balasubramaniam, Dennis C Winkler, Sagar B Kudchodkar, Ferri Soheilian, Stefan G Sarafianos, Alasdair C Steven, Eric O Freed
Late in the HIV-1 replication cycle, the viral structural protein Gag is targeted to virus assembly sites at the plasma membrane of infected cells. The capsid (CA) domain of Gag plays a critical role in the formation of the hexameric Gag lattice in the immature virion, and, during particle release, CA is cleaved from the Gag precursor by the viral protease and forms the conical core of the mature virion. A highly conserved Pro-Pro-Ile-Pro (PPIP) motif (CA residues 122 to 125) [PPIP(122-125)] in a loop connecting CA helices 6 and 7 resides at a 3-fold axis formed by neighboring hexamers in the immature Gag lattice...
October 16, 2018: MBio
David M Brown, Alison M Hixon, Lauren M Oldfield, Yun Zhang, Mark Novotny, Wei Wang, Suman R Das, Reed S Shabman, Kenneth L Tyler, Richard H Scheuermann
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has historically been associated with respiratory illnesses. However, in the summers of 2014 and 2016, EV-D68 outbreaks coincided with a spike in polio-like acute flaccid myelitis/paralysis (AFM/AFP) cases. This raised concerns that EV-D68 could be the causative agent of AFM during these recent outbreaks. To assess the potential neurotropism of EV-D68, we utilized the neuroblastoma-derived neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y as a cell culture model to determine if differential infection is observed for different EV-D68 strains...
October 16, 2018: MBio
T Carta, J P Gawaziuk, J Diaz-Abele, S Liu, M Jeschke, S Logsetty
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to identify what burn survivors and front-line staff indicate would improve satisfaction with burn dressings, and the ranking of importance of different burn dressing characteristics. These findings will guide the development of future dressings to meet these needs. METHODS: Burn survivors (including the person injured and their family) and front-line burn healthcare providers completed a questionnaire on the importance given to different burn dressing characteristics (non-stick, absorbent, able to wear for a long time, flexible, easy to put on, easy to take off, antimicrobial, and non-bulky), and about the adequacy of pain management during dressing changes...
October 13, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Deborah A Grosenbaugh, Karelle De Luca, Pierre-Yves Durand, Bradley Feilmeier, Kristopher DeWitt, Cecile Sigoillot-Claude, Marie-Line Sajous, Michael J Day, Frederic David
BACKGROUND: Prevention of Lyme disease in dogs in North America depends on effective vaccination against infection by the tick vector-born spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Most vaccines effectively prevent spirochete transmission to dogs during tick feeding based on immunization with the outer-surface lipoprotein A (OspA) of B. burgdorferi. More recently, vaccines containing additional OspC protein moieties have been introduced. These are designed to enhance protection by forming a second line of defense within the vertebrate host, where OspC expression replaces OspA as the dominant surface antigen...
October 16, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Khuondyla Pal, Vohith Khol, Say Sok, Pheak Chhoun, Laura Ferguson, Gitau Mburu
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV experience worse HIV care outcomes compared to adults, especially during transition from pediatric to adult care. However, data regarding adolescents are limited. This paper describes and compares characteristics of male and female adolescents living with HIV preparing for transition from pediatric to adult care in Cambodia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2016 among 328 adolescents aged 15-17, randomly selected from 11 antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics...
October 16, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Zheng Zhu, Hin Chu, Shuofeng Yuan, Kenn Ka-Heng Chik, Chris Chung-Sing Chan, Vincent Kwok-Man Poon, Cyril Chik-Yan Yip, Xi Zhang, Jessica Oi-Ling Tsang, Zijou Zou, Kah-Meng Tee, Huiping Shuai, Gang Lu, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a human-pathogenic flavivirus that has recently emerged as a global public health threat. ZIKV infection may be associated with congenital malformations in infected fetuses and severe neurological and systemic complications in infected adults. There are currently limited treatment options for ZIKV infection. AR-12 (OSU-03012) is a celecoxib derivative cellular kinase inhibitor that has broad-spectrum antiviral activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity and mechanism of AR-12 against ZIKV...
October 13, 2018: Antiviral Research
Devendra Kumar Biswal, Tanmoy Roychowdhury, Priyatama Pandey, Veena Tandon
Many trematode parasites cause infection in humans and are thought to be a major public health problem. Their ecological diversity in different regions provides challenging questions on evolution of these organisms. In this report, we perform transcriptome analysis of the giant intestinal fluke, Fasciolopsis buski, using next generation sequencing technology. Short read sequences derived from polyA containing RNA of this organism were assembled into 30,677 unigenes that led to the annotation of 12,380 genes...
2018: PloS One
Hussein Elgohary, Ahmed M Nawar, Ahmed Zidan, Ahmed A Shoulah, Mohamed T Younes, Ahmed M Hamed
BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, inflammatory disease affecting the apocrine glands of the axillary, groin, and mammary regions with significant physical and psychosocial sequelae. Surgical excision of the affected tissue is the criterion standard treatment. Advanced cases of axillary HS are associated with high rates of recurrence and require extensive surgical resection with challenging reconstruction associated with risk of postoperative complications. The most effective method for reconstruction of the axilla after excision of HS is yet to be identified...
October 15, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Qiuchun Li, Yang Li, Jie Xia, Xin Wang, Kequan Yin, Yachen Hu, Chao Yin, Zijian Liu, Xinan Jiao
To reveal differences in virulence among strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum), we used 2 cell-based infection models and a chicken embryo infection model in this study. S. Pullorum strain S06004 was used to infect 4 different avian cell lines (HD-11, DF-1, LMH, DT-40), and the results showed that the infection of S06004 in both LMH and HD-11 cells was more stable than in DF-1 and DT-40 cells. Therefore, the HD-11 and LMH cell lines were used as the appropriate macrophage and epithelial cell models, respectively, to study the infection of S...
October 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Julia Y Co, Gerardo Cárcamo-Oyarce, Nicole Billings, Kelsey M Wheeler, Scott C Grindy, Niels Holten-Andersen, Katharina Ribbeck
Mucus is a biological gel that lines all wet epithelia in the body, including the mouth, lungs, and digestive tract, and has evolved to protect the body from pathogenic infection. However, microbial pathogenesis is often studied in mucus-free environments that lack the geometric constraints and microbial interactions in physiological three-dimensional mucus gels. We developed fluid-flow and static test systems based on purified mucin polymers, the major gel-forming constituents of the mucus barrier, to understand how the mucus barrier influences bacterial virulence, particularly the integrity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, which can become resistant to immune clearance and antimicrobial agents...
2018: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
Tim Krischuns, Franziska Günl, Lea Henschel, Marco Binder, Joschka Willemsen, Sebastian Schloer, Ursula Rescher, Vanessa Gerlt, Gert Zimmer, Carolin Nordhoff, Stephan Ludwig, Linda Brunotte
Human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) is often associated with severe tissue damage due to hyperinduction of interferons and proinflammatory cytokines. The reasons for this excessive cytokine expression are still incompletely understood, which has hampered the development of efficient immunomodulatory treatment options. The host protein TRIM28 associates to the promoter regions of over 13,000 genes and is recognized as a genomic corepressor and negative immune regulator. TRIM28 corepressor activity is regulated by post-translational modifications, specifically phosphorylation of S473, which modulates binding of TRIM28 to the heterochromatin-binding protein HP1...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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