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Congenital AND Infect*

Julia Kęsik-Maliszewska, Aleksandra Antos, Jerzy Rola, Magdalena Larska
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is the member of Peribunyaviridae family, which comprises pathogens of importance for human and veterinary medicine. The virus is transmitted only between animals and mainly by biting midges of the genus Culicoides. This study was performed in order to determine SBV genetic diversity and elucidate the host-vector adaptation. All three viral segments were analysed for sequence variability and phylogenetic relations. The Polish SBV strains obtained from acute infections of cattle, congenital cases in sheep, and from Culicoides midges were sequenced using Sanger and next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods...
October 19, 2018: Virus Genes
Françoise Lazarini, Lida Katsimpardi, Sarah Levivien, Sébastien Wagner, Pierre Gressens, Natacha Teissier, Pierre-Marie Lledo
In developed countries, cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infected newborns are at high risk of developing sensorineural handicaps, such as hearing loss, requiring extensive follow-up. However early prognostic tools for auditory damage in children are not yet available. In the fetus, CMV infection leads to early olfactory bulb (OB) damage, suggesting that olfaction might represent a valuable prognosis for neurological outcome of this viral infection. Here, we demonstrate that in utero CMV inoculation causes fetal infection and growth retardation in mice of both sexes...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Tetsuo Koshizuka, Kuniaki Toriyabe, Yuko Sato, Kazufumi Ikuta, Tomoaki Ikeda, Tatsuo Suzutani
A 27-year-old pregnant woman positive for anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies gave birth to a congenitally CMV-infected neonate at 40 weeks gestation. According to strain-specific serological analysis, which is able to determine the two types of CMV glycoprotein H (gH), the mother possessed anti-gH(To) antibodies only but the neonate possessed anti-gH(AD) and anti-gH(To) antibodies at 4 weeks after birth. As the anti-gH(To) IgG was decreased at 8 months post-delivery in the neonate, these antibodies are thought to have been transferred from mother as maternal antibodies...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Li Huang, Li Li, Tao Yang, Wen Li, Li Song, Xianmin Meng, Qing Gu, Changming Xiong, Jianguo He
BACKGROUND: The reversibility of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in congenital heart disease (CHD) is of great importance for the operability of CHD. Proteomics analysis found that transgelin was significantly up-regulated in the lung tissue of CHD-PAH patients, especially in the irreversible group. However, how exactly it participated in CHD-PAH development is unknown. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot were performed for further qualitative and quantitative analysis of transgelin in the lung tissues of CHD-PAH patients...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Lucia de Noronha, Camila Zanluca, Marion Burger, Andreia Akemi Suzukawa, Marina Azevedo, Patricia Z Rebutini, Iolanda Maria Novadzki, Laurina Setsuko Tanabe, Mayra Marinho Presibella, Claudia Nunes Duarte Dos Santos
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in humans has been associated with congenital malformations and other neurological disorders, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. The mechanism(s) of ZIKV intrauterine transmission, the cell types involved, the most vulnerable period of pregnancy for severe outcomes from infection and other physiopathological aspects are not completely elucidated. In this study, we analyzed placental samples obtained at the time of delivery from a group of 24 women diagnosed with ZIKV infection during the first, second or third trimesters of pregnancy...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alessandra Lemos de Carvalho, Carlos Brites, Tânia Barreto Taguchi, Suely Fernandes Pinho, Gúbio Campos, Rita Lucena
We describe a case of a 20-month-old girl with probable congenital Zika virus infection and normal neurodevelopment, despite microcephaly and abnormal neuroimaging. This case raises questions about early prognostic markers and draws attention to the need for investigation in suspected Zika cases, even if the child's early neurodevelopment is normal.
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Pawel T Schubert, Deidre Mason, Roosacelis Martines, Marlene Deleon-Carnes, Sherif R Zaki, Drucilla J Roberts
Fetal bacterial infections are a common cause of fetal/neonatal morbidity and mortality. The pathologic correlates of congenital bacterial infection include acute chorioamnionitis, acute villitis, and acute intervillositis. The strength of the association of congenital bacterial infection differs among these pathologies. Acute chorioamnionitis results usually from an ascending infection, and damage to the fetus is thought to be cytokine driven rather than damage secondary to bacteremia. Acute villitis is strongly associated with fetal sepsis due to congenital infections...
October 18, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Virginia Mirra, Nicola Ullmann, Claudio Cherchi, Alessandro Onofri, Maria G Paglietti, Renato Cutrera
Bronchiolitis is the most frequent airway infection in the first 2 years of life, and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the virus more frequent responsible. In selected high-risk groups, RSV may cause severe respiratory disease leading to hospitalisation, need for mechanical ventilation, and even death. These high-risk groups include children with congenital heart disease, infants with neuromuscular impairment, cystic fibrosis, down syndrome, immunodeficiency syndromes and others specific conditions...
October 18, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Jose Luis Slon Campos, Juthathip Mongkolsapaya, Gavin R Screaton
Arthropod-borne flaviviruses are important human pathogens that cause a diverse range of clinical conditions, including severe hemorrhagic syndromes, neurological complications and congenital malformations. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop safe and effective vaccines, a process requiring better understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved during infection. Decades of research suggest a paradoxical role of the immune response against flaviviruses: although the immune response is crucial for the control, clearance and prevention of infection, poor clinical outcomes are commonly associated with virus-specific immunity and immunopathogenesis...
October 17, 2018: Nature Immunology
Marta González-Warleta, José Antonio Castro-Hermida, Carmen Calvo, Valentín Pérez, Daniel Gutiérrez-Expósito, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora, Mercedes Mezo
Endogenous transplacental transmission, which occurs during pregnancy as the result of reactivation of a latent infection in the dam, is the main mechanism of propagation of Neospora caninum within cattle herds. However, the importance of this propagation mechanism has not yet been evaluated in relation to ovine neosporosis. In this study, involving three generations of ewes naturally infected by N. caninum, we demonstrated that endogenous transplacental transmission may also be highly efficient in the ovine host since transmission of infection occurred in 96...
October 17, 2018: Veterinary Research
Rebecca Kahn, Matt Hitchings, Rui Wang, Steven Bellan, Marc Lipsitch
Vaccine efficacy against susceptibility to infection (VES), regardless of symptoms, is an important endpoint of vaccine trials for pathogens with a high proportion of asymptomatic infection, as such infections may contribute to onward transmission and long-term sequelae such as Congenital Zika Syndrome. However, estimating VES is resource-intensive. We aim to identify approaches to accurately estimate VES when limited information is available and resources are constrained. We model an individually randomized vaccine trial by generating a network of individuals and simulating an epidemic...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Maria de Fatima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque, Wayner Vieira de Souza, Thalia Velho Barreto Araújo, Maria Cynthia Braga, Demócrito de Barros Miranda Filho, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes, Djalma Agripino de Melo Filho, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Sandra Valongueiro, Ana Paula Lopes de Melo, Sinval Pinto Brandão-Filho, Celina Maria Turchi Martelli
In August 2015, pediatric neurologists at public hospitals in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, observed an increase in the number of disproportional microcephaly cases associated with other congenital anomalies. The fact caused social commotion and mobilization of the academic community and led the Brazilian Ministry of Health to declare a national public health emergency, followed by the declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. The hypothesis for the phenomenon was congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, based on spatial-temporal correlation and the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of the two epidemics...
October 11, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Vera Ehrenstein, Nickolaj Risbo Kristensen, Brigitta Ursula Monz, Barry Clinch, Andy Kenwright, Henrik Toft Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to influenza or fever is associated with risk of congenital malformations. Oseltamivir is used to treat influenza and to provide post-exposure prophylaxis. We examined the association between oseltamivir use during pregnancy and birth outcomes. METHODS: This was a nationwide registry-based prevalence study with individual level data linkage, in a setting of universal health care access. We included all recorded pregnancies in Denmark in 2002-2013, and used data from population registries to examine associations between dispensings for oseltamivir during pregnancy (first trimester, second/third trimester, none) and congenital malformations, foetal death, preterm birth, foetal growth, and low 5-min Apgar score...
October 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Umashankar Vetrivel, Hemavathy Nagarajan
AIMS: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular Apicomplexan parasite and a causative agent of toxoplasmosis in human. Its parasitic invasion leads to encephalitis, uveitis, chorioretinitis and congenital infection. Host invasion by T. gondii is mediated by Moving junction (MJ) complex formed by secretory proteins such as micronemes and Rhoptry Neck proteins (RONs). Among these secretory proteins, RON4 shows major interactions with RON2 and RON5 of MJ complex and is also found to facilitate invasion by interacting with the β-tubulin of the host...
October 13, 2018: Life Sciences
Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Zheng Zhu, Hin Chu, Shuofeng Yuan, Kenn Ka-Heng Chik, Chris Chung-Sing Chan, Vincent Kwok-Man Poon, Cyril Chik-Yan Yip, Xi Zhang, Jessica Oi-Ling Tsang, Zijiao Zou, Kah-Meng Tee, Huiping Shuai, Gang Lu, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a human-pathogenic flavivirus that has recently emerged as a global public health threat. ZIKV infection may be associated with congenital malformations in infected fetuses and severe neurological and systemic complications in infected adults. There are currently limited treatment options for ZIKV infection. AR-12 (OSU-03012) is a celecoxib derivative cellular kinase inhibitor that has broad-spectrum antiviral activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity and mechanism of AR-12 against ZIKV...
October 13, 2018: Antiviral Research
Rebecca J Kamil, Christopher Roxbury, Emily Boss
OBJECTIVES: Rhinoplasty is commonly performed in children with congenital anomalies and resultant nasal deformity causing airway obstruction. Little is known regarding patient factors or perioperative sequelae. We define demographic characteristics and perioperative complications for children undergoing rhinoplasty within a large national cohort. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of children aged ≤ 18 years undergoing rhinoplasty utilizing data from the 2012 to 2015 American College of Surgeons National Surgery Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric public use file...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Isabel V Poggiali, Ana Cristina Simões E Silva, Mariana A Vasconcelos, Cristiane S Dias, Izabella R Gomes, Rafaela A Carvalho, Maria Christina L Oliveira, Sergio V Pinheiro, Robert H Mak, Eduardo A Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Solitary functioning kidney (SFK) is an important condition in the spectrum of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. The aim of this study was to describe the risk factors for renal injury in a cohort of patients with congenital SFK. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 162 patients with SFK were systematically followed up (median, 8.5 years). The primary endpoint was time until the occurrence of a composite event of renal injury, which includes proteinuria, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
October 15, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
C Gustavo De Moraes, Michele Pettito, Juan B Yepez, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Etienne Simon-Loriere, Mussaret B Zaidi, Matthieu Prot, Claude Ruffie, Susan S Kim, Rando Allikmets, Joseph D Terwilliger, Joseph H Lee, Gladys E Maestre
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1099/jmmcr.0.005145.].
August 2018: JMM Case Reports
D Zanotti, C Fiorani, A Botha
BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic and hiatus hernias can cause mild chronic symptoms or have an acute presentation with gastric volvulus and obstruction. Elective or emergency surgery is indicated in symptomatic patients and nowadays is generally performed laparoscopically. METHODS: We report four different types of hernias: a giant hiatus hernia following a gastric pull-up for recurrent congenital diaphragmatic hernia; a Bochdalek hernia in a pregnant young woman; concomitant hiatus and Morgagni hernias; and a giant hiatus hernia occupying the right chest...
October 16, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Gbolahan Ajibola, Jean Leidner, Gloria K Mayondi, Erik van Widenfelt, Tebogo Madidimalo, Chipo Petlo, Sikhulile Moyo, Mompati Mmalane, Paige L Williams, Adam R Cassidy, Roger Shapiro, Betsy Kammerer, Shahin Lockman
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively assess rates and detailed predictors of morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed uninfected children and HIV-unexposed children in Botswana in a more recent era. STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their children in the prospective observational Tshipidi study at 2 sites (1 city and 1 village) in Botswana from May 2010-July 2012. Live-born children and their mothers were followed for 24 months postpartum...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
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