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Congenital AND Infect*

Logan L Vincent, Catherine M Otto
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infective endocarditis remains a highly mortal disease, yet the diagnosis often is missed or made only late in the disease course. The spectrum of patients presenting with endocarditis is shifting with different risk factors, predisposing patient characteristics, and treatment recommendations than in the past. This review addresses changes in the epidemiology of infective endocarditis, along with current diagnostic imaging modalities, treatment recommendations, and mortality trends...
August 16, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Yıldız Perk, Mine Özdil
Respiratory syncytial virus is one of the major causes of respiratory tract infections during infancy with high rates of hospitalization and mortality during the first years of life. It is the most common cause of acute bronchiolitis and viral pneumonia in children below two years of age and second the most common cause of postneonatal infant mortality all around the world following malaria. In addition, the virus has been causally linked to recurrent wheezing and associated with pediatric asthma. The respiratory syncytial virus infections tend to be severe in high risk patients such as patients below six months of age, with prematurity, congenital heart diseases, neuromuscular diseases and immune deficiencies...
June 2018: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Julide Sisman, Lina Chalak, Roy Heyne, Marcia Pritchard, Devri Weakley, L Steven Brown, Charles R Rosenfeld
OBJECTIVE: To examine the inter-rater reliability for the diagnosis of LSV on cranial ultrasound (cUS), determine the risk factors associated with LSV and its progression, and examine neurodevelopmental outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case-control study of neonates ≤32wks of gestation assessed for LSV by serial cUS (n = 1351) between 2012 and 2014 and their neurodevelopment at 18-36mon-corrected age compared to controls. RESULTS: Agreement for LSV on cUS improved from Κappa 0...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Connie Leeper, Andrew Lutzkanin
Several infections have unique consequences or considerations in pregnancy. Some common infections such as urinary tract infections, influenza, sexually transmitted diseases, and vaginitis affect pregnant women differently than the general population, can cause pregnancy complications, and require treatments that are safe in pregnancy. Infections such as hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus can be transmitted vertically and therefore management focuses on decreasing perinatal transmission. Certain infections can be transmitted in utero and cause congenital infections...
September 2018: Primary Care
Heather Deall, Saul N Faust, Emanuela Pelosi, Joanna Fairhurst, Kirsten Elliott, Sanjay Patel
Congenital syphilis is a prevalent infection in much of the world but rare in contexts where antenatal screening and treatment are available. In the UK in 2016, three cases of congenital syphilis were reported in babies born to women who were seronegative at the time of booking and hence a high degree of clinical vigilance is required in the unwell infant. We present the case of a seven-week-old baby girl with congenital syphilis with the unusual finding of discrete liver lesions. This baby was successfully treated with intravenous ceftriaxone...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Parissa Massahikhaleghi, Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi, Sayed Ataullah Saeedzai, Sayyed Musa Hossaini, Sayed Amin Hamedi, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Mohsen Naghavi, Christopher J L Murray, Ali H Mokdad
BACKGROUND: Afghanistan is one of the low-income countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region with young population and myriad of healthcare needs. We aim to report the burden of diseases and injuries in Afghanistan between 1990 and 2016. METHODS: We used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2016 study for estimates of deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost, years of life lived with disability, maternal mortality ratio (MMR), neonatal mortality rates (NMRs) and under 5 mortality rates (U5MR) in Afghanistan...
August 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Takuya Miura, Reina Makino, Kouhei Yamada, Miku Matsuura, Misaki Okumura, Souichi Yamada, Shinji Watanabe, Naoki Inoue
As congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the major cause of developmental abnormalities in children, the development of effective vaccines is critical to public health. Recent studies have demonstrated that the pentameric complex (Pentamer) of glycoproteins, which is required for human CMV infection of endothelial and epithelial cells, could be a potent vaccine antigen. As guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) infects congenitally and encodes homologues of all Pentamer components, GPCMV models are considered to be useful for the development of vaccine strategies...
August 16, 2018: Journal of General Virology
C Miller, D Grynspan, L Gaudet, E Ferretti, S Lawrence, F Moretti, A Lafreniere, A McGee, S Lattuca, A Black
The epidemic of prescription and non-prescription opioid misuse is of particular importance in pregnancy. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada currently recommends opioid replacement therapy with methadone or buprenorphine for opioid-dependent women during pregnancy. This vulnerable segment of the population has been shown to be at increased risk of blood-borne infectious diseases, nutritional insecurity and stress. The objective of this study was to describe an urban cohort of pregnant women on opioid replacement therapy and to evaluate potential effects on the fetus...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Zhihao Zhang, Ping He, Yan Zhou, Xuhua Xie, Shuying Feng, Changyu Sun
The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of interferon (IFN)-thymosin α1 (TA1) in a transgenic Dunaliella salina (TDS) system in vitro and in vivo . The toxicity of TDS in the HepG2.2.15 cell line was assessed using an MTT assay. The effect of TDS on the secretion of HBV early antigen (HBeAg) and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) in culture supernatants was measured using ELISA. In addition, HBV-DNA was analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Drug treatment experiments were performed in vivo on ducks congenitally infected with duck HBV (DHBV)...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Sachi Matsubayashi, Manabu Suzuki, Tomoyuki Suzuki, Ayako Shiozawa, Konomi Kobayashi, Satoru Ishii, Motoyasu Iikura, Shinyu Izumi, Koichiro Kudo, Haruhito Sugiyama
BACKGROUND: Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is a rare disease characterized by the triad of thickened, slow-growing yellow nails, lymphedema, and chronic respiratory manifestations. The cause of YNS is not known; however, it is suggested to be due to a congenital lymph abnormality. Since YNS is accompanied by chronic bronchial infection in more than half of patients, we hypothesized that treatment with clarithromycin (CAM) could be effective. We therefore evaluated the effectiveness of CAM against nail discoloration and respiratory manifestation in patients with YNS...
August 15, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Jadel Müller Kratz, Facundo Garcia Bournissen, Colin J Forsyth, Sergio Sosa-Estani
Introduction Chagas disease (CD) is one of the most neglected public health problems in the Americas, where <1% of the estimated 6 million people with the infection have been diagnosed and treated. The goal of treatment is to eliminate the parasite, decrease the probability of cardiomyopathy and other complications during the chronic stage of infection, and interrupt the cycle of disease transmission by preventing congenital infection. Currently, only benznidazole (BZN) and nifurtimox are recognized by the World Health Organization as effective drugs for treatment of CD...
August 16, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Młgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P. Czarkowski
OBJECTIVE OF THE ARTICLE: This is for the year 2016 subsequent annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland as part of the Epidemiological Chronicle of the Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to summarize the collective incidence of infectious diseases and to indicate potential threats to the health of populations from communicable diseases occurring in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The basic source of epidemiological information for this summary is a summary of data from reports of the State Sanitary Inspection, contained in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2016” and “Protective Vaccination in Poland in 2016” (1, 2)...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Magda Orzechowska, Elżbieta Krajewska-Kułak, Mateusz Cybulski, Ewelina Mystkowska, Anna Milewska
INTRODUCTION: Syphilis is a systemic disease with a complex natural history and a diversified clinical symptomology, taking various forms. It is characterized by a long-term course, often asymptomatic. The Global Estimates indicate that Treponema pallidum caused 5.6 million infections per year. AIM: Epidemiological characteristics of patients with syphilis in selected Polish urban agglomerations (Warsaw and Gdańsk) in 2016. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases of syphilis reported by doctors to The Provincial Sanitary and Epidemiological Stations in Gdańsk (50 cases) and in Warsaw (520 cases) in 2016 were analysed...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Monica C Campos, Jamille G Dombrowski, Jody Phelan, Claudio R F Marinho, Martin Hibberd, Taane G Clark, Susana Campino
Zika virus infections can cause a range of neurologic disorders including congenital microcephaly. However, while Zika infections have been notified across all regions in Brazil, there has been an unusual number of congenital microcephaly case notifications concentrated in the Northeast of the country. To address this observation, we investigated epidemiological data (2014-2016) on arbovirus co-distribution, environmental and socio-economic factors for each region in Brazil. Data on arbovirus reported cases and microcephaly were collected from several Brazilian Ministry of Health databases for each Federal unit...
2018: PloS One
Abaineh D Endalew, Igor Morozov, A Sally Davis, Natasha N Gaudreault, Kerstin Wernike, Bhupinder Bawa, Mark G Ruder, Barbara S Drolet, D Scott McVey, Vinay Shivanna, Wenjun Ma, Bonto Faburay, William C Wilson, Juergen A Richt
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an orthobunyavirus in the Simbu serogroup that emerged in Germany in late 2011 and was mostly associated with a mild transient disease of sheep and cattle. SBV is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides species) and causes abortions, stillbirths, and congenital defects in naïve pregnant ruminants. Two separate studies were conducted with a primary objective of better understanding the virological and serological responses of sheep and cattle to different SBV isolates after experimental infection...
August 15, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Avinash Khandagale, Beatrice Lazzaretto, Göran Carlsson, Mikael Sundin, Sulman Shafeeq, Ute Römling, Bengt Fadeel
Mutations in the gene JAGN1 were recently discovered in patients with severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) consisting of decondensed chromatin decorated with various granular proteins such as neutrophil elastase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) to combat microbial infections. However, whether JAGN1 is required for the formation or function of NETs is not known. Here, we analyzed primary neutrophils from a patient with homozygous JAGN1 mutations with respect to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced NET formation...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Lilla Dénes, Imre Biksi, Mihály Albert, Levente Szeredi, Dániel G Knapp, Anna Szilasi, Ádám Bálint, Gyula Balka
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) is a recently identified RNA virus within the Flaviviridae family, causing congenital tremor (CT) in the piglets of infected sows. We have investigated 25 cases of CT from 2005, 2007, 2010 and 2016-2018, originating from six different farms. RT-PCR has been performed on these samples and all of the affected piglets were positive to APPV. Our phylogenetic analysis showed that Hungarian strains show a high degree of variability and are clustered into five distinct lineages. Four strains originating from one farm have shown exceptional similarity (99...
August 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi, José Giraldo, Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales, Oriana Pacheco, Germán Y Lombó-Lucero, Juan D Plaza, Fabio J Adami-Teppa, Alejandra Carrillo, Carlos E Hernandez-Pereira, Gabriela M Blohm
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus endemic in Africa and Southern Asian countries, which has recently emerged in unprecedented epidemic proportions around the world. Although ZIKV infection is often asymptomatic or distinguished by non-specific influenza-like symptoms, an increase in its pathogenicity and biological behavior has been the hallmark of the current pandemic. Increasing evidence suggests that neurotropic strains of ZIKV have evolved from less pathogenic strains of the virus. Neurological manifestations of ZIKV infection include a spectrum of congenital and non-congenital clinical entities, however visual somatosensory perceptual disorders have not been recorded to date...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Manami Hayashi, Itsuko Nishiyama, Masako Moriuchi, Hiroyuki Moriuchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Caroline Paquet, Mark H Yudin
BACKGROUND: One of the major consequences of pregnant women becoming infected by Toxoplasma gondii is vertical transmission to the fetus. Although rare, congenital toxoplasmosis can cause severe neurological or ocular disease (leading to blindness), as well as cardiac and cerebral anomalies. Prenatal care must include education about prevention of toxoplasmosis. The low prevalence of the disease in the Canadian population and limitations in diagnosis and therapy limit the effectiveness of screening strategies...
August 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
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