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Christopher Ball, Anne Forrester, Kannan Ganapathy
Respiratory diseases continue to have a major impact on poultry health, welfare and productivity. However, little information is available on their current status in UK poultry flocks. We investigated the presence of four economically important respiratory pathogens in healthy or problematic flocks; infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) and Mycoplasma synoviae (Ms). Samples from 131 UK poultry flocks were received during the 12 month study period. Oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were taken from eight birds per flock and accompanied with flock health information...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Adnan Majid, Fayez Kheir, Melibea Sierra, Christian Ghattas, Mihir Parikh, Colleen Channick, Colleen Keyes, Alex Chee, Sebastian Fernandez-Bussy, Sidhu Gangadharan, Erik Folch
BACKGROUND: Intrabronchial valves(IBV) is a treatment alternative for persistent air leak(PAL). However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding whether the absence of collateral ventilation(CV) can predict successful treatment of PAL with IBV placement. We assessed whether absence of CV measured by fissure integrity could predict successful resolution of PAL with IBV placement. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective study was performed. Patients who underwent IBV placement for PAL were identified...
October 10, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
M Vasfi Marandi, M Malekan, M M Ranjbar, N Dadashpour Davachi, S Alamian
Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute, highly contagious, and economically important viral disease of chickens. The S1 subunit from Spike (S) protein plays the major role in protective immunity and is involved in the host-virus interactions, as well as infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) serotyping. Aim of the present study was multi-aspect analysis of the molecular and immunological features of 5' part belonging to the S1 glycoprotein sequence of Iranian 793/B IBV strain isolates. This might ideally help in characterization, prevention, and vaccine development...
September 2018: Archives of Razi Institute
D Henritzi, B Hoffmann, S Wacheck, S Pesch, G Herrler, M Beer, T C Harder
BACKGROUND: Human- or avian-to-swine transmissions have founded several autonomously circulating influenza A virus (IAV) lineages in swine populations that cause economically important respiratory disease. Little is known on other human influenza virus types, like B (IBV) and C (ICV) in European swine, and of the recently detected novel animal influenza virus type D (IDV). OBJECTIVES: Development of a cost-effective diagnostic tool for large-scale surveillance programmes targeting all four influenza virus types...
September 28, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Z Broomand, R A Jafari, M Mayahi
Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza virus (AIV), and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) are the most prevalent viral pathogens in the Iranian poultry industry. This study aimed to reveal the presence of these viruses in the backyard chickens in Ahvaz, located in the Southwest of Iran. A total of 100 chickens with respiratory signs and mortality were examined by taking the blood samples as well as tracheal and cloacal swabs. Most of the chickens had not received any vaccine. The blood samples were assessed for the antibodies against NDV and AIV by haemagglutination inhibition test, and against IBV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
December 2018: Archives of Razi Institute
Ashley B R Whitehead, Gary D Butcher, Heather S Walden, Viviana Duque, Marilyn Cruz, Jorge A Hernandez
Diseases in introduced broilers can possibly spill over to wild birds on the Galapagos. Knowledge about the current burden of exposure to pathogens in broilers on the Galapagos is very limited. The objective of the study reported here was to measure the burden of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and intestinal parasites in a sample of broiler chickens on 13 farms on Santa Cruz Island and San Cristobal Island in July 2017...
2018: PloS One
Liwen Xu, Zongxi Han, Lei Jiang, Junfeng Sun, Yan Zhao, Shengwang Liu
In this study, 213 infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) were isolated from samples collected from 801 flocks suspected to be infected with IBV from January 2016 to December 2017 in China. By using complete nucleotide sequences of S1 gene we determined the phylogeny of these IBV isolates, which in turn allowed us to define six lineages/genotypes, a number of recombinants and a novel variant. The GI-19 lineage was the most frequently isolated type in China in recent years. Although scattered mutations in the S1 gene among the GI-19 lineage viruses were observed, we also noted different sublineages in the GI-19 lineage with unique mutations, suggesting a high degree of S1 gene variation since they were first isolated in the mid-1990s...
September 19, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Huanan Wang, Feng Cong, Jianchi Guan, Li Xiao, Yujun Zhu, Yuexiao Lian, Ren Huang, Meili Chen, Pengju Guo
BACKGROUND: A serological method to simultaneously detect antibodies against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is imperative for the differential diagnosis and evaluation of antibodies titers after vaccination. METHOD: The microspheres coated with purified recombinant glycoprotein D (gD) of ILTV or nucleocapsid (N) protein of IBV were incubated with serum samples. The simultaneous quantification of ILTV and IBV antibodies were achieved through the interrogation of microspheres by Luminex 200 detection system...
September 21, 2018: Virology Journal
Zongxi Han, Mengying Gao, Yuqiu Chen, Wenzhuo Zhao, Junfeng Sun, Yan Zhao, Shengwang Liu
Three different IBV genotypes/serotypes, designated ck/CH/LDL/150434-I (LDL/150434-I), ck/CH/LDL/150434-II (LDL/150434-II) and ck/CH/LDL/150434-III (LDL/150434-III), were detected in a single tracheal sample from a chicken showing signs of respiratory disease. The viruses were isolated using a cross-neutralization test and limiting dilution in embryonated specific-pathogen-free (SPF) eggs. Isolate LDL/150434-I was a re-isolation of H120 vaccine strain that was introduced into the chicken flock by vaccination, transmitted between chickens, and later accumulated several genomic mutations...
September 15, 2018: Virus Research
Liping Yan, Jianhua Hu, Jing Lei, Zhiyu Shi, Qian Xiao, Zhenwei Bi, Lu Yao, Yuan Li, Yuqing Chen, An Fang, Hui Li, Suquan Song, Min Liao, Jiyong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis (IB) caused by the IB virus (IBV) can cause acute damage to chickens around the world. Therefore, rapid diagnosis and immune status determination are critical for controlling IBV outbreaks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been widely used in the detection of IBV antibodies in the early infection and continuous infection of IB because they are more sensitive and quicker than other diagnostic methods. RESULTS: We have developed two indirect microarray methods to detect antibodies against IBV: a chemiluminescent immunoassay test (CIT) and a rapid diagnostic test (RDT)...
September 17, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Jianping Li, Zeinab H Helal, Christopher P Karch, Neha Mishra, Theodore Girshick, Antonio Garmendia, Peter Burkhard, Mazhar I Khan
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) affects poultry respiratory, renal and reproductive systems. Currently the efficacy of available live attenuated or killed vaccines against IBV has been challenged. We designed a novel IBV vaccine alternative using a highly innovative platform called Self-Assembling Protein Nanoparticle (SAPN). In this vaccine, B cell epitopes derived from the second heptad repeat (HR2) region of IBV spike proteins were repetitively presented in its native trimeric conformation. In addition, flagellin was co-displayed in the SAPN to achieve a self-adjuvanted effect...
2018: PloS One
Samantha Ellis, Sarah Keep, Paul Britton, Sjaak de Wit, Erica Bickerton, Lonneke Vervelde
Vaccination regimes against Infectious bronchitis virus , which are based on a single virus serotype, often induce insufficient levels of cross-protection against serotypes and two or more antigenically diverse vaccines are used in attempt to provide broader protection. Amino acid differences in the surface protein, spike (S), in particular the S1 subunit, are associated with poor cross-protection. Here, homologous vaccination trials with recombinant IBVs, based on the apathogenic strain, BeauR, were conducted to elucidate the role of S1 in protection...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
Irshad Ahmed Hajam, Jehyoung Kim, John Hwa Lee
Fowl typhoid (FT), a septicemic disease caused by Salmonella Gallinarum (SG), and infectious bronchitis (IB) are two economically important avian diseases that affect poultry industry worldwide. Herein, we exploited a live attenuated SG mutant, JOL967, to deliver spike (S) protein 1 of IB virus (V) to elicit protective immunity against both FT and IB in chickens. The codon optimized S1 nucleotide sequence was cloned in-frame into a prokaryotic constitutive expression vector, pJHL65. Subsequently, empty pJHL65 or recombinant pJHL65-S1 plasmid was electroporated into JOL967 and the resultant clones were designated as JOL2068 and JOL2077, respectively...
September 12, 2018: Veterinary Research
Grace A Albanese, Dong-Hun Lee, I-Hsin N Cheng, Deborah A Hilt, Mark W Jackwood, Brian J Jordan
Almost all commercial poultry are vaccinated against avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) using live attenuated vaccines mass administered by spray at day of hatch. Although many different types of IBV vaccines are used successfully, the ArkDPI serotype vaccine, when applied by spray, does not infect and replicate sufficiently to provide protection against homologous challenge. In this study, we examined a different Ark vaccine strain (Ark99), which is no longer used commercially due to its reactivity in one day old chicks, to determine if it could be further attenuated by passage in embryonated eggs but still provide adequate protection...
October 1, 2018: Vaccine
Syed Rahin Ahmed, Seon Woo Kang, Sangjin Oh, Jaebeom Lee, Suresh Neethirajan
A synthetic way of chiral zirconium quantum dots (Zr QDs) was presented for the first time using L(+)-ascorbic acid acts as a surface as well as chiral ligands. Different spectroscopic and microscopic analysis was performed for thorough characterization of Zr QDs. As-synthesized QDs exhibited fluorescence and circular dichroism properties, and the peaks were located at 412 nm and 352 nm, respectively. MTT assay was performed to test the cytotoxicity of the synthesized Zr QDs against rat brain glioma C6 cells...
August 2018: Heliyon
N P Khanh, S W Tan, S K Yeap, H J Lee, K S Choi, M Hair-Bejo, T N Bich, A R Omar
Infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) circulating in Malaysia are classified into two groups as Malaysian QX-like and variant strains. In this study, the pathogenicity of IBS130/2015 (QX-like) and IBS037A/2014 (variant) IBVs in 1-day-old and 30-day-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens was characterized. Both strains caused respiratory and kidney infections based on immunohistochemistry (IHC), real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and a ciliostasis study; however, the results showed that the QX-like strain was more pathogenic, caused higher mortality and showed higher tissue tropism for the kidney than the variant strain...
May 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Fatemeh Sadat Mousavi, Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi, Hossein Hosseini, Bahar Nayeri Fasaei, Seyed Ali Ghafouri, Hamed Abdollahi, Mohammad Hosein Fallah-Mehrabadi, Naser Sadri
The nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain IS-1494 like (variant-2; GI-23) was first isolated in the Middle East (1998). Despite intensive vaccinations, IS-1494 like IBVs are still circulating in Iran (the dominant genotype) and spread to other countries. Here, the full-length genome of this Iranian IS-1494 like IBV was (Mahed) determined to understand its evolutionary relationships. The genome consists of 27,652 nucleotides, with mutations in most of the structural genes. Thirteen open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted in the Mahed isolate (5' UTR-1a-1b-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-6b-3' UTR)...
September 2018: Virusdisease
Matilda Ayim-Akonor, Doreen Dela Owusu-Ntumy, Hilda Emefa Ohene-Asa, Agyekum Oduro-Abrokwa, Patricia Hammond, Michael Appenteng, Daniel Annan
Infectious bronchitis is an economically important disease with worldwide distribution. Information is available on the presence of infectious bronchitis virus in commercial chicken in parts of Ghana but there is no information on free-range poultry and guinea fowls in the country. Possible IBV infections among free-range chickens and guinea fowls in Abokobi and Frafraha communities in the Ga-East district of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana were investigated using serology and PCR. Blood, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were obtained from 219 free-range chickens and guinea fowls with no respiratory symptoms and no history of IBV vaccination...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
Zainab Mohamed Ismail, Ayman Hanea El-Deeb, Mounir Mohamed El-Safty, Hussein Aly Hussein
Aim: In the present study, two experiments were carried out for studying the pathogenicity of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in broiler chickens after vaccination with different live respiratory viral vaccines. Materials and Methods: One-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks were divided into four groups in each experiment. In experiment 1, Groups 1 and 2 were inoculated with H9N2 AIV through nasal route in 1 day old, Groups 1 and 3 were vaccinated with live infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) vaccine in 5 days old, and Group 4 was left as a negative control...
July 2018: Veterinary World
Anna Luganini, Maria E Terlizzi, Gianluca Catucci, Gianfranco Gilardi, Massimo E Maffei, Giorgio Gribaudo
The defense against influenza virus (IV) infections still poses a series of challenges. The current antiviral arsenal against influenza viruses is in fact limited; therefore, the development of new anti-influenza strategies effective against antigenically different viruses is an urgent priority. Bioactive compounds derived from medicinal plants and fruits may provide a natural source of candidates for such broad-spectrum antivirals. In this regard, cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) extracts on the basis of their recognized anti-adhesive activities against bacteria, may provide potential compounds able to prevent viral attachment to target cells...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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