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Sleeping disorders

Parminder Singh
Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, skeletal growth and various other metabolic processes. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in India is 50-90% in various studies. Factors such as low sunlight exposure, age-related decrease in cutaneous synthesis, and low dietary intake of vitamin D contribute to the high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy which has emerged as a highly pervasive condition. Bone diseases such as rickets in children, osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults are related with vitamin D insufficiency...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Christian R Baumann
Central disorders of hypersomnolence are characterized by daily periods of irrepressible need to sleep or daytime lapses into sleep, as defined in the current version of the International Criteria of Sleep Disorders. Thus, the unifying symptom is excessive daytime sleepiness which is not caused by any other sleep-wake disorder. Relevant disorders including narcolepsy type 1 and 2, idiopathic hypersomnia, Kleine-Levin syndrome, and insufficient sleep syndrome will be discussed. Other central disorders of hypersomnolence include hypersomnias due to medical or psychiatric disorders or because of medication or substance use...
October 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Luana Viana de Oliveira, Nailú Angélica Sinicato, Simone Appenzeller, Carlos Ewerton Maia Rodrigues, Jozélio Freire de Carvalho
The objective of this study was to evaluate the sleep quality, the presence of sleep disorders in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (pAPS), and their possible clinical and laboratory associations. This was a cross-sectional study of 40 consecutive pAPS patients and 211 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Demographic and clinical data, drug use, and antiphospholipid antibodies were evaluated. Sleep was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). pAPS patients had significantly worse sleep quality than healthy controls...
October 19, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
G Modesti-Vedolin, C Chies, S Chaves-Fagondes, E Piza-Pelizzer, M Lima-Grossi
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the treatment efficacy of a mandibular advancement intraoral appliance (MOA) for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in pediatric patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen patients (mean=8.39 years old, women=44.4%) were selected. Sleep disorders, sleep bruxism, and temporomandibular disorders were assessed by the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC), the BiteStrip® (portable SB device), and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, respectively...
October 20, 2018: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
An-Sofie Schoonjans, Shauni De Keersmaecker, Maxime Van Bouwel, Berten Ceulemans
AIM: Sleep problems are often reported in patients with a Dravet Syndrome (DS). In this study we explored the sleep behavior in DS and compared the prevalence of sleep problems with other epilepsy patients. METHODS: An online questionnaire based on the 'Sleep Behavior Questionnaire by Simonds & Parraga (SQ-SP)' was distributed amongst DS parents and a control group (parents from children with epilepsy). Completed questionnaires were evaluated by factor scores and Composite Sleep Index (CSI)...
September 27, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Umair Akram, Bronwyn Milkins, Antonia Ypsilanti, John Reidy, Lambros Lazuras, Jodie Stevenson, Lies Notebaert, Nicola L Barclay
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of attentional bias modification (ABM) as a treatment for anxiety and depression has been extensively studied with promising results. Despite some evidence of sleep-related attentional biases in insomnia, only a small number of studies, yielding mixed results, have examined the application of ABM in insomnia. This study specifically aims to determine whether ABM can reduce (i) the presence of an attentional bias for sleep-related threatening words; (ii) insomnia symptom severity; (iii) sleep onset latency; and (iv) pre-sleep cognitive arousal amongst individuals with insomnia compared to a non-treatment control group of individuals with insomnia...
October 19, 2018: Trials
Martin Holtmann, Laura Mokros, Inken Kirschbaum-Lesch, Michael Kölch, Paul L Plener, Christian Ruckes, Michael Schulte-Markwort, Tanja Legenbauer
BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are among the most prominent health problems in youth. Even with the best available pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, remission rates are low. Without early treatment, depression in youth is associated with a high risk of symptom progression, chronicity, co-morbidity, and suicidal behavior. Thus, adolescent depression is a prime candidate for innovation in treatment. In depressive adults, meta-analytic evidence has proven that bright light therapy (BLT) is a potent low-threshold intervention, promising due to easy application, low side effects, and optimized compliance...
October 19, 2018: Trials
Md Moniruzzaman, Md Abdul Mannan, Md Farhad Hossen Khan, Ariful Basher Abir, Mirola Afroze
BACKGROUND: Crataeva nurvala Buch-Hum is an indigenous herb, extensively used in traditional medicines of the South Asian countries to treat inflammation, rheumatic fever, gastric irritation, and constipation. Despite this wide range of uses, very little information is known regarding its effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, this study evaluated the neuropharmacological properties of methanolic extract of Crataeva nurvala leaves (MECN) using a number of behavioral models in animals...
October 19, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Edward F Pace-Schott, Ryan M Bottary, Se-Yun Kim, Peter L Rosencrans, Shilpa Vijayakumar, Scott P Orr, Natasha B Lasko, Elizabeth M Goetter, Amanda W Baker, Matt T Bianchi, Karen Gannon, Susanne S Hoeppner, Stefan G Hofmann, Naomi M Simon
Exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) utilizes fear extinction, a memory process enhanced by sleep. We investigated whether naps following exposure sessions might improve symptoms and biomarkers in response to social stress in adults undergoing 5-week exposure-based group SAD therapy. Thirty-two participants aged 18-39 (18 females) with SAD were randomized. Before and after treatment, participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and underwent a Trier Social Stress Test with psychophysiological monitoring (mpTSST) that included skin conductance (SCL), electromyographic (EMG) and electrocardiographic recording, and an auditory startle procedure while anticipating the social stressor...
October 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Gustavo C Román, Aparajitha K Verma, Y Jonathan Zhang, Steve H Fung
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is defined by ventriculomegaly, cognitive decline, urinary incontinence and gait problems. Vascular risk factors (VRF) are associated with iNPH but obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) -a well-known independent VRF- is seldom mentioned. METHODS: We investigated the presence of sleep-disordered breathing in a prospective cohort of 31 consecutive unselected patients with iNPH using sleep questionnaires and nocturnal polysomnography (PSG)...
October 3, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Dana C Won, Heidi M Feldman, Lynne C Huffman
OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentage of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and combined ASD + ADHD who had sleep problems documented by developmental-behavioral pediatricians at diagnostic and follow-up visits at 12 US academic medical centers comprising the Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics Research Network (DBPNet) and to identify the predictors of sleep problem documentation. METHODS: Developmental-behavioral pediatricians completed encounter forms that covered sociodemographic, medical, clinician, and visit factors...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Jan Scott, Greg Murray
The DSM-5 definition of bipolar disorder elevates increased activity or energy as a cardinal symptom (alongside mood changes) for mania and hypomania ('hypo/mania'). The ICD-10 likewise requires increases in activity and energy (alongside mood) for hypo/mania, as well as decreases for bipolar depression. Using bipolar disorder as an example, we propose that, when diagnostic criteria are revised, instruments used to measure clinical course and treatment response may need revisiting. Here, we highlight that the 'gold-standard' symptom rating scales for hypo/mania and depression were developed in an era when abnormalities of mood were viewed as the cardinal symptom of bipolar disorder...
November 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Alexander Fedotchev, Grigoriy Radchenko, Anna Zemlianaia
"Music of the Brain" is based on musical or music-like stimulation organized in close accordance with the biopotentials of a subject's brain. Initial studies of the "Music of the Brain" approach were analyzed and limitations were noted. To enhance the efficiency and usability of the approach, several combinations of music therapy with a neurofeedback technique - musical neurofeedback - were developed. Enhanced efficiency of the approach has been shown for the correction of functional disturbances during pregnancy and for elimination of stress-induced states in high technology specialists...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Gianni Belcaro, Roberta Luzzi, Morio Hosoi, Mark Dugall, Maria Rosaria Cesarone
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated to recurrent, obsessive recollection of severe traumatic events. This condition is still not completely understood. Elective treatment of PTSD is psychotherapy. Standardized supplements, used for improving chronic fatigue syndrome (i.e. Robuvit®, Horphag Research Ltd) can also be used to control some of the symptoms associated to PTSD, as well as to control the associated increased oxidative stress, present in many of these patients...
October 2018: Minerva Medica
W Joseph Herring, Thomas Roth, Andrew D Krystal, David Michelson
In this review, we outline the role of orexin receptor antagonists in disorders of sleep/wake and other potential neuropsychiatric conditions, with a focus on suvorexant, which is currently the only approved agent in this class. The efficacy of suvorexant was established in Phase 2-3 trials with treatment durations ranging from 1 to 12 months in patients with insomnia. Suvorexant is effective at improving sleep assessed by patient self-report and by polysomnography, with generally little effect on underlying sleep architecture...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Maowen Ba, Guoping Yu, Min Kong, Hui Liang, Ling Yu
Background: Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is associated with cognitive decline in early Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the underlyling basis for this association remains unclear. Methods: Parkinson's Progression Marker's Initiative (PPMI) subjects underwent baseline RBD testing with RBD sleep questionnaire (RBDSQ). Serial assessments included measures of motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms (NMS), neuropsychological assessment, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
Zohreh Kahramfar, Besharat Rahimi
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterised by recurrence in upper airway obstruction during sleep. AIM: This study aimed to compare the predictive values of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and STOP-BANG in the desaturation of patients with mild to moderate obstructive apnea based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) scale. METHODS: A group of 79 patients (43 male and 36 female) were selected. The suspected patients were introduced to the sleep clinic, and the ESS and STOP-BANG questionnaires were filled up, then subjected to polysomnography test, and the scores of the disease were also determined based on an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)...
September 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Pedro Gómez-Vilda, Zoltan Galaz, Jiri Mekyska, José M Ferrández Vicente, Andrés Gómez-Rodellar, Daniel Palacios-Alonso, Zdenek Smekal, Ilona Eliasova, Milena Kostalova, Irena Rektorova
Neurodegenerative pathologies as Parkinson's Disease (PD) show important distortions in speech, affecting fluency, prosody, articulation and phonation. Classically, measurements based on articulation gestures altering formant positions, as the Vocal Space Area (VSA) or the Formant Centralization Ratio (FCR) have been proposed to measure speech distortion, but these markers are based mainly on static positions of sustained vowels. The present study introduces a measurement based on the mutual information distance among probability density functions of kinematic correlates derived from formant dynamics...
August 19, 2018: International Journal of Neural Systems
Mustafa Korkutata, Tsuyoshi Saitoh, Yoan Cherasse, Shuji Ioka, Feng Duo, Rujie Qin, Nobuyuki Murakoshi, Shinya Fujii, Xuzhao Zhou, Fumihiro Sugiyama, Jiang-Fan Chen, Hidetoshi Kumagai, Hiroshi Nagase, Michael Lazarus
Insomnia is one of the most common sleep problems with an estimated prevalence of 10%-15% in the general population. Although adenosine A2A receptor (A2A R) agonists strongly induce sleep, their cardiovascular effects preclude their use in treating sleep disorders. Enhancing endogenous A2A R signaling, however, may be an alternative strategy for treating insomnia, because adenosine levels in the brain accumulate during wakefulness. In the present study, we found that 3,4-difluoro-2-((2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino)benzoic acid, denoted A2A R positive allosteric modulator (PAM)-1, enhanced adenosine signaling at the A2A R and induced slow wave sleep (SWS) without affecting body temperature in wild-type male mice after intraperitoneal administration, whereas the SWS-inducing effect of this benzoic acid derivative was abolished in A2A R KO mice...
October 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Luigi Barrea, Giuseppe Annunziata, Carolina Di Somma, Daniela Laudisio, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
Epidemiological studies suggested an association between obesity and sleep disturbances. Obstructive sleep apnea is the most prevalent type of obesity-related sleep disorder that lead to an increased risk for numerous chronic health conditions. In addition the increased visceral adipose tissue might be responsible for the secretion of inflammatory cytokines that could contribute to alter the sleep-wake rhythm. Unhealthy food characterized by high consumption of fat and carbohydrate seems to negatively influence the quality of sleep while diet rich of fiber is associated to more restorative and deeper sleep...
October 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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