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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343504/zic1-mrna-is-transiently-upregulated-in-subcutaneous-fat-of-acutely-cold-exposed-mice
#1
Jessica Perugini, Laura Bordoni, Wiebe Venema, Samantha Acciarini, Saverio Cinti, Rosita Gabbianelli, Antonio Giordano
In the mammalian adipose organ cold exposure not only activates typical brown adipose tissue, but also induces browning, that is the formation of thermogenic multilocular adipocytes in white, or predominantly white, adipose depots such as subcutaneous fat. Unlike typical brown adipocytes, newly formed thermogenic adipocytes have been reported not to express the gene zinc finger of the cerebellum 1 (Zic1). Here, a time course approach enabled us to document a significant increase in Zic1 messenger RNA in inguinal subcutaneous fat from acutely (24 hr) cold-exposed mice, which was paralleled by an increase in multilocular and paucilocular uncoupling protein 1-positive adipocytes and in parenchymal noradrenergic innervation...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340833/adipose-tissue-browning-in-cancer-associated-cachexia-can-be-attenuated-by-inhibition-of-exosome-generation
#2
Wenjun Hu, Zeyuan Ru, Wen Xiao, Zhiyong Xiong, Cheng Wang, Changfei Yuan, Xiaoping Zhang, Hongmei Yang
Cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) is a disorder characterized by unintended weight loss due to skeletal muscle wasting and adipose tissue loss. Although muscle atrophy in this condition has been well studied, the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue loss, which include browning, have not been investigated in detail. In this respect, though recent studies have shown that exosomes from cancer cells can promote lipolysis, the link between exosomes from cancer cells and CAC has not been clearly established. In this study, we investigate if exosomes from Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells can induce lipolysis in vitro (in 3T3-L1 adipocytes) and in vivo (in LLC tumor-bearing mice)...
October 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340828/9-pahsa-promotes-browning-of-white-fat-via-activating-g-protein-coupled-receptor-120-and-inhibiting-lipopolysaccharide-nf-kappa-b-pathway
#3
Yan-Mei Wang, Hong-Xia Liu, Ning-Yuan Fang
Browning of white adipose tissue is a novel mechanism to counteract obesity in view of its thermogenic activity. Activation of G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) can promote the browning of white fat. 9-PAHSA, an endogenous mammalian lipid, which is acting as the ligand of GPR120 to enhance glucose uptake and exert anti-inflammatory effect. In the study, we would like to investigate the biological effects of 9-PAHSA on adipocyte browning. Here, we show that 9-PAHSA induces browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes via enhanced expression of brown fat specific genes...
October 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338362/purinergic-receptor-y-2-p2y-2-dependent-vcam-1-expression-promotes-immune-cell-infiltration-in-metabolic-syndrome
#4
Julian Merz, Philipp Albrecht, Sunaina von Garlen, Ibrahim Ahmed, Daniel Dimanski, Dennis Wolf, Ingo Hilgendorf, Carmen Härdtner, Katja Grotius, Florian Willecke, Timo Heidt, Heiko Bugger, Natalie Hoppe, Ulrich Kintscher, Constantin von Zur Mühlen, Marco Idzko, Christoph Bode, Andreas Zirlik, Peter Stachon
Sterile inflammation of visceral fat, provoked by dying adipocytes, links the metabolic syndrome to cardiovascular disease. Danger-associated molecular patterns, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), are released by activated or dying cells and orchestrate leukocyte infiltration and inflammation via the purinergic receptor P2Y2 . The gene expression of ATP receptor P2Y2 did not change in several tissues in the course of obesity, but was increased within epididymal fat. Adipose tissue from P2Y 2 -/- mice consuming high-fat diet (HFD) contained less crown-like structures with a reduced frequency of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs)...
October 18, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333718/adiponectin-mediates-running-restored-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-streptozotocin-induced-type-1-diabetes-in-mice
#5
Suk-Yu Yau, Thomas Ho-Yin Lee, Ang Li, Aimin Xu, Kwok-Fai So
Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes impairs learning and memory performance and reduces adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Physical exercise brings beneficial effects. We have previously shown that adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone critically involved in the pathology of diabetes, is a key mediator for exercise-enhanced adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we tested whether adiponectin is required for exercise to restore adult hippocampal neurogenesis in an animal model of diabetes. The findings showed that a single injection of 195 mg/kg STZ-induced diabetes significantly increased serum levels of corticosterone and reduced hippocampal adiponectin levels in adult mice...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332656/batlas-deconvoluting-brown-adipose-tissue
#6
Aliki Perdikari, Germán Gastón Leparc, Miroslav Balaz, Nuno D Pires, Martin E Lidell, Wenfei Sun, Francesc Fernandez-Albert, Sebastian Müller, Nassila Akchiche, Hua Dong, Lucia Balazova, Lennart Opitz, Eva Röder, Holger Klein, Patrik Stefanicka, Lukas Varga, Pirjo Nuutila, Kirsi A Virtanen, Tarja Niemi, Markku Taittonen, Gottfried Rudofsky, Jozef Ukropec, Sven Enerbäck, Elia Stupka, Heike Neubauer, Christian Wolfrum
Recruitment and activation of thermogenic adipocytes have received increasing attention as a strategy to improve systemic metabolic control. The analysis of brown and brite adipocytes is complicated by the complexity of adipose tissue biopsies. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of pure brown, brite, and white adipocyte transcriptomes. By combining mouse and human transcriptome data, we identify a gene signature that can classify brown and white adipocytes in mice and men. Using a machine-learning-based cell deconvolution approach, we develop an algorithm proficient in calculating the brown adipocyte content in complex human and mouse biopsies...
October 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332637/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-3-regulates-adipocyte-number-in-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue
#7
Paul Petrus, Niklas Mejhert, Patricia Corrales, Simon Lecoutre, Qian Li, Estela Maldonado, Agne Kulyté, Yamila Lopez, Mark Campbell, Juan R Acosta, Jurga Laurencikiene, Iyadh Douagi, Hui Gao, Concepción Martínez-Álvarez, Per Hedén, Kirsty L Spalding, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Gema Medina-Gomez, Peter Arner, Mikael Rydén
White adipose tissue (WAT) mass is determined by adipocyte size and number. While adipocytes are continuously turned over, the mechanisms controlling fat cell number in WAT upon weight changes are unclear. Herein, prospective studies of human subcutaneous WAT demonstrate that weight gain increases both adipocyte size and number, but the latter remains unaltered after weight loss. Transcriptome analyses associate changes in adipocyte number with the expression of 79 genes. This gene set is enriched for growth factors, out of which one, transforming growth factor-β3 (TGFβ3), stimulates adipocyte progenitor proliferation, resulting in a higher number of cells undergoing differentiation in vitro...
October 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327824/pleiotrophin-deletion-alters-glucose-homeostasis-energy-metabolism-and-brown-fat-thermogenic-function-in-mice
#8
Julio Sevillano, María Gracia Sánchez-Alonso, Begoña Zapatería, María Calderón, Martín Alcalá, María Limones, Jimena Pita, Esther Gramage, Marta Vicente-Rodríguez, Daniel Horrillo, Gema Medina-Gómez, María Jesús Obregón, Marta Viana, Ismael Valladolid-Acebes, Gonzalo Herradón, María Pilar Ramos-Álvarez
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pleiotrophin, a developmentally regulated and highly conserved cytokine, exerts different functions including regulation of cell growth and survival. Here, we hypothesise that this cytokine can play a regulatory role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we performed a longitudinal study characterising the metabolic profile (circulating variables and tissue mRNA expression) of gene-targeted Ptn-deficient female mice and their corresponding wild-type counterparts at different ages from young adulthood (3 months) to older age (15 months)...
October 16, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325342/sepsis-induces-adipose-tissue-browning-in-nonobese-mice-but-not-in-obese-mice
#9
Itay Ayalon, Hui Shen, Lauren Williamson, Keith Stringer, Basilia Zingarelli, Jennifer M Kaplan
Severe sepsis and septic shock are the biggest cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Obesity today is one of the world's greatest health challenges. Little is known about the extent of involvement of the white adipose tissue (WAT) in sepsis and how it is being modified by obesity. We sought to explore the involvement of the WAT in sepsis. We hypothesize that sepsis induces browning of the WAT and that obesity alters the response of WAT to sepsis. Six-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomized to a high-fat diet to induce obesity (obese group) or control diet (nonobese group)...
November 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324056/volume-retention-metabolism-and-cellular-composition-of-human-fat-xenografts
#10
Brittany A Merrifield, Anthony Chang, Galen Hostetter, Ewa Komorowska-Timek
Background: To optimize the take of transferred fat, better understanding of fat graft morphology and growth properties in vivo is critical. We aim to evaluate survival, volume retention, metabolism, and cellular composition of various aliquots of human fat xenografts. Methods: Twenty athymic nude mice were injected subcutaneously in opposing flanks with 0.1 ml (small) and 1.0 ml (large) aliquots of human fat graft. Volume (ultrasound) of fat aliquots was measured at baseline, 1, 3, and 12 weeks after implantation...
August 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318987/elucidating-the-role-of-lkb1-and-mtor-in-adipose-tissue
#11
Ziye Xu, Wenjing You, Fengqin Wang, Yizhen Wang, Tizhong Shan
Adipose tissues, function as energy metabolism and endocrine organ, are closely associated with metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Liver kinase B1 (Lkb1) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) play crucial roles in regulating energy metabolism and cell growth in adipose tissue. Our recent study generated an adipocyte-specific Lkb1 and mTOR double knockout (DKO) mouse model and found that DKO of Lkb1 and mTOR caused reduction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) mass but increase of liver mass...
October 14, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318338/protein-kinase-c-epsilon-deletion-in-adipose-tissue-but-not-in-liver-improves-glucose-tolerance
#12
Amanda E Brandon, Bing M Liao, Barbara Diakanastasis, Benjamin L Parker, Katy Raddatz, Sophie A McManus, Liam O'Reilly, Erica Kimber, A Gabrielle van der Kraan, Dale Hancock, Darren C Henstridge, Peter J Meikle, Gregory J Cooney, David E James, Saskia Reibe, Mark A Febbraio, Trevor J Biden, Carsten Schmitz-Peiffer
Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCɛ) activation in the liver is proposed to inhibit insulin action through phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Here, however, we demonstrated that global, but not liver-specific, deletion of PKCɛ in mice protected against diet-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Furthermore, PKCɛ-dependent alterations in insulin receptor phosphorylation were not detected. Adipose-tissue-specific knockout mice did exhibit improved glucose tolerance, but phosphoproteomics revealed no PKCɛ-dependent effect on the activation of insulin signaling pathways...
October 8, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316815/ppar%C3%AE-is-a-major-regulator-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-blood-levels-and-catabolism-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissues
#13
Pierre-Gilles Blanchard, Rafael J Moreira, Érique de Castro, Alexandre Caron, Marie Côté, Maynara L Andrade, Tiago E Oliveira, Milene Ortiz-Silva, Albert S Peixoto, France Anne Dias, Yves Gélinas, Renata Guerra-Sá, Yves Deshaies, William T Festuccia
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether PPARγ modulates adipose tissue BCAA metabolism, and whether this mediates the attenuation of obesity-associated insulin resistance induced by pharmacological PPARγ activation. METHODS: Mice with adipocyte deletion of one or two PPARγ copies fed a chow diet and rats fed either chow, or high fat (HF) or HF supplemented with BCAA (HF/BCAA) diets treated with rosiglitazone (30 or 15 mg/kg/day, 14 days) were evaluated for glucose and BCAA homeostasis...
October 11, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316806/insulin-receptor-mediated-signaling-regulates-pluripotency-markers-and-lineage-differentiation
#14
Manoj K Gupta, Dario F De Jesus, Sevim Kahraman, Ivan A Valdez, Farnaz Shamsi, Lian Yi, Adam C Swensen, Yu-Hua Tseng, Wei-Jun Qian, Rohit N Kulkarni
OBJECTIVES: Insulin receptor (IR)-mediated signaling is involved in the regulation of pluripotent stem cells; however, its direct effects on regulating the maintenance of pluripotency and lineage development are not fully understood. The main objective of this study is to understand the role of IR signaling in pluripotency and lineage development. METHODS: To explore the role of IR signaling, we generated IR knock-out (IRKO) mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) from E14...
September 19, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316166/a-long-term-maternal-diet-intervention-is-necessary-to-avoid-the-obesogenic-effect-of-maternal-high-fat-diet-in-the-offspring
#15
Huiting Xu, Qiang Fu, Yi Zhou, Chengbin Xue, Patrick Olson, Ernest C Lynch, Ke K Zhang, Chaodong Wu, Peter Murano, Lanjing Zhang, Linglin Xie
Although a pre-pregnancy dietary intervention is believed to be able to prevent offspring obesity, research evidence is absent. We hypothesize that a long period of pre-pregnancy maternal diet transition from a high-fat (HF) diet to a normal-fat (NF) diet effectively prevents offspring obesity, and this preventive effect is independent of maternal body weight change. In our study, female mice were either continued on an NF diet (NF group) or an HF diet (HF group) until weaning, or switched from an HF to an NF for 1 week (H1N group), 5 weeks (H5N group) or 9 weeks (H9N group) before pregnancy...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315998/findings-as-a-starting-point-to-unravel-the-underlying-mechanisms-of-in-vivo-interactions-involving-wnt10a-in-bone-fat-and-muscle
#16
Manabu Tsukamoto, Ke-Yong Wang, Takashi Tasaki, Yoichi Murata, Yasuaki Okada, Yoshiaki Yamanaka, Eiichiro Nakamura, Sohsuke Yamada, Hiroto Izumi, Qian Zhou, Kagaku Azuma, Yasuyuki Sasaguri, Kimitoshi Kohno, Akinori Sakai
Wnt10a is a member of the WNT family. Although deficiency of this gene causes symptoms related to teeth, hair, nails, and skin, we recently demonstrated a new phenotype of Wnt10a knockout (KO) mice involving bone and fat. The in vivo effect of the Wnt10a gene on bone and fat is unclear, and the relationship between bone/fat and muscle in Wnt10a signaling is also interesting. We aimed to evaluate the tissue changes in Wnt10a KO mice compared to wild-type mice and show the findings as a starting point to unravel the underlying mechanisms of in vivo interactions involving Wnt10a in bone, fat and muscle...
October 11, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312736/metabolic-memory-of-dietary-restriction-ameliorates-dna-damage-and-adipocyte-size-in-mouse-visceral-adipose-tissue
#17
Abbas Ishaq, Damien Dufour, Kerry Cameron, Thomas von Zglinicki, Gabriele Saretzki
Dietary restriction (DR) is thought to exert its beneficial effects on healthspan at least partially by a senolytic and senostatic action, i.e. by reducing frequencies of cells with markers of DNA damage and senescence in multiple tissues. Due to its importance in metabolic and inflammation regulation, fat is a prime tissue for health span determination as well as a prime target for DR. We aimed to determine here whether the beneficial effects of DR would be retained over a subsequent period of ad libitum (AL) feeding...
October 9, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310815/glucocorticoid-receptor-and-adipocyte-biology
#18
Rebecca A Lee, Charles A Harris, Jen-Chywan Wang
Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that play a key role in metabolic adaptations during stress, such as fasting and starvation, in order to maintain plasma glucose levels. Excess and chronic glucocorticoid exposure, however, causes metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia. Studies in animal models of metabolic disorders frequently demonstrate that suppressing glucocorticoid signaling improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic profiles. Glucocorticoids convey their signals through an intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is a transcriptional regulator...
2018: Nuclear Receptor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309656/obesity-in-yap-transgenic-mice-is-associated-with-taz-downregulation
#19
Keiichiro Kamura, Jihoon Shin, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Takaya Abe, Go Shioi, Atsunori Fukuhara, Hiroshi Sasaki
Obesity is characterized by an expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, which mainly consists of adipocytes. During the commitment and differentiation of adipocytes, PPARγ functions as a key transcriptional factor for adipogenesis, and is associated with its suppressive coregulator, TAZ. Previous studies have shown the importance of TAZ in adipogenesis using an in vitro model; however, the understanding of its role in adipogenesis in vivo remains limited. Here, we report a unique obese mouse model that is associated with TAZ downregulation, which arose from the overexpression of Yap, a Taz paralog...
October 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308480/effect-of-baicalein-on-glut4-translocation-in-adipocytes-of-diet-induced-obese-mice
#20
Wen Min, Mingjie Wu, Penghua Fang, Mei Yu, Mingyi Shi, Zhenwen Zhang, Ping Bo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although baicalein has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity in liver of mice, there is no literature available about the effect of baicalein on glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation from intracellular membrane pools to plasma membranes in adipocytes of diet-induced obese mice. METHODS: In the present study, the obese model was induced in mice fed a high fat diet (20% carbohydrates, 21% protein and 59% fat) for 16 weeks. The diet-induced obese mice were given 20mg/kg baicalein intraperitoneally (i...
October 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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