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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517976/the-chemokine-receptor-cxcr2-contributes-to-murine-adipocyte-development
#1
Douglas P Dyer, Joan Boix Nebot, Christopher J Kelly, Laura Medina-Ruiz, Fabian Schuette, Gerard J Graham
Chemokines are members of a large family of chemotactic cytokines that signal through their receptors to mediate leukocyte recruitment during inflammation and homeostasis. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 has largely been associated with neutrophil recruitment. However, there is emerging evidence of roles for chemokines and their receptors in processes other than leukocyte migration. We have previously demonstrated that CXCR2 knockout (KO) mice have thinner skin compared to wild-type mice. Herein we demonstrate that this is due to a thinner subcutaneous adipose layer, as a result of fewer and smaller individual adipocytes...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516559/influence-of-recipient-site-on-the-function-and-survival-of-fat-grafts
#2
Xi Chen, Yaohao Wu, Guangpeng Liu
BACKGROUND: Autologous fat grafting has become an increasingly common procedure for soft tissue augmentation throughout the body. However, the long-term outcome is always unpredictable because of inconsistent graft survival. Based on the "law of use and disuse," we speculate that the volume loss of fat grafts will occur when transferred into a site where there is less fat. The purpose of this study is to investigate the cause of high resorption rate from the perspective of fat function after transplantation...
December 3, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516329/garcinol-reduces-obesity-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-by-modulating-gut-microbiota-composition
#3
Pei-Sheng Lee, Chia-Yi Teng, Nagabhushanam Kalyanam, Chi-Tang Ho, Min-Hsiung Pan
SCOPE: Obesity has become a major health problem worldwide and is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis. This study was conducted to investigate the chemopreventive effects of garcinol, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivative isolated from the fruit rind of Garcinia indica. We sought to delineate how garcinol protects against obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mice and determine whether its anti-obesity effects are related to gut microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: The results showed that garcinol reduced HFD-fed mice body weight gain and relative visceral adipose tissue fat weight in a dose-dependent manner...
December 5, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513740/pistachio-consumption-prevents-and-improves-lipid-dysmetabolism-by-reducing-the-lipid-metabolizing-gene-expression-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#4
Simona Terzo, Gaetano Felice Caldara, Vincenzo Ferrantelli, Roberto Puleio, Giovanni Cassata, Flavia Mulè, Antonella Amato
Pistachios contain beneficial substances such as unsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, and polyphenols. In the present study, we investigated if pistachio consumption is able to prevent or to revert hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and adipose tissue morphological alterations caused by high fat diet (HFD) in the mouse. Moreover, the impact of pistachio intake on the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ( PPAR-γ ), fatty acid transport proteins ( FAT-P ), fatty acid synthase ( FAS ), stearoyl-CoA desaturase ( SCD1 ), and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c ( SREBP-1c ) in liver and adipose tissue was also analyzed...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513342/cellular-prion-protein-regulates-the-differentiation-and-function-of-adipocytes-through-autophagy-flux
#5
Jae-Kyo Jeong, Ju-Hee Lee, Sung-Wook Kim, Jeong-Min Hong, Jae-Won Seol, Sang-Youel Park
The role of autophagy modulation in adipogenic differentiation and the possible autophagy modulators targeting adipogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether normal cellular prion protein (PrP<C>) is involved in the modulation of autophagy and affects adipogenic differentiation in vivo and in vitro. Surprisingly, autophagy flux signals were activated in the adipose tissue of prion protein-deficient mice and PrP<C>-deleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The activation of autophagy flux mediated by PrP<C> deletion was confirmed in the adipose tissue via transmission electron microscopy...
December 1, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30512991/the-e3-ligase-march5-is-a-ppar%C3%AE-target-gene-that-regulates-mitochondria-and-metabolism-in-adipocytes
#6
Simon T Bond, Sarah C Moody, Yingying Liu, Mete Civelek, Claudio J Villanueva, Paul Gregorevic, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Andrea L Hevener, Aldons J Lusis, Darren C Henstridge, Anna C Calkin, Brian G Drew
Mitochondrial dynamics refers to the constant remodelling of mitochondrial populations by multiple cellular pathways which help maintain mitochondrial health and function. Disruptions to mitochondrial dynamics often leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, which is frequently associated with disease in rodents and humans. Consistent with this, obesity is associated with reduced mitochondrial function in white adipose tissue, partly via alterations in mitochondrial dynamics. Several proteins are known to regulate mitochondrial dynamics including the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH5; however, the role of these proteins in adipocytes has been poorly studied...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511960/peroxisome-derived-lipids-regulate-adipose-thermogenesis-by-mediating-cold-induced-mitochondrial-fission
#7
Hongsuk Park, Anyuan He, Min Tan, Jordan M Johnson, John M Dean, Terri A Pietka, Yali Chen, Xiangyu Zhang, Fong-Fu Hsu, Babak Razani, Katsuhiko Funai, Irfan J Lodhi
Peroxisomes perform essential functions in lipid metabolism, including fatty acid oxidation and plasmalogen synthesis. Here, we describe a role for peroxisomal lipid metabolism in mitochondrial dynamics in brown and beige adipocytes. Adipose tissue peroxisomal biogenesis was induced in response to cold exposure through activation of the thermogenic co-regulator PRDM16. Adipose-specific knockout of the peroxisomal biogenesis factor Pex16 (Pex16-AKO) in mice impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and increased diet-induced obesity...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508414/evidence-of-an-anti-inflammatory-toll-like-receptor-9-tlr-9-pathway-in-adipocytes
#8
Miriam Thomalla, Andreas Schmid, Elena Neumann, Petra Ina Pfefferle, Ulf Mueller-Ladner, Andreas Schäffler, Thomas Karrasch
Adipocytes express various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and actively participate in anti-bacterial and anti-viral host defence. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue PRR expression. The potential role of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in adipocytes has not yet been investigated. Here, we evaluated TLR9 expression during adipocyte differentiation (AD) of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in primary murine adipocytes and in different murine and human adipose tissue depots by real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506905/naringenin-promotes-thermogenic-gene-expression-in-human-white-adipose-tissue
#9
Candida J Rebello, Frank L Greenway, Frank H Lau, Yuan Lin, Jacqueline M Stephens, William D Johnson, Ann A Coulter
OBJECTIVE: Naringenin, a citrus flavonoid, prevents diet-induced weight gain and improves glucose and lipid metabolism in rodents. There is evidence that naringenin activates brown fat and increases energy expenditure in mice, but little is known about its effects in humans. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of naringenin on energy expenditure in adipose tissue. METHODS: Human white adipocyte cultures (hADSC) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (pWAT) were treated with naringenin for 7 to 14 days...
December 2, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506739/cold-exposure-induces-nuclear-translocation-of-crtc3-in-brown-adipose-tissue
#10
Ziye Xu, Jiaqi Liu, Wenjing You, Yizhen Wang, Tizhong Shan
In mammals, cold stress activates the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway, increases brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, and induces thermogenesis to maintain body temperature. The cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator 3 (CRTC3) plays important role in adipose development and energy metabolism. However, the effect of cold exposure on the intracellular localization of CRTC3 in BAT is unclear. Here, we report that cold-treated mice have higher expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in adipose tissues and lower body weights and fat masses...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30505271/involvement-of-glucagon-in-preventive-effect-of-menthol-against-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#11
Pragyanshu Khare, Priyanka Mangal, Ritesh K Baboota, Sneha Jagtap, Vijay Kumar, Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Ravneet K Boparai, Shyam S Sharma, Romesh Khardori, Sanjay K Bhadada, Kanthi K Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
Glucagon mediated mechanisms have been shown to play clinically significant role in energy expenditure. The present study was designed to understand whether pharmacological mimicking of cold using menthol (TRPM8 modulator) can induce glucagon-mediated energy expenditure to prevent weight gain and related complications. Acute oral and topical administration of TRPM8 agonists (menthol and icilin) increased serum glucagon concentration which was prevented by pre-treatment with AMTB, a TRPM8 blocker. Chronic administration of menthol (50 and 100 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks) to HFD fed animals prevented weight gain, insulin resistance, adipose tissue hypertrophy and triacylglycerol deposition in liver...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496126/fgf9-inhibits-browning-program-of-white-adipocytes-and-associates-with-human-obesity
#12
Yingkai Sun, Rui Wang, Shaoqian Zhao, Wen Li, Wen Liu, Lingyun Tang, Zhugang Wang, Weiqing Wang, Rui-Xin Liu, Guang Ning, Jiqiu Wang, Jie Hong
Browning of white adipose tissue has been proven to be a potential target to fight against obesity and its metabolic commodities, making the exploration of molecules involved in browning process important. Among those browning agents reported recently, FGF21 play as a quite promising candidate for treating obesity for its obvious enhancement of thermogenic capacity in adipocyte and significant improvement of metabolic disorders in both mice and human. However, whether other members of FGF family play roles in adipose thermogenesis and obese development is still an open question...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30485583/tafa2-induces-skeletal-stromal-stem-cell-migration-through-activation-of-rac1-p38-signaling
#13
Abbas Jafari, Adiba Isa, Li Chen, Nicholas Ditzel, Walid Zaher, Linda Harkness, Hans E Johnsen, Basem M Abdallah, Christian Clausen, Moustapha Kassem
Understanding the mechanisms regulating recruitment of human skeletal (stromal or mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) to sites of tissue injury is a prerequisite for their successful use in cell replacement therapy. Chemokine-like protein TAFA2 is a recently discovered neurokine involved in neuronal cell migration and neurite outgrowth. Here, we demonstrate a possible role for TAFA2 in regulating recruitment of hMSC to bone fracture sites. TAFA2 increased the in vitro trans-well migration and motility of hMSC in a dose-dependent fashion and induced significant morphological changes including formation of lamellipodia as revealed by high content image analysis at single cell level...
November 28, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483446/repressive-effects-of-red-bean-phaseolus-angularis-extracts-on-obesity-of-mouse-induced-with-high-fat-diet-via-downregulation-of-adipocyte-differentiation-and-modulating-lipid-metabolism
#14
Young Mi Park, Jee In Kim, Dong Hyun Seo, Joo Hee Seo, Jae-Hwan Lim, Jong Eun Lee, Je-Yong Choi, Eul-Won Seo
Obesity is generally caused by quantitative changes in adipocyte differentiation and fat metabolism. Only a few studies have been determined the effect of red beans extract on obesity and plasma cholesterol concentration. We have been studied the functional activities of red-bean extracts including anti-oxidative effect against DNA and cell damages. Histological study including micro CT analysis showed that the accumulation of fat in hepatocytes and intestines was significantly decreased in red bean extract treated group...
December 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483254/lack-of-adipocytes-alters-hematopoiesis-in-lipodystrophic-mice
#15
Anne Wilson, He Fu, Mariano Schiffrin, Carine Winkler, Meriem Koufany, Jean-Yves Jouzeau, Nicolas Bonnet, Federica Gilardi, François Renevey, Sanjiv A Luther, David Moulin, Béatrice Desvergne
Adult hematopoiesis takes place in the perivascular zone of the bone cavity, where endothelial cells, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells and their derivatives such as osteoblasts are key components of bone marrow (BM) niches. Defining the contribution of BM adipocytes to the hematopoietic stem cell niche remains controversial. While an excess of medullar adiposity is generally considered deleterious for hematopoiesis, an active role for adipocytes in shaping the niche has also been proposed. We thus investigated the consequences of total adipocyte deletion, including in the BM niche, on adult hematopoiesis using mice carrying a constitutive deletion of the gene coding for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30479685/circadian-rhythms-of-hormone-secretion-and-obesity
#16
REVIEW
Rajendra Raghow
The adipose tissue homeostasis is profoundly affected by circadian rhythms of corticosteroid secretion and chronic loss of hormonal oscillations is associated with obesity. How adipose tissue differentially responds to pulsatile vs continuous presence of glucocorticoids is poorly defined. To address this question, Bahrami-Nejad et al studied differentiation of pre-adipocytes, containing endogenously tagged CCAAT/enhancer binding protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ (key regulators of adipocyte differentiation), in response to corticosteroids that were delivered either in an oscillatory fashion or continuously...
November 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30479184/commentary-on-some-recent-theses-relevant-to-combating-aging-december-2018
#17
Benjamin Zealley, Aubrey D N J de Grey
Theses reviewed in this issue include "A Thromboresistant Cell-Derived Biomaterial Modification for Vascular Grafts", "Actomyosin mediated tension orchestrates thermogenic programs in adipocytes", "Age-Associated Changes in Intrathymic B Cell Population in Mice", "Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress is Transmissible among Cells of the Central Nervous System", "Evaluation of Early Tumor Angiogenesis Using Ultrasound Acoustic Angiography", and "Interactions Between Amyloid-Beta and Microglial Cells"...
November 27, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30473729/prevascularization-of-collagen-glycosaminoglycan-scaffolds-stromal-vascular-fraction-versus-adipose-tissue-derived-microvascular-fragments
#18
Thomas Später, Florian S Frueh, Ruth M Nickels, Michael D Menger, Matthias W Laschke
Background: The seeding of scaffolds with the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is a common prevascularization strategy in tissue engineering. Alternatively, adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments (ad-MVF) may serve as vascularization units. In contrast to SVF single cells, they represent a mixture of intact arteriolar, capillary and venular vessel segments. Therefore, we herein hypothesized that the ad-MVF-based prevascularization of scaffolds is superior to the conventional SVF single cells-based approach...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30472463/ginkgetin-a-biflavone-from-ginkgo-biloba-leaves-prevents-adipogenesis-through-stat5-mediated-ppar%C3%AE-and-c-ebp%C3%AE-regulation
#19
Young-Lai Cho, Jong-Gil Park, Hyo Jin Kang, Wooil Kim, Min Ji Cho, Ju-Hong Jang, Min-Gi Kwon, Sungsik Kim, Sang-Hyun Lee, Jangwook Lee, Yeon-Gu Kim, Young-Jun Park, Won Kon Kim, Kwang-Hee Bae, Byoung-Mog Kwon, Sang J Chung, Jeong-Ki Min
Adipogenesis involved in hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes is responsible for expanding the mass of adipose tissues in obese individuals. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) are two principal transcription factors induced by delicate signaling pathways, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), in adipogenesis. Here, we demonstrated a novel role of ginkgetin, a biflavone from Ginkgo biloba leaves, as a STAT5 inhibitor that blocks the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes...
November 22, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30469030/selenium-binding-protein-1-selenbp1-is-a-marker-of-mature-adipocytes
#20
Holger Steinbrenner, Mustafa Micoogullari, Ngoc Anh Hoang, Ina Bergheim, Lars-Oliver Klotz, Helmut Sies
Selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1) has recently been reported to catalyse the oxidation of methanethiol, an organosulfur compound produced by gut microbiota. Two of the reaction products of methanethiol oxidation, hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen sulphide, serve as signalling molecules for cell differentiation. Indeed, colonocyte differentiation has been found to be associated with SELENBP1 induction. Here, we show that SELENBP1 is induced when 3T3-L1 preadipocytes undergo terminal differentiation and maturation to adipocytes...
November 10, 2018: Redox Biology
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