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Leisha Strachan, Tara-Leigh McHugh, Courtney Mason
This study aimed to understand how positive youth development through sport and physical activity is understood and experienced by urban indigenous youth. Research in positive youth development claims that structured physical activities are critical for development. The 5 Cs (i.e., confidence, competence, character, connection, caring) are a gold standard when discussing positive outcomes and are important characteristics for youth to possess to attain the sixth C-contribution. Indigenous leaders recognize the value of sport for indigenous children and youth...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Luca Boeri, Paolo Capogrosso, Eugenio Ventimiglia, Filippo Pederzoli, Walter Cazzaniga, Francesco Chierigo, Edoardo Pozzi, Massimo Clementi, Paola Viganò, Emanuele Montanari, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia
STUDY QUESTION: Does the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in semen impact seminal parameters and sperm DNA quality in white European men seeking medical help for primary couple's infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: HPV seminal infections involving high-risk (HR) genotypes are associated with impaired sperm progressive motility and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) values. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: HPV is commonly present in semen samples. However, whether the presence of HPV in semen is actually associated with impaired sperm parameters and SDF values have yet to be elucidated...
December 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
Wissam N Raad, Adil Ayub, Chyun-Yin Huang, Landon Guntman, Sadiq S Rehmani, Faiz Y Bhora
OBJECTIVE: Robotic-assisted surgery is increasingly being used in thoracic surgery. Currently, the Integrated Thoracic Surgery Residency Program lacks a standardized curriculum or requirement for training residents in robotic-assisted thoracic surgery. In most circumstances, because of the lack of formal residency training in robotic surgery, hospitals are requiring additional training, mentorship, and formal proctoring of cases before granting credentials to perform robotic-assisted surgery...
December 3, 2018: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
Kaja E Kjørholt, Søren P Johnsen, Nickolaj R Kristensen, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra, Alma B Pedersen
We aimed to examine trends in the incidence of treated infections following hip fracture surgery in Denmark from 2005 to 2016. We conducted a nationwide cohort study using individual-level linked data from Danish population-based registries. We calculated cumulative incidence considering death as competing risk and, based on the pseudo-observation method, risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the period 2005-2006 as a reference. RRs were adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidity. A total of 74,771 patients aged 65 years or older with first-time hip fracture surgery were included...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Diane K Brown, Sue Fosnight, Maureen Whitford, Susan Hazelett, Colleen Mcquown, Jenifer C Drost, Denise J Kropp, Cynthia A Hovland, Joan E Niederriter, Rikki Patton, Abigail Morgan, Eileen Fleming, Richard P Steiner, Edward Demond Scott, Fabiana Ortiz-Figueroa
Background: One in three people over the age of 65 fall every year, with 1/3 sustaining at least moderate injury. Falls risk reduction requires an interprofessional health team approach. The literature is lacking in effective models to teach students how to work collaboratively in interprofessional teams for geriatric falls prevention. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, administration and outcome measures of an education programme to teach principles of interprofessional care for older adults in the context of falls prevention...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
Bertolt Meyer, Frank Asbrock
According to the Stereotype Content Model that construes attributions of warmth and competence as the core dimensions of stereotypes, people with physical disabilities are generally perceived as warm-but-incompetent, i.e., are faced with paternalistic stereotypes. We argue that the increasing proliferation of bionic technologies (e.g., bionic arm and leg prostheses, exo-skeletons, retina implants, etc.) has the potential to change stereotypes toward people with physical disabilities: The portrayal of people who use such devices in the media and popular culture is typically characterized by portraying them as competent - sometimes even more competent than able-bodied individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Deniz Vatansever, Natali S Bozhilova, Philip Asherson, Jonathan Smallwood
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental condition that profoundly affects quality of life. Although mounting evidence now suggests uncontrolled mind-wandering as a core aspect of the attentional problems associated with ADHD, the neural mechanisms underpinning this deficit remains unclear. To that extent, competing views argue for (i) excessive generation of task-unrelated mental content, or (ii) deficiency in the control of task-relevant cognition...
December 5, 2018: Psychological Medicine
David Saliken, Nancy Dudek, Timothy J Wood, Matthew MacEwan, Wade T Gofton
Construct: We compared a single-item performance score with the Ottawa Surgical Competency Operating Room Evaluation (O-SCORE) for their ability in assessing surgical competency. BACKGROUND: Surgical programs are adopting competency-based frameworks. The adoption of these frameworks for assessment requires tools that produce accurate and valid assessments of knowledge and technical performance. An assessment tool that is quick to complete could improve feasibility, reduce delays, and result in a higher volume of assessments of learners...
December 4, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Werner Schlemmer, Armin Zankel, Katrin Niegelhell, Mathias Hobisch, Michael Süssenbacher, Krisztina Zajki-Zechmeister, Michael Weissl, David Reishofer, Harald Plank, Stefan Spirk
This study investigates flexible (polyamide 6.6 PA-6.6, polyethylene terephthalate PET, Cu, Al, and Ni foils) and, for comparison, stiff substrates (silicon wafers and glass) differing in, for example, in surface free energy and surface roughness and their ability to host cellulose-based thin films. Trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC), a hydrophobic acid-labile cellulose derivative, was deposited on these substrates and subjected to spin coating. For all the synthetic polymer and metal substrates, rather homogenous films were obtained, where the thickness and the roughness of the films correlated with the substrate roughness and its surface free energy...
November 30, 2018: Materials
Lars Wallentin, Bertil Lindahl
Uppsala Clinical Research Center (UCR) is a non-profit organization that provides service for clinical research aiming for development and improvement of health care in Sweden and worldwide. UCR was started in 2001 with the ambition to shift the focus of clinical research from new medications or devices launched by the industry to problem-based research on issues identified in clinical reality, for example through the national quality registries. In order to accomplish these goals, UCR has established services in: 1) clinical trials of new and old methods in health care; 2) quality development of the health care system supported by internet-based national quality registries; 3) biostatistics, epidemiology, and data management; 4) biobanking of biological materials (Uppsala Biobank); 5) high-throughput biochemical analyses (UCR laboratory); and 6) academic leadership by the members of the UCR research faculty...
December 4, 2018: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
Patrick F Kotzur, Sarina J Schäfer, Ulrich Wagner
Intergroup contact can improve majority members' perception of minorities. Integrating the intergroup contact hypothesis with the stereotype content model and BIAS-Map, we hypothesized that positive intergroup contact improves German majority members' evaluations of asylum seekers on the warmth and competence dimensions. Using cross-sectional survey data and structural equation modelling, we found support for this hypothesis (Study 1a, N = 182). Warmth and competence perceptions, in turn, predicted specific intergroup emotions (Study 1b, N = 255)...
December 4, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Elizabeth K Kuzma, Nicole Boucher, Brittany Gray, Katie Burmester, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Stephen Strobbe
BACKGROUND: Adolescent substance use is a significant public health problem in the United States screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) and is an evidence-based approach to assist individuals to reduce substance use before serious problems develop. Universal SBIRT is recommended for routine health care. METHOD: Advanced practice registered nursing (APRN) students completed a sophisticated adolescent SBIRT computer simulation, didactic content on substance use, and face-to-face simulation during laboratory...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
Jenni Ervasti, Olli Pietiläinen, Ossi Rahkonen, Eero Lahelma, Anne Kouvonen, Tea Lallukka, Minna Mänty
PURPOSE: We developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) to study the association between long-term exposure to heavy physical effort or heavy lifting and carrying at work with disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders and premature all-cause mortality. METHODS: Exposure to heavy physical effort at work during 1996-2005 was estimated with JEM developed for this study population, where the exposure was based on occupational titles of the participants. We included all employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, who had annual data of exposure for 8-10 years (1996-2005, n = 18387)...
December 3, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Elias Allara, Franca Beccaria, Roberta Molinar, Laura Marinaro, Antonella Ermacora, Alessandro Coppo, Fabrizio Faggiano
Diario della Salute [My Health Diary] is a school-based program designed to enhance the subjective well-being and health of 12- to 13-year-old students. We hypothesized that providing students with the social and emotional skills to fulfill their potential and deal with common developmental tasks of adolescence (e.g., onset of puberty, identity development, increased responsibilities and academic demands) would result in improved well-being and health. The program comprises five standardized interactive lessons concerning common psychosocial and health issues in adolescence, and two narrative booklets addressed to both students and their parents...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
J E Van der Aa, A J Goverde, F Scheele
The European Board & College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology has initiated improvement of the European standards of training in Obstetrics and Gynaecology through the project called 'EBCOG-PACT'. In this project, a pan-European curriculum for postgraduate training in Obstetrics and Gynaecology has been developed. The curriculum is societally responsive, and based on the latest medical educational methodology. It consists of the description of outcomes of training for the common Core Curriculum and Electives, the General competencies and soft skills to be trained, and strategies for training of obstetrical skills, gynaecological skills, ultrasound skills and bio-psychosocial and communicative skills...
March 2018: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
Nadav Goldschmied, Yair Galily, Kenneth Keith
Jesus told his disciples, "Truly I tell you, it is hard for someone who is rich to enter the kingdom of heaven. Again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for someone who is rich to enter the kingdom of God." (Matthew 19:23-24). Ditto for heroes. The current study suggests that "humble beginnings" is also a prerequisite for one to become an adulated entity. Participants from China, Israel, and Japan read of two sports teams with disparate expectations and/or financial resources about to face each other...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Xuning Wang, Jianguo Zhou, Maolin Xu, Yongfeng Yan, Liang Huang, Yanshen Kuang, Yuansheng Liu, Peng Li, Wei Zheng, Hongyi Liu, Baoqing Jia
Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. This study aimed to explore the prognostic value of lncRNAs in CRC. Material and methods: We performed gene expression profiling to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs between 51 normal and 646 tumor tissues from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Cox regression and robust likelihood-based survival models were used to find prognosis-related lncRNAs. A lncRNA signature was developed to predict the overall survival of patients with CRC...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
S H Jiang, A L Kennard, G D Walters
BACKGROUND: Recurrence of primary glomerulonephritis in the post-transplant period has been described in the literature but the risk remains poorly quantified and its impact on allograft outcomes and implications for subsequent transplants remain under-examined. Here we describe the rates and timing of post-transplant glomerulonephritis recurrence for IgA nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, mesangiocapillary GN and membranous GN based on 28 years of ANZDATA registry transplant data...
December 3, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Flávia Casale Abe, Cristiane de Cássia Bergamaschi, Mabel Fernandes Figueiró, Luciane Cruz Lopes
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is currently considered the main risk to global health. A variety of microbial species have been isolated from endodontic and periodontal infections. However, clinical endodontic and periodontics bacterial isolates have not been sufficiently characterized with regard to their capacity for antibiotic resistance. We aim to assess the existing evidence to estimate the prevalence of the main antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistant organisms in endodontics and periodontics and to describe their geographic distribution in Latin America...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Pamela Donlan
The delivery of effective 21st-century multidisciplinary healthcare requires that clinicians focus on patient needs and concerns and are able to communicate compassionately and appropriately so that patient-practitioner trust is engendered. To develop interpersonal skills among healthcare providers, health professions education programs must build student competencies in the affective domain of learning. This paper seeks to investigate the efficacy of some of the contemporary strategies used to present and assess affective domain learning in health professions education, including the think-pair-share technique, reflective journaling, simulation and role play, motivational interviewing, and structured controversy...
2018: Journal of Allied Health
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