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Competence based

Richard Williams
BACKGROUND: Pre-registration nursing programmes aim to prepare students to function effectively within an environment that provides front-line health care, with the over-riding concern being patient safety. Exhibiting the ability to assess practice-based situations and make decisions is critical to demonstrating effective clinical, professional and leadership competence. AIM: This small scale qualitative study explores first year student nurses' understanding of the importance of recording achievement of practice competence and identifying the factors which influence them when prioritising completion of their Practice Assessment Record...
October 5, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Alexander S Ermakov
The first explanations of the mechanisms of development of living organisms were proposed in antiquity. At that time two competing ideas existed, about the strict determination of embryonic structures (we call it the "Hippocrates line") and about the possible formation of structures from the unstructured condition ("Aristotle line"). We can trace the opposition between the "Hippocrates line" and "Aristotle line" from antiquity till the present time. At the end of the XIX century, experimental investigation of the mechanisms of integrity of development had started...
October 10, 2018: Bio Systems
Fernando A Angarita, Benjamin Price, Matthew Castelo, Mauricio Tawil, Juan Carlos Ayala, Lilian Torregrossa
PURPOSE: Clinical breast examination (CBE) is an important step in the assessment of patients with breast-related complaints. We developed a standardized simulation and multimedia-based (SSMBI) curriculum using current evidenced-based recommendations. This study aimed to determine if SSMBI training resulted in better performance (examination scores and detection of abnormal findings) than the traditional teaching method. METHODS: Novice fourth-year medical students were exposed to the SSMBI curriculum (n = 68) or traditional (n = 52) training...
October 12, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Francesco Sella, Daniela Lucangeli, Marco Zorzi
Spatial representation of numbers has been repeatedly associated with the development of numerical and mathematical skills. However, few studies have explored the contribution of spatial mapping to exact number representation in young children. Here we designed a novel task that allows a detailed analysis of direction, ordinality, and accuracy of spatial mapping. Preschool children, who were classified as competent counters (cardinal principle knowers), placed triplets of sequentially presented digits on the visual line...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Ahmed Awaisu, Sherief Khalifa, David Mottram, Afif Ahmed, Mark Stuart
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The use and misuse of drugs in sport is becoming increasingly important globally, and the role of pharmacists is evolving in this regard. This paper describes the design and implementation of an elective course "Drugs in Sport" in an undergraduate pharmacy curriculum. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: The elective course was designed to introduce BSc pharmacy students to an evidence-based approach to safe, effective, and legal use of drugs in sport...
August 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Ettie Rosenberg, Hoai-An Truong, Shih-Ying Hsu, Reza Taheri
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To describe implementation and lessons learned from use of a mock trial as a teaching-learning and assessment activity in a required evidence-based practice course. This innovative self-directed learning strategy reinforced evidence-based skills and affective domain competencies in Center for the Advancement of Pharmaceutical Education (CAPE) 2013 Outcomes and Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Standards 2016. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: During spring semesters 2015 and 2016, first professional year (P1) cohorts were divided into teams and assigned controversial topics to research and debate in mock trials...
August 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Katja Pitkä, Marja Airaksinen, Marika Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä
INTRODUCTION: Evidence-based health and medication information (HMI) sources and databases have a growing importance in daily professional practice in community pharmacies. Previous research suggests that students learn practical skills at the workplace through self-directed learning and practical experience rather than formal training. Thus, pharmacy internship is a key in ensuring pharmacy students' competency to use HMI sources and databases. This study assessed what HMI sources pharmacy students had used and accessible during their first internship in community pharmacies in Finland...
August 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Jeffrey R Powell
The issue of typological versus population thinking in biology is briefly introduced and defined. It is then emphasized how population thinking is most relevant and useful in vector biology. Three points are made: (1) Vectors, as they exist in nature, are genetically very heterogeneous. (2) Four examples of how this is relevant in vector biology research are presented: Understanding variation in vector competence, GWAS, identifying the origin of new introductions of invasive species, and resistance to inbreeding...
October 11, 2018: Insects
Pin-Pin Wu, Chew-Teng Kor, Ming-Chia Hsieh, Yao-Peng Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Glucose is one of the constituents in hemodialysates and peritoneal dialysates. How the dialysis associates with the incident diabetes mellitus (DM) remains to be assessed. METHODS: The claim data of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients who initiated dialysis from and a cohort of matched non-dialysis individuals from 2000 to 2013 were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to examine the risk of incident DM among patients on hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD)...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
John W Hickey, Ariel Y Isser, Fernando P Vicente, Samuel B Warner, Hai-Quan Mao, Jonathan P Schneck
Magnetic particles can enrich desired cell populations to aid in understanding cell-type functions and mechanisms, diagnosis, and therapy. As cells are heterogeneous in ligand type, location, expression, and density, careful consideration of magnetic particle design for positive isolation is necessary. Antigen-specific immune cells have low frequencies, which has made studying, identifying, and utilizing these cells for therapy a challenge. Here we demonstrate the importance of magnetic particle design based on the biology of T cells...
September 28, 2018: Biomaterials
Lena Burri, Cathy Wyse, Stuart R Gray, William S Harris, Kali Lazzerini
A seafood-based supplement from krill, rich in omega-3 phospholipids and proteins was tested on a group of dogs competing in the 2016 Iditarod dog sled race to investigate the effects of krill meal on exercise-induced inflammation and muscle damage in comparison to a control group. A single team of 16 dogs received 8% krill meal for 5 weeks prior to the start of race, while another team of 16 dogs received no supplementation. Ten dogs of the treatment and 11 dogs of the control group finished the race and their blood was analyzed for omega-3 index, inflammation (CRP) and muscle damage (CK)...
October 3, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Gregory Levitin, Liudong Xing, Hong-Zhong Huang
Empowered by virtualization technology, service requests from cloud users can be honored through creating and running virtual machines. Virtual machines established for different users may be allocated to the same physical server, making the cloud vulnerable to co-residence attacks where a malicious attacker can steal a user's data through co-residing their virtual machines on the same server. For protecting data against the theft, the data partition technique is applied to divide the user's data into multiple blocks with each being handled by a separate virtual machine...
October 12, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
S Sørensen, N Brix, A Ernst, L L B Lauridsen, C H Ramlau-Hansen
STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal age at menarche associated with pubertal development in sons and daughters? SUMMARY ANSWER: Maternal age at menarche was associated with pubertal development in both sons and daughters. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Studies have shown that age at menarche is greatly inherited from mother to daughter, but it remains largely unknown to what extent age at menarche in mothers is associated with timing of puberty in sons. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In this population-based study we used data from the Puberty Cohort nested within the Danish National Birth Cohort...
October 11, 2018: Human Reproduction
Yuanzi Ye, Petr Otahal, Thomas H Marwick, Karen E Wills, Amanda L Neil, Alison J Venn
BACKGROUND: With improved cancer survivorship, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other noncancer events compete with cancer as the underlying cause of death, but the risks of mortality in competing-risk settings have not been well characterized. METHODS: The authors identified 21,637 individuals who had a first cancer registered between 2006 and 2013, with follow-up to 2015, in the Australian population-based Tasmanian Cancer Registry. The cumulative incidence of deaths from specific competing events was assessed in competing-risk analyses...
October 12, 2018: Cancer
Kelsi Toews, Jorden A Cummings, Linzi E Williamson
Research shows that nonoffending mothers are frequently held at fault for child sexual abuse (CSA), by both society and professionals, with contradictory explanations for the fault. For example, the same maternal characteristic can be used to assign blame or alleviate blame (i.e., single mothers have been held more at fault for their child's CSA and less at fault). The purpose of this study was to assess a theoretically based model that could account for these different reasons. We tested the stereotype content model (SCM), which examines the content of stereotypes toward target groups, by focusing on perceptions of that group's levels of warmth and competence...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Minoo Asadzandi
Fear and anxiety caused by acute diseases, despair and sorrow resulting from chronic illness, are spiritual reactions which require care. Spiritual care should be done based on a training model. This study was conducted to design and validate "an Islamic religious spiritual health training model for patients." Content analysis was applied for health education models and motivation theories in this qualitative study. Based on the components of the spiritual care model of Sound Heart, compatible concepts were adopted and formulated to a model...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Hiroshi Oike, Manabu Kamitani, Yoshinori Tokura, Fumitaka Kagawa
Exploration for superconductivity is one of the research frontiers in condensed matter physics. In strongly correlated electron systems, the emergence of superconductivity is often inhibited by the formation of a thermodynamically more stable magnetic/charge order. Thus, to develop the superconductivity as the thermodynamically most stable state, the free-energy balance between the superconductivity and the competing order has been controlled mainly by changing thermodynamic parameters, such as the physical/chemical pressure and carrier density...
October 2018: Science Advances
Jennifer Reath, Penelope Abbott, Linda Kurti, Ruth Morgan, Mary Martin, Ada Parry, Elaine Gordon, Julian Thomas, Marlene Drysdale
BACKGROUND: Promoting cultural competence of health professionals working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is key to improving health outcomes. Cultural Educators and Cultural Mentors (CE/ CMs) have critical roles in Australian general practice training, yet these are not well understood. METHODS: Guided by a CE/CM Network, our research team including experienced CE/CMs, used surveys and semi-structured interviews to explore these roles and investigate best practice in employment and support...
October 11, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Rui Yang, Lei Xing, Min Wang, Hong Chi, Luyu Zhang, Junxia Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of highly malignant breast cancer with poor prognosis. Growing evidence indicates that Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important regulatory roles in the development and progression of a variety of cancers including breast cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. METHODS: Here, we compared the expression profiles of mRNAs, lncRNAs and miRNAs between 111 TNBC tissues and 104 non-cancerous tissues utilizing RNA-Seq Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
October 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiao-Man Sun, Lu-Jing Ren, Quan-Yu Zhao, Xiao-Jun Ji, He Huang
Microalgal lipids have drawn great attention as a promising sustainable resource for biodiesel or food supplement production. The development of high-performance strains of microalgae by metabolic engineering is invaluable for increasing the quantity or quality of desired lipids. The synthesis routes of lipids used as biodiesel in microalgae are based on fatty acid synthase (FAS) and triacylglycerols (TAG) biosynthesis pathway. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including ω-6 and ω-3 fatty acids, are essential nutrients for humans...
October 8, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids
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