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Antioxidant and health

Karen E Assmann, Moufidath Adjibade, Serge Hercberg, Pilar Galan, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot
Background: Given the drastic demographic changes characterized as "population aging," the disease burden related to dementia is a major public health problem. The scientific literature documenting the link between mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, PUFAs) and cognitive function during aging is plentiful, but findings are inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the association between intakes of unsaturated fatty acids at midlife and cognitive performance 13 y later in French adults, and to test for a modulating effect of antioxidant supplementation...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Siyuan Shao, Fangsheng Fu, Ziyi Wang, Fangming Song, Chen Li, Zuo-Xing Wu, Jiaxing Ding, Kai Li, Yu Xiao, Yiji Su, Xixi Lin, Guixin Yuan, Jinmin Zhao, Qian Liu, Jiake Xu
Osteolytic bone diseases are closely linked to the over-activation of osteoclasts and enhancement of bone resorption. It has become a major health issue in orthopedic practice worldwide. Inhibition of osteoclasts is proposed to be the main treatment for osteolytic disorders. Diosmetin (DIO) is a natural flavonoid with properties of antioxidant, anti-infection, and antishock. The effect of DIO on osteoclast differentiation is poorly understood. In this study project, we found that DIO could inhibit osteoclastic formation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in a dose-dependent manner...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Merhan Mamdouh Ragy, Sabreen Mahmoud Ahmed
Diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors including hypertension and dyslipidemia are the major threats to human health in the 21st century. Apoptosis in pancreatic tissue is one of the major causes of diabetes type 1 progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of C-peptide or l-arginine on some cardiometabolic risk factors, pancreatic morphology, function and apoptosis, and the mechanisms of their actions. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: 1-control nondiabetic, 2-diabetic (no treatment), 3-diabetic + C-peptide, and 4-diabetic +  l-arginine...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Alfred Maroyi
Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmel. is a plant species regarded as an important fruit tree and medicinal plant in sub-Saharan Africa. This study critically reviewed the nutritional value, phytochemistry, medicinal uses, and pharmacological properties of V. madagascariensis . Relevant information on food and medicinal uses of the species was collected from electronic databases such as ISI Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, OATD, Scopus, OpenThesis, PubMed, and Google Scholar, and preelectronic literatures were obtained from the university library covering the period 1966 to 2018...
2018: Scientifica
Olívia R Pereira, Marcelo D Catarino, Andrea F Afonso, Artur M S Silva, Susana M Cardoso
Salvia elegans Vahl., Salvia greggii A. Gray, and Salvia officinalis L. decoctions were investigated for their health-benefit properties, in particular with respect to antioxidant activity and inhibitory ability towards key enzymes with impact in diabetes and obesity (α-glucosidase, α-amylase and pancreatic lipase). Additionally, the phenolic profiles of the three decoctions were determined and correlated with the beneficial properties. The S. elegans decoction was the most promising in regard to the antioxidant effects, namely in the scavenging capacity of the free radicals DPPH• , NO• and O₂•⁻ , and the ability to reduce Fe3+ , as well as the most effective inhibitor of α-glucosidase (EC50 = 36...
December 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Victor Udo Nna, Ainul Bahiyah Abu Bakar, Azlina Ahmad, Mahaneem Mohamed
CONTEXT: Metformin's effect on glycaemic control is well documented, but its effect on diabetes-induced testicular impairment has been scarcely reported. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of metformin on testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, which largely contribute to fertility decline in diabetic state. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 6/group) namely: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DC), and metformin (300 mg/kg b...
December 4, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Kazim Sahin, Fatih Akdemir, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Hasan Gencoglu, Nurhan Sahin, Ibrahim H Ozercan, Shakir Ali, Ismet Yilmaz, Vijaya Juturu
PURPOSE: Zeaxanthin protects the macula from ocular damage due to light or radiation by scavenging harmful reactive oxygen species. In the present study, zeaxanthin product (OmniXan®; OMX), derived from paprika pods (Capsicum annum; Family-Solanaceae), was tested for its efficacy in the rat retina against photooxidation. METHODS: Forty-two male 8-week-old Wistar rats exposed to 12L/12D, 16L/8D and 24L/0D hours of intense light conditions were orally administrated either 0 or 100 mg/kg BW of zeaxanthin concentration...
December 4, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Tarek K Abouzed, Kadry M Sadek, Mousa M Ayoub, Ebeed A Saleh, Sherif M Nasr, Yasser S El-Sayed, Moustafa Shoukry
Carica papaya is a perennial plant containing bioactive constituents with free radical-scavenging and immune-modulating activities. In contrast, the immune suppression is predominant in the periparturient period, where oxidative stress has a substantial impact on the mammary gland health. The aim of the experiment reported here was to determine the potential effect of C. papaya aqueous extract (CPE) on milk production traits, and expression of genes and proteins related to immune and antioxidant status in dairy milk somatic cells (MSCs)...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Mehdi Koushki, Nasrin Amiri-Dashatan, Nayebali Ahmadi, Hojjat-Allah Abbaszadeh, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani
Resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a nonflavonoid polyphenol that naturally occurs as phytoalexin. It is produced by plant sources such as grapes, apples, blueberries, plums, and peanut. This compound has critical roles in human health and is well known for its diverse biological activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nowadays, due to rising incidence of different diseases such as cancer and diabetes, efforts to find novel and effective disease-protective agents have led to the identification of plant-derived compounds such as resveratrol...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Namhyeon Park, Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen, Gang-Hee Lee, Shi-Na Jin, So-Hyung Kwak, Tae-Kyung Lee, Yeong-Hwan Choi, Seong-Bo Kim, Atsuo Kimura, Doman Kim
Makgeolli is a traditional Korean alcoholic rice beverage. It is brewed of ingredients containing starch, Nuruk, and water. In order to improve the quality and functionality of Makgeolli, the Rhizopus oligosporus fermented buckwheat containing 18.7 mg/kg of l-carnitine were utilized to brew l-carnitine fortified Makgeolli with rice. Makgeolli was prepared in two-stage fermentation method and total rutin and quercetin in each fermented buckwheat Makgeolli were increased 1.8-fold greater than buckwheat Makgeolli...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Adedayo O Ademiluyi, Olubukola H Aladeselu, Ganiyu Oboh, Aline A Boligon
Moringa oleifera leaf is a popular green leafy vegetable which has found its usefulness in the preparation of traditional stews and soups. Like most green leafy vegetable which are not around year-round, the leaf is usually dried and pulverized for storage and easier handling, and despite the popularity of this processing technique, there is dearth of information on how drying affects the health-promoting properties of the leaves. Hence, this study sought to investigate the effect of some drying methods (freeze-drying, sun, air and oven drying) on the phytoconstituents, antioxidant properties, and biological activities of moringa leaf...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Agnieszka Kicel, Joanna Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Aleksandra Owczarek, Magdalena Rutkowska, Anna Wajs-Bonikowska, Sebastian Granica, Pawel Nowak, Monika A Olszewska
The work presents the results of an investigation into the molecular background of the activity of Cotoneaster fruits, providing a detailed description of their phytochemical composition and some of the mechanisms of their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. GS-FID-MS and UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS3 methods were applied to identify the potentially health-beneficial constituents of lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, leading to the identification of fourteen unsaturated fatty acids (with dominant linoleic acid, 375...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Przemysław Kowalczewski, Maria Różańska, Agnieszka Makowska, Paweł Jeżowski, Piotr Kubiak
Spray-dried potato juice, a raw material with pro-health properties that have already been described in recent literature, was used to substitute a part of wheat flour in bread. Bread was chosen based on its popularity. This paper is a report on the results of this substitution. Three levels of flour replacement were chosen - 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% (with respect to the mass of flour). The influence of potato juice addition on some of the most important characteristics of wheat bread was determined. Mixes of wheat flour and spray-dried potato juice were analyzed for fermentative and pasting properties...
December 3, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Pallabi Banerjee, Shuvam Mukherjee, Kaushik Bera, Kanika Ghosh, Imran Ali, Sadhana Khawas, Bimalendu Ray, Sayani Ray
Thymus vulgaris is used for various health benefits and culinary, nevertheless, report on its macromolecules is absent. Here, we report chemical compositions of the polysaccharides isolated from its leaf by sequential extraction with inorganic solvents. In particular, chemical profile of a unique rhamnogalacturonan I type polysaccharide containing ester linked phenolic acids has been described. Sugar compositional, TLC, UV-spectrometric and ESI-MS analyses of oligosaccharides generated from this polysaccharide by enzyme digestion, controlled acid hydrolysis and Smith degradation revealed atypical fine structural details...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Martha Reyes-Becerril, Carlos Angulo, Veronica Sanchez, Juan Vázquez-Martínez, Mercedes G López
Chenopodium ambrosioides L. has been used for centuries as traditional medicine in many clinical situations. The objectives of this study were first to assess the nutraceutical potential of C. ambrosioides L. extract through analyses of its chemical composition and antioxidant properties, followed by assessing toxicity and antioxidative activities on fish splenocytes. The second one was to perform an in vivo study using dietary C. ambrosioides L. extract (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%; w/w) for 15 and 30 days (2-week and 4-week treatments) to assess associated-intestine health status by short-chain fatty production, antioxidant enzyme activities and anti-inflammatory effects on Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru)...
November 28, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ruolin Hou, Xin Liu, Kaikai Xiang, Liangtao Chen, Xiaoping Wu, Wenxiong Lin, Mingfeng Zheng, Junsheng Fu
In this study, solid-state fermentation was used to produce Inonotus hispidus melanin (IH melanin). Its physicochemical properties were characterized, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction was used to optimize its extraction process. Characterization techniques like elemental analysis and so on were used to identify melanin. The solubility, stability, and antioxidant activity were also measured. Furthermore, the extraction process of IH melanin was optimized. The results showed that the pigment could be defined as dihydroxy phenylalanine (DOPA)-melanin, it displayed irregular spherical and ellipsoidal structures with average size of 89...
March 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Marios C Kyriacou, Christophe El-Nakhel, Giulia Graziani, Antonio Pannico, Georgios A Soteriou, Maria Giordano, Alberto Ritieni, Stefania De Pascale, Youssef Rouphael
Compositional variation was examined across 13 microgreens species/subspecies representing Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae and Apiaceae, grown in controlled environment. Macro-mineral concentrations were determined by ion chromatography, chlorophyll and ascorbate concentrations, and hydrophilic/lipophilic antioxidant potentials by spectrophotometry, and major carotenoids by HPLC-DAD. Nitrate hyper-accumulators and wide genotypic differences in Na, K and S concentrations were identified. Antioxidant capacity was highest in brassicaceous microgreens and significant genotypic variation was demonstrated in chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations...
March 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Erin Diane Lewis, Simin Nikbin Meydani, Dayong Wu
Vitamin E, a potent lipid-soluble antioxidant, found in higher concentration in immune cells compared to other cells in blood, is one of the most effective nutrients known to modulate immune function. Vitamin E deficiency has been demonstrated to impair normal functions of the immune system in animals and humans, which can be corrected by vitamin E repletion. Although deficiency is rare, vitamin E supplementation above current dietary recommendations has been shown to enhance the function of the immune system and reduce risk of infection, particularly in older individuals...
November 30, 2018: IUBMB Life
Chao Li, Xinyi Cui, Yi Chen, Chunyang Liao, Lena Q Ma
Synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) have been widely used in foods, polymers, and cosmetics, but very limited information is available about their occurrence in human tissues. In this study, five SPAs, namely 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA), propyl-, octyl-, and dodecyl-gallate (PG, OG, and DG), and four major metabolites of BHT, including 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4 -hydroxybenzaldehyde (BHT-CHO), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(hydroxymethyl) phenol (BHT-OH), 3,5-di-tertbutyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHT-COOH), and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (BHT-Q), were determined in human fingernail samples collected from Nanjing, China...
November 16, 2018: Environmental Research
Cliff Ross, B Christopher Warhurst, Amber Brown, Chase Huff, Judith D Ochrietor
As aquatic ecosystems become increasingly affected by hydrologic alterations, drought and sea level rise a need exists to better understand the biological effects of elevated salinity on toxigenic cyanobacteria such as Microcystis aeruginosa. This study investigated the impacts of oligohaline/low mesohaline conditions and exposure time on selected physiological and biochemical responses in M. aeruginosa including cell viability, oxidative stress, antioxidant responses, in addition to microcystin synthesis and release into the surrounding environment...
November 22, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
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