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Antioxidant and health

Teofana O Bizerea, Stefana G Dezsi, Otilia Marginean, Ramona Stroescu, Alexandru Rogobete, Otilia Bizerea-Spiridon, Constantin Ilie
BACKGROUND: The first line of defence against oxidative stress (OS) are the endogenous antioxidants, such as the Se containing compounds. During pregnancy, OS is caused by the intense growth activity of the fetus; therefore, the placenta is a key place for the activity of many seleno-compounds such as glutathione-peroxidase and thioredoxinreductase. METHODS: This review aims to establish the link between the type of selenium compounds, their concentration, their metabolic pathways, and their role in both physiologic and pathologic processes during pregnancy...
October 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Nicolas Dusart, Joëlle Gérard, Didier Le Thiec, Christelle Collignon, Yves Jolivet, Marie-Noëlle Vaultier
Ozone (O3 ) and drought increase tree oxidative stress. To protect forest health, we need to improve risk assessment, using metric model such as the phytotoxic O3 dose above a threshold of y nmol·m-2 ·s-1 (PODy), while taking into account detoxification mechanisms and interacting stresses. The impact of drought events on the effect of O3 pollution deserves special attention. Water deficit may decrease O3 entrance into the leaves by reducing stomatal opening; however, water deficit also induces changes in cell redox homeostasis...
October 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yi-Ning Qiu, Guo-Hui Wang, Fen Zhou, Jin-Jin Hao, Li Tian, Long-Fei Guan, Xiao-Kun Geng, Yu-Chuan Ding, He-Wen Wu, Ke-Zhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: The increasing epidemic of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a serious threat to human health. It induces the occurrence of liver fibrosis, but its molecular mechanism is not yet clear. The molecular mechanisms of PM2.5 inducing liver fibrosis were investigated in this study. METHODS: The cell viability of LX-2 cells and primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was detected using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay...
October 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
S A Salmataj, Shobha U Kamath, V Ramachandra Murty, Sreedhara Ranganath Pai
Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic creates various health problems. Ixora coccinea flower extract was investigated for its ability to protect against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in CHO cell line. MTT assay confirmed the efficacy of the extract in ameliorating arsenic-induced cytotoxicity. The value (48 mM) of 24 h inhibitory concentration (IC50) of sodium arsenate for CHO cells was obtained by MTT assay. Various free radical scavenging assays like DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide scavenging assay confirmed antioxidant activity of the Ixora coccinea flower extract...
October 2018: 3 Biotech
Denise Felix da Silva, Carolina Itoda, Cassia Inês Lourenzi Franco Rosa, Ana Carolina Pelaes Vital, Letícia Naomi Yamamoto, Lilian Yukari Yamamoto, Renato Vasconcelos Botelho, Paula Toshimi Matumoto-Pintro
Beneficial health effects are attributed to the wide array of polyphenols such as anthocyanins present in berries. Blackberries have been improved genetically to be cultivated in different climate such as Brazil. Thus, distinctive cultivars were created. However, antioxidant properties of these have not been evaluated. This study aimed to investigate the availability of phenolic compounds in Brazilian cultivar blackberries (cv. Xavante) after processing into purées, coulis and jam changes during storage. Physicochemical, total phenolic compounds (TPC), anthocyanins and antioxidant activity of frozen and processed food products were evaluated...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Jobina Rajkumari, Madhu Dyavaiah, S J Sudharshan, Siddhardha Busi
Excessive production and restricted elimination of free radicals like superoxide, hydroxyl radical (· OH), anion radical (O2 ·- ), and non-radical hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) are related to the development of cancer, arteriosclerosis, arthritis and neurodegenerative diseases. According to a report of World Health Organisation, about 80% of the population living in the developing countries predominantly depends on the traditional medicine for their primary healthcare. Plants possess innate ability to synthesize a wide variety of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants capable of attenuating ROS-induced oxidative damage...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Nicola Baldini, Elena Torreggiani, Laura Roncuzzi, Francesca Perut, Nicoletta Zini, Sofia Avnet
BACKGROUND: Exosome-like nanovesicles are biological nanostructures mediating cell-to-cell communication and capable to load selected cargos also in the interaction among different species. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the content of exosome-like nanovesicles derived from Citrus limon L. and to analyze the effects of their uptake on human cells. METHOD: We isolated exosome-like nanovesicles from Citrus limon L. juice (EXO-CL) by differential centrifugation...
October 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Fabio Virgili, Roberto Ambra, Jacqueline McCormack, Elizabeth Ellen Simpson, Donatella Ciarapica, Lorenzo Barnaba, Elena Azzini, Angela Polito
BACKGROUND: Zinc is an essential component for all living organisms, representing the second most abundant trace element, after iron. This element is widely distributed in the tissues of human body where it is involved in the normal growth, reproduction and several biological functions including immunity, energy metabolism and antioxidant processes. Because of its essential role, zinc levels in human body must remain constant, independently of dietary intake fluctuations. The homeostasis of zinc is a well-regulated cellular process and has been reported to be chiefly mediated by the expression and activity of zinc-binding proteins such as metallothioneins and zinc transporters...
October 16, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Sara Tagliaferri, Debora Porri, Rachele De Giuseppe, Matteo Manuelli, Francesco Alessio, Hellas Cena
Increased oxidative stress has been implicated as a potential causal factor in the development of several diseases. In the last decade, an extensive literature has been produced on vitamin D, not limited to its well-known function like a steroid hormone on skeletal tissue, but for its potential pleiotropic role in human health. Several researchers have suggested relationships between vitamin D intake and health outcomes such as cancer prevention and increased immunity, or possible role in preventing diabetes, and in inflammation...
October 17, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
Sajjad Abbasi, Behnam Keshavarzi, Farid Moore, Andrew Turner, Frank J Kelly, Ana Oliete Dominguez, Neemat Jaafarzadeh
While the distribution and effects of microplastics (MPs) have been extensively studied in aquatic systems, there exits little information on their occurrence in the terrestrial environment and their potential impacts on human health. In the present study, street dust and suspended dust were collected from the city and county of Asaluyeh, Iran. Samples were characterized by various microscopic techniques (fluorescence, polarized light, SEM) in order to quantify and classify MPs and microrubbers (MRs) in the urban and industrial environments that are potentially ingestible or inhalable by humans...
October 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Wang Wang, Jibing Wu, Qingyan Zhang, Xue Li, Xixi Zhu, Qiuying Wang, Shasha Cao, Linfang Du
Lung cancer is the main health threat in the world. Recently, oleuropein has been reported to have potent antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, the antitumor effects of oleuropein on H1299 cells are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is tantamount to explore the effects of oleuropein on H1299 cells and its underlying mechanism that may be involved. Oleuropein treatment in H1299 cells resulted in cell cycle distribution at G2 /M arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Munesh Kumar, Rajesh Thakur
Background: Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen widely distributed in the environment. Chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenicals causes many adverse health effects. The present work was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of Syzygium cumini seed extract (SCE) on arsenic-induced genotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 served as normal control, Group 2 received SCE, 200 mg/kg daily, and Group 3 received arsenic, 100 ppm in drinking water...
October 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Olugbenga David Oloruntola, Johnson Oluwasola Agbede, Simeon Olugbenga Ayodele, Eyanlola Soladoye Ayedun, Olajumoke Temidayo Daramola, Deborah Adebukola Oloruntola
Background: Following the ban on the importation of import-dependent fed ingredients in most developing countries, the need to look inward for local content is now compelling. Thus, leaf meals that have phytogenic additive potentials are envisaged will be a viable feed ingredient in rabbit diets. Methods: The effect of dietary inclusion of gliricidia leaf meal (GLM) with or without multi-enzyme (E) supplementation in rabbits was investigated using ninety-six 35-day old rabbits of crossbreed (Newzealand and Chinchilla)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
Bruce N Ames
It is proposed that proteins/enzymes be classified into two classes according to their essentiality for immediate survival/reproduction and their function in long-term health: that is, survival proteins versus longevity proteins. As proposed by the triage theory, a modest deficiency of one of the nutrients/cofactors triggers a built-in rationing mechanism that favors the proteins needed for immediate survival and reproduction (survival proteins) while sacrificing those needed to protect against future damage (longevity proteins)...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Laurine Garros, Samantha Drouet, Cyrielle Corbin, Cédric Decourtil, Thibaud Fidel, Julie Lebas de Lacour, Emilie A Leclerc, Sullivan Renouard, Duangjai Tungmunnithum, Joël Doussot, Bilal Haider Abassi, Benoit Maunit, Éric Lainé, Ophélie Fliniaux, François Mesnard, Christophe Hano
Flaxseeds are a functional food representing, by far, the richest natural grain source of lignans, and accumulate substantial amounts of other health beneficial phenolic compounds (i.e., flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids). This specific accumulation pattern is related to their numerous beneficial effects on human health. However, to date, little data is available concerning the relative impact of genetic and geographic parameters on the phytochemical yield and composition. Here, the major influence of the cultivar over geographic parameters on the flaxseed phytochemical accumulation yield and composition is evidenced...
October 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Josef Fontana, Michal Zima, Vaclav Vetvicka
Numerous conditions, including cancer, diabetes, aging, and atherosclerosis, are thought to be associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is defined as a persistent imbalance between oxidation and antioxidation, resulting in the damage of cellular macromolecules and is often considered to be involved in wide variety of human diseases. However, the current literature is very heterogeneous making it rather difficult to draw general conclusions. Often, different biomarkers have been used in different health problems...
October 15, 2018: Immunological Investigations
Yanqing Wu, Yiyang Li, Ting Jiang, Yuan Yuan, Rui Li, Zeping Xu, Xingfeng Zhong, Gaili Jia, Yanlong Liu, Ling Xie, Ke Xu, Hongyu Zhang, Xiaokun Li, Jian Xiao
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of general and common complication of diabetes, which severely affects the physical and mental health of diabetic patients. Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1), an effective control agent of blood glucose, plays an effective treatment role on diabetes-induced renal injury. But the specific molecule mechanism underlying it is still unclear. Since induction of cellular stress is the main and common mechanism of diabetes-induced complication, we hypothesized that reduction of cellular stress is also the molecular mechanism of FGF1 treatment for DN...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Mamta Gupta, Jian Zha, Xing Zhang, Gyoo Yeol Jung, Robert J Linhardt, Mattheos A G Koffas
Anthocyanins are plant secondary metabolites that, despite their chemical instability, have found many applications as natural food colorants. They are also known for their beneficial health effects because of their antioxidant and anticancer properties. More stable versions of these molecules, particularly at neutral pH conditions, are required to study the anthocyanin pharmacokinetic properties and obtain effective therapeutic results. In the present report, a cost-effective technique was developed to prepare the deuterated anthocyanin using recombinant Escherichia coli as a production host and deuterated glycerol and D2 O in the culture media...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Chang Hee Jeong, Haram Ryu, Ting Zhang, Chi Ho Lee, Han Geuk Seo, Sung Gu Han
Yogurt is a fermented dairy food produced by growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Green tea is associated with beneficial health effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea powder (GTP) on the fermentation and bioactive properties of yogurt. Yogurt was supplemented with 0-3% GTP (w/v), and effects on fermentation were determined. In addition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of GTP supplemented yogurts were determined in HT-29 colon cells. GTP (1-3%) supplementation significantly increased the acidification rate and growth of LAB during yogurt fermentation...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Kathiroli Sujithra, Srinivasan Subramani, Indumathi Dhananjayan, Veerasamy Vinothkumar
Diabetes is a major non-communicable life threatening chronic and pervasive condition that is consuming the world health in a petrifying rate. The circulatory system is one of the major sources of hyperglycemia induced ROS generation. Historically, garlic has been revered as part of a healthful diet. Organosulfur compounds have been attributed to the medicinal properties and health benefits of garlic. The present study focuses on the ameliorative role of Allyl methyl sulfide (AMS) in combating diabetic complications in diabetic rats...
October 15, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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