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Antioxidant and health

Dunja Šamec, Iva Pavlović, Ivana Radojčić Redovniković, Branka Salopek-Sondi
Five Brassicaceae sprouts (white cabbage, kale, broccoli, Chinese cabbage, arugula) were comparatively analyzed based on phytochemicals (polyphenols, glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, ascorbic acid) content and accompanying enzymes associated with phytochemical stability and bioavailability (peroxidases, myrosinase, and polyphenol-oxidase) that consequently impact food quality. Significantly high content of polyphenols and glucosinolates, as well as a high antioxidant activity were found in white cabbage, followed by kale sprouts...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Vemana Gowd, Tao Bao, Liling Wang, Ying Huang, Shenghuizi Chen, Xiaodong Zheng, Sunliang Cui, Wei Chen
Blackberry fruit contains high levels of polyphenols particularly anthocyanins which contribute to its biological activities. Bioavailability of polyphenols especially anthocyanins is generally low, it has been proposed that metabolites from polyphenol biotransformation under colonic fermentation are components that exert health benefits. In this study, blackberry was subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion and gut microbiota fermentation at different time intervals (0-48 h) to study the changes in bioactive components, its antioxidant and antidiabetic activities...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Ahmed M Saleh, Samy Selim, Soad Al Jaouni, Hamada AbdElgawad
The functional food value of herbal plants is greatly related to their contents of valuable phytochemicals. Regarding its impact on primary and secondary plant metabolism, CO2 enrichment could be a candidate strategy to modulate the levels of nutritionally and medicinally interesting phytochemicals in herbal plants. Herein, the concentrations of 81 metabolites and minerals were evaluated in shoot tissues of parsley and dill grown under two levels of CO2 , ambient (378 ± 25 µmole CO2 mole-1 air, aCO2 ) and elevated (627 ± 24 µmole CO2 mole-1 air, eCO2 )...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Ioannis J Stavrou, Atalanti Christou, Constantina P Kapnissi-Christodoulou
Carob (Ceratonia Siliqua L., tree of the pea family Fabaceae) and its products have recently attracted great interest due to their polyphenolic composition. This review summarizes the polyphenolic compounds that are contained in different carob parts (leaves, pod, seeds, barks) and products (syrup, flour, fiber). It also states the main differences of polyphenolic composition due to environmental and natural reasons, such as region, variety, and gender, and due to the processes used for preparation, extraction and analysis...
December 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Kai Feng, Jie-Xia Liu, Ao-Qi Duan, Tong Li, Qing-Qing Yang, Zhi-Sheng Xu, Ai-Sheng Xiong
This study showed that an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, AgMYB2, functions in anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation in purple celery. Anthocyanins are involved in tissue coloration and stress response in plants. Foods containing high anthocyanin content are also beneficial to human health. Purple celery accumulated amounts of anthocyanins in the petioles. The biosynthesis of anthocyanin in plants is mainly regulated by the R2R3-MYB transcription factor (TF). However, the R2R3-MYB TF that controls anthocyanin accumulation in purple celery remains unclear...
August 11, 2018: Planta
Qian Wang, Jiayi Wang, Wu Ding, Dequan Zhang, Kevin Reed, Boce Zhang
Preservatives in processed meat raise significant concerns associated with bowel cancer and diabetes, and implicate various public health issues. This introduces the need for safer preservatives to uphold public health standards. However, developing safer alternatives to these preservatives poses a significant challenge to food industry. A potential solution to this issue is the use of loaded nanoparticles as preservative agents. This study investigated antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sorbic acid-loaded chitosan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (SAN) in Chinese Sausage...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Guey-Horng Wang, Yi-Min Lin, Jong-Tar Kuo, Chia-Pei Lin, Chin-Feng Chang, Min-Chi Hsieh, Chiu-Yu Cheng, Ying-Chien Chung
Asparagus cochinchinensis root (ACR) is used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, ACR was first extracted with 25% ethyl acetate (EA) and then fermented by Aspergillus oryzae to enhance its antioxidant activity and evaluate its potential antityrosinase activity. The physiological activity and cytotoxicity of A. oryzae-fermented ACR extract, along with its antityrosinase activity and effects on melanogenic factor levels in human epidermal melanocytes (HEMs), were analyzed and compared with those of the unfermented extract...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Una-Jovana Vajic, Jelica Grujic-Milanovic, Zoran Miloradovic, Djurdjica Jovovic, Milan Ivanov, Danijela Karanovic, Katarina Savikin, Branko Bugarski, Nevena Mihailovic-Stanojevic
BACKGROUND: Urtica dioica L. (Stinging nettle) has been used for centuries for the treatment of numerous health issues. PURPOSE: This study investigates the antioxidant capacity and the most abundant phenolic compounds of Urtica dioica L. leaf extract (UE), and its antihypertensive and antioxidative effects in vivo. STUDY DESIGN: Spontaneously hypertensive rats were supplemented with 10, 50, and 200 mg/kg/day of UE and 10 mg/kg/day of losartan during 4-week period...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ramzi A Mothana, Jamal M Khaled, Omar M Noman, Ashok Kumar, Mohamed F Alajmi, Adnan J Al-Rehaily, Mine Kurkcuoglu
BACKGROUND: Cancers and microbial infections are still a major health problem, therefore research on new anticancer and antimicrobial agents ought to be continued. Natural products including essential oils from medicinal plants continue to be an important resource to manage various diseases. Thus, the particular objectives of this study are to investigate the chemical composition, cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Plectranthus species namely P. cylindraceus Hocst...
August 10, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Alessandra Antunes Dos Santos, Beatriz Ferrer, Filipe Marques Gonçalves, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Elisavet A Renieri, Anatoly V Skalny, Marcelo Farina, João B T Rocha, Michael Aschner
Methylmercury (MeHg) is a hazardous environmental pollutant, which elicits significant toxicity in humans. The accumulation of MeHg through the daily consumption of large predatory fish poses potential health risks, and the central nervous system (CNS) is the primary target of toxicity. Despite well-described neurobehavioral effects (i.e., motor impairment), the mechanisms of MeHg-induced toxicity are not completely understood. However, several lines of evidence point out the oxidative stress as an important molecular mechanism in MeHg-induced intoxication...
August 9, 2018: Toxics
Seon Young Park, Robert M Binkley, Won Jun Kim, Mun Hee Lee, Sang Yup Lee
Astaxanthin is a reddish keto-carotenoid classified as a xanthophyll found in various microbes and marine organisms. As a powerful antioxidant having up to 100 times more potency than other carotenoids such as β-carotene, lutein, and lycopene, astaxanthin is a versatile compound utilized in animal feed, food pigment, health promotion and cosmetic industry. Here, we report development of metabolically engineered Escherichia coli capable of producing astaxanthin to a high concentration with high productivity...
August 7, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Dirlei D Kieling, Sandra H Prudencio
BACKGROUND: Lemongrass is an aromatic plant, with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, used for the preparation of medicinal tea and essential oil production. Previous studies have shown that extracts of lemongrass leaves present phenolic compounds associated with health benefits. Although essential oils have been widely used as flavoring agents, there is no scientific evidence regarding the application of lemongrass essential oil in beverages. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to develop blends with lemongrass derivatives (aqueous extract, lyophilized extract, and essential oil) and lime juice for the preparation of mixed beverages, to evaluate the antioxidant and physicochemical characteristics of blends, and to determine the sensory profile and acceptance of mixed beverages...
August 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Nikolaos Peroulis, Vasilis P Androutsopoulos, George Notas, Stella Koinaki, Elsa Giakoumaki, Apostolos Spyros, Εfstathia Manolopoulou, Sophia Kargaki, Maria Tzardi, Eleni Moustou, Euripides G Stephanou, Efstathia Bakogeorgou, Niki Malliaraki, Maria Niniraki, Christos Lionis, Elias Castanas, Marilena Kampa
PURPOSE: Dyslipidemia and impaired glucose metabolism are the main health issues of growing prevalence and significant high healthcare cost, requiring novel prevention and/or therapeutic approaches. Epidemiological and animal studies revealed that olive oil is an important dietary constituent, inducing normolipidemia. However, no studies have specifically investigated the polyphenol-rich water extract of olives (OLWPE), generated during olive oil production. METHODS: In the present work, we initially examined the effect of OLPWE on animals' metabolic parameters...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Leila Simani, Fari Ryan, Shadab Hashemifard, Etrat Hooshmandi, Maryam Madahi, Zahra Sahraei, Omidvar Rezaei, Kamran Heydari, Mahtab Ramezani
Disruption of prooxidant-antioxidant balance may lead to oxidative stress which is known as a mechanism contributing to ischemic stroke. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an endogenous antioxidant that could be effective in preventing oxidative stress. However, the contribution of serum levels of CoQ10 in clinical neurological outcomes following ischemic stroke has not been clearly established. This study aims at measuring serum concentration of CoQ10 along with major indicators of antioxidant and oxidant among patients within 24 h after onset of the stroke symptoms, and investigating their relation with the clinical status of patients...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Ibrar Anjum, Syeda S Jaffery, Muniba Fayyaz, Abdullah Wajid, Armghan H Ans
Sugar-sweetened beverages containing caffeine are widely used among humans nowadays and can have negative consequences on the overall health. Our study aims to discuss the effects of these sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and how they can impact the health in different ways particularly on the brain. Some of the mechanisms by which soft drinks can exert adverse effects include an increase in glutathione-6-dehydrogenase level, increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and dopamine alteration in brain waves on electroencephalography (EEG) eventually leading to stroke and dementia...
June 7, 2018: Curēus
Fusheng Zhao, Fang Lei, Xiang Yan, Senfeng Zhang, Wen Wang, Yu Zheng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) during pregnancy is a well-recognized health hazard that causes placental damage. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been reported to protect multiple organs from injury. However, the protective effects of H2S have not been tested in the placenta. This study aimed to explore the potential of H2S in protecting placenta against oxidative injury induced by CSE during pregnancy and the possible underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: NaCl, NaHS (a donor of H2S), CSE and CSE+NaHS...
August 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Sena Iwata, Takahiko Imai, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Takashi Ishibashi, Masahiro Hayashi, Hideaki Hara, Shinsuke Nakamura
Astaxanthin is beneficial for human health and is used as a dietary supplement. The present study was performed in order to examine the protective effects of the astaxanthin derivative, adonixanthin, against cell death caused by hemoglobin, collagenase, lipopolysaccharide, and hydrogen peroxide, which are associated with hemorrhagic brain injury. In an in vitro study, adonixanthin exerted cytoprotective effects against each type of damage, and its effects were stronger than those of astaxanthin. The increased production of reactive oxygen species in human brain endothelial cells in the hemoglobin treatment group was inhibited by adonixanthin...
August 6, 2018: Brain Research
Sahil Kapoor, Ankita Sharma, Pushpender Bhardwaj, Hemant Sood, Shweta Saxena, Om Prakash Chaurasia
Rhodiola imbricata is a rare medicinal plant of the trans-Himalayan region of Ladakh. It is used for the treatment of numerous health ailments. Compact callus aggregate (CCA) suspension cultures of Rhodiola imbricata were established to counter extinction threats and for production of therapeutically valuable phenolic compounds to meet their increasing industrial demands. The present study also investigated the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on production of phenolic compounds and bioactivities in CCA suspension cultures...
August 8, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Hassan Askari, Mohammad Foad Abazari, Pegah Ghoraeian, Sepehr Torabinejad, Maryam Nouri Aleagha, Reza Mirfallah Nassiri, Farshid Tahmasebi, Nairi Abedi, Sulail Fatima Rajani, Ali Salarian, Maryam Belaran, Mohammed Elshiekh, Nima Sanadgol
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem worldwide and is associated with spatial learning deficits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on CKD-mediated behavioral deficits with emphasis to the role of nitric oxide (NO) in these effects. Fifty rats were randomly allocated to five experimental groups including: sham, Five-sixth (5/6) nephrectomy (Nx), 5/6Nx + NaHS, 5/6Nx + NaHS+L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and 5/6Nx + NaHS+aminoguanidine (AMG)...
August 8, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Farah Syed, Kumud K Awasthi, Lalit P Chandravanshi, Rajbala Verma, Neelu K Rajawat, Vinay K Khanna, P J John, Inderpal Soni
Extensive use of synthetic pyrethroids has resulted in serious human health issues. Induction of oxidative stress is an important mechanism of action of most pesticides including pyrethroids. In the present study, we have elucidated the possible role of oxidative stress in bifenthrin-induced neurotoxicity. Adult male Wistar rats were administered bifenthrin (3.5 and 7 mg per kg body weight p.o.) for 30 days. Behavioral studies were conducted on a set of randomly selected rats from each treatment group after completion of treatment...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
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