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Antioxidants health

Snezana Agatonovic-Kustrin, Ella Kustrin, David W Morton
As total life expectancy increases, the prevalence of age-related diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease is also increasing. Many hypotheses about Alzheimer's disease have been developed, including cholinergic neuron damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Acetylcholine is a major neurotransmitter in the brain and cholinergic deficits leads to cognitive dysfunction and decline. Recent studies have linked diabetes as a risk factor in developing Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. The incidence of patients with type II diabetes and increased levels and activity of α-amylase is higher in patients with dementia...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Rong Huang, Juan Ma, Bo Niu, Jin Li, Jian Chang, Yanrui Zhang, Peng Liu, Xinping Luan
Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability globally and has been regarded as a major public health problem. Understanding the mechanism of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced oxidative stress injury may provide new treatment for ischemic stroke. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/ NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/ antioxidant response elements (ARE) signaling pathway has been considered to be the major cellular defense against oxidative stress. In the present study, our objective is to evaluate the molecular mechanism of miR-34b/Keap1 in modulating focal cerebral I/R induced oxidative injury...
January 2019: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Fanny George, Catherine Daniel, Muriel Thomas, Elisabeth Singer, Axel Guilbaud, Frédéric J Tessier, Anne-Marie Revol-Junelles, Frédéric Borges, Benoît Foligné
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are representative members of multiple ecosystems on earth, displaying dynamic interactions within animal and plant kingdoms in respect with other microbes. This highly heterogeneous phylogenetic group has coevolved with plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, establishing either mutualism, symbiosis, commensalism, or even parasitism-like behavior with their hosts. Depending on their location and environment conditions, LAB can be dominant or sometimes in minority within ecosystems...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zhijun Liu, Pengyun Huang, Siukan Law, Haiyan Tian, Wingnang Leung, Chuanshan Xu
Cancer is still a severe threat to the health of people worldwide. Chemotherapy is one of main therapeutic approaches to combat cancer. However, chemotherapy only has a limited success with severe side effects, especially causing damage to normal tissues such as bone marrow, gastrointestine, heart, liver, renal, neuron, and auditory tissues, etc. The side-effects limit clinical outcome of chemotherapy and lower patients' quality of life, and even make many patients discontinue the chemotherapy. Thus, there is a need to explore effective adjuvant strategies to prevent and reduce the chemotherapy-induced side effects...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yann Guéguen, Alice Bontemps, Teni G Ebrahimian
This article reviews the current knowledge on the mechanisms of adaptive response to low doses of ionizing radiation or chemical exposure. A better knowledge of these mechanisms is needed to improve our understanding of health risks at low levels of environmental or occupational exposure and their involvement in cancer or non-cancer diseases. This response is orchestrated through a multifaceted cellular program involving the concerted action of diverse stress response pathways. These evolutionary highly conserved defense mechanisms determine the cellular response to chemical and physical aggression...
December 8, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Mohamed M Abdel-Diam, Dalia H Samak, Yasser S El-Sayed, Lotfi Aleya, Saud Alarifi, Saad Alkahtani
The ubiquitous use of diazinon (DZN, an organophosphorus insecticide) has increased the probability of occupational, public, and the ecosystem exposure; these exposures are linked to negative health outcomes. The flavonoids curcumin (CUR) and quercetin (QUE) exert significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities against toxicants, including insecticides. However, it is unclear whether their combination enhances these activities. Therefore, 40 albino rat were divided randomly into the CTR, DZN, CUR + DZN, QUE + DZN, and CUR + QUE + DZN groups, which are treated daily via gavage for 28 days...
December 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Thikryat Neamatallah, Ashraf B Abdel-Naim, Basma G Eid, Atif Hasan
Liver fibrosis is a major health problem worldwide due to its serious complications including cirrhosis and liver cancer. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME) is an end metabolite of estradiol with anti-proliferative, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the protective role of 2-ME in liver fibrosis has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of 2-ME in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced liver fibrosis in mice. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 twice weekly for 6 weeks...
December 7, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Márta Sárközy, Zsuzsanna Z A Kovács, Mónika G Kovács, Renáta Gáspár, Gergő Szűcs, László Dux
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem and a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CKD could amplify the progression of chronic heart failure leading to the development of type 4 cardio-renal syndrome (T4CRS). The severity and persistence of heart failure are strongly associated with mortality risk in T4CRS. CKD is also a catabolic state leading to renal sarcopenia which is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle strength and physical function. Renal sarcopenia also promotes the development of CVD and increases the mortality in CKD patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Geetha Maniam, Chun-Wai Mai, Mohd Zulkefeli, Christine Dufès, Doryn Meam-Yee Tan, Ju-Yen Fu
Plant-derived phytonutrients have emerged as health enhancers. Tocotrienols from the vitamin E family gained high attention in recent years due to their multi-targeted biological properties, including lipid-lowering, neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. Despite well-defined mechanism of action as an anti-cancer agent, their clinical use is hampered by poor pharmacokinetic profile and low oral bioavailability. Delivery systems based on nanotechnology were proven to be advantageous in elevating the delivery of tocotrienols to tumor sites for enhanced efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Fatema Suliman Alatawi, Uzma A Faridi, Mohsen Suliaman Alatawi
Background: In diabetes mellitus, uncontrolled hyperglycemia has been reported to induce oxidative stress, which may lead to health complications. Vitamin D, however, acts as a non-enzymatic antioxidant to protect cells against oxidative stress and damage. Objective: To investigate the antioxidative effect of vitamin D combined with calcium in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups (ten rats in each group)...
December 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Fan Wang, Ruiling Wang, Haifang Liu
Inhalation of pathogenic bacteria transported by particulate matter (PM) presents an important potential threat to human health. Therefore, the pulmonary toxicity in mice caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and PM as individual matter and mixtures was studied. PM and S. aureus were instilled intratracheally into Kunming mice at doses of 0.2 mg/mouse and 5.08 × 106 CFU /mouse, respectively, as individual matter and in combination two times at 5-day intervals. After the exposure period, oxidative stress markers and nitric oxide (NO) in the lung, cellular infiltration, neurotrophins, chemokines, andcytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and immunoglobulin (Ig) in sera were examined...
December 10, 2018: Experimental Animals
Aida I El Makawy, Faten M Ibrahim, Dalia M Mabrouk, Kawkab A Ahmed, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
Sexual dysfunction in the epileptic patient is difficult to confirm whether it is ailment or therapy related. Antiepileptic drugs often use in reproductive age, through reproductive progress and maturation. On the other side, cold-pressed oils are rich in bioactive phytochemicals with health-promoting traits. The target of this work was to appraise the sexual dysfunction of antiepileptic Topiramate (TPM) and cold pressed ginger oil (CPGO) as antiepileptic alternative medicine in male mice. Fifty-four adult male albino mice were divided into nine groups (n = 6 mice)...
December 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Francesca Trampetti, Catarina Pereira, Maria João Rodrigues, Odeta Celaj, Brigida D'Abrosca, Gokhan Zengin, Adriano Mollica, Azzurra Stefanucci, Luísa Custódio
In this study, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol and water extracts from flowers, stems and roots of Cistanche phelypaea (L.) Cout were appraised for radical scavenging activity (RSA) towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl,2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and superoxide free radicals, and for metal chelating activities on iron and copper ions. The water extracts had the highest antioxidant activity, especially those from roots and flowers, and were further appraised for in vitro inhibition of enzymes implicated on the onset of human ailments, namely acetyl- (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) for Alzheimer's disease, α-glucosidase and α-amylase for diabetes, and tyrosinase for skin hyperpigmentation disorders...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Hongyan Wang, Yiping Chen, Jingwen Zhang, Xiuwen Tang, Xiu Jun Wang
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between ambient particulate pollution and adverse health effects in humans. The antioxidant-responsive element (ARE) cytoprotective system mediated by the transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) serves as a primary defense against the oxidative stress triggered by particulate matter. In this study, using a cell-based ARE-reporter assay, the fine fractions of the fly ash collected from the municipal solid waste incinerators at four cities in China were examined for their ability to activate Nrf2/ARE signaling...
December 5, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Aleksandra Zygula, Przemyslaw Kosinski, Aneta Zwierzchowska, Malgorzata Sochacka, Piotr Wroczynski, Magdalena Makarewicz-Wujec, Bronislawa Pietrzak, Mirosław Wielgos, Mateusz Rzentala, Joanna Giebultowicz
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were as follows: to investigate possible differences between plasma oxidative status (OS) in late-onset GDM and well-characterized healthy pregnant women (oral health, diet); to verify the existence of possible differences between GDMG1 (diet-treated) and GDMG2 (insulin-treated GDM); to determine whether oxidative stress markers could be detected in saliva. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 89 pregnant women (n=89; 59 with GDM and 30 controls) were evaluated...
December 6, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Alberto R Corrochano, Yunus Sariçay, Elena Arranz, Phil M Kelly, Vitaly Buckin, Linda Giblin
Oxidative stress caused by free radicals has been implicated in several human disorders. Dietary antioxidants can help the body to counteract those reactive species and reduce oxidative stress. Antioxidant activity is one of the multiple health-promoting attributes assigned to bovine whey products. The present study investigated whether this activity was retained during upper gut transit using a static simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) model. The capacity to scavenge free radicals and reduce ferric ion of whey protein isolate (WPI), individual whey proteins, and hydrolysates pre- and post-SGID were measured and compared using various antioxidant assays...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M Priyanga Jayamal Dharmaratne, Amirthasingam Manoraj, Vasanthi Thevanesam, Asela Ekanayake, Nimal Savitri Kumar, Veranja Liyanapathirana, Eranga Abeyratne, B M Ratnayake Bandara
BACKGROUND: Identification of novel sources for developing new antibiotics is imperative with the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The fruits of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn) Roxb., widely used in traditional medicine, were evaluated for antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity. METHODS: Twelve solvent extracts of T. bellirica fruits were prepared by direct aqueous extraction and sequential extraction with dichloromethane, methanol and water using Soxhlet, bottle-shaker and ultrasound sonicator methods...
December 7, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Jessica V Fay, Christopher J Watkins, Ram K Shrestha, Sergio L Litwiñiuk, Liliana N Talavera Stefani, Cristian A Rojas, Carina F Argüelles, Julian A Ferreras, Mario Caccamo, Marcos M Miretti
BACKGROUND: The most common infusion in southern Latin-American countries is prepared with dried leaves of Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., an aboriginal ancestral beverage known for its high polyphenols concentration currently consumed in > 90% of homes in Argentina, in Paraguay and Uruguay. The economy of entire provinces heavily relies on the production, collection and manufacture of Ilex paraguariensis, the fifth plant species with highest antioxidant activity. Polyphenols are associated to relevant health benefits including strong antioxidant properties...
December 7, 2018: BMC Genomics
Hilal Yildiran, Melahat Sedanur Macit, Gizem Özata Uyar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is no review in the literature on the effect of nutrition-related factors on peripheral nerve injuries. Therefore, it is aimed to evaluate the effect of nutritional factors on nerve injuries in this compilation. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there are several fundamental mechanisms by which nutrients and nutritional factors influence individuals, their exact impacts on neurogenesis have not been clearly identified. Recently, some studies showed that some nutrients have an important role in nerve injuries due to their neuroprotective properties...
December 7, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
M Z Mohamed, H M Hafez, M Hassan, M A Ibrahim
Liver is a precious organ to maintain body life. Hepatotoxicity is a worldwide health problem that is still a challenge for research. Although countless pharmaceutical drugs and herbal compounds were screened for their hepatoprotective effects, the death from hepatotoxicity is increasing. Thus, there is continuous necessity of searching for the hepatoprotective effect of commonly used drugs. Accordingly, our aim was to examine a hepatoprotective potential for the antihypertensive drug, verapamil, and searching for new insights underlie its protective mechanism...
December 9, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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