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Colon Cancer And Screening

Xin Zeng, Robert Kirkpatrick, Glenn Hofmann, Didier Grillot, Valerie Linhart, Fabrice Viviani, Joseph Marino, Joseph Boyer, Taylor L Graham, Quinn Lu, Zining Wu, Andrew Benowitz, Rick Cousins
Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) is a basic helix-loop-helix 9 (bHLH) transcription factor acting downstream of Notch and is required for the differentiation of sensory hair cells in the inner ear and the specification of secretory cells during the intestinal crypt cell regeneration. Motivated by the observations that the upregulation of Atoh1 gene expression, through genetic manipulation or pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling (e.g. γ-secretase inhibitors, GSIs), induces ectopic hair cell growth in the cochlea of the inner ear and partially restores hearing after injuries in experimental models, we decided to identify small molecule modulators of the Notch-Atoh1 pathway, which could potentially regenerate hair cells...
2018: PloS One
Mostafa Sarvizadeh, Faezeh Ghasemi, Fatemeh Tavakoli, Sara Sadat Khatami, Ebrahim Razi, Hossein Sharifi, Nousin Moussavi Biouki, Mohsen Taghizadeh
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is known as the third most common and fourth leading cancer associated death worldwide. The occurrence of metastasis has remained as a critical challenge in CRC, so that distant metastasis (mostly to the liver) has been manifested in about 20%-25% of patients. Several screening approaches have introduced for detecting CRC in different stages particularly in early stages. The standard treatments for CRC are surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, in alone or combination. Immunotherapy is a set of novel approaches with the aim of remodeling the immune system battle with metastatic cancer cells, such as immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (immune checkpoint inhibitors), adoptive cell transfer (ACT) and cancer vaccine...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
L Del Pup, F A Peccatori, P E Levi-Setti, G Codacci-Pisanelli, P Patrizio
OBJECTIVE: Infertile women requiring ovarian stimulation and assisted reproduction techniques (ART) are faced with difficult issues. The fear that using hormones could increase their risk of cancer is the most significant. One of the main challenges for assessing cancer risk after ART is the difficulty to separate it from the underlying condition of infertility per se. The delay or the inability to achieve a pregnancy is an important risk factor for breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer...
November 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Carole Vitellius, Margot Laly, Anne-Sophie Banaszuk, Isabelle Deherce, Nathanaëlle Cornet, Sandrine Bertrais, Patrick Saulnier, François-Xavier Caroli-Bosc
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related death of worldwide with high incidence and mortality rate, accessible to a screening program in France, first with guaiac- based fecal occult blood test (g-FOBT) then with fecal immunochemical tests (FIT), since 2015, because of better accuracy. The aim of our study was to compare the characteristics of screen-detected lesions in two successive CRC screening campaigns, using two different tests (Hemoccult II® and OC Sensor® ) in the department of Maine-et-Loire, and to precise the performance of these tests [participation rate, detection rates (DR), positive predictive value (PPV)]...
December 8, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Abdelhabib Semlali, Narasimha Reddy Parine, Nouf S Al-Numair, Mikhlid Almutairi, Yousef M Hawsawi, Abdullah Al Amri, Abdulrahman M Aljebreen, Maha Arafah, Majid A Almadi, Nahla Ali Azzam, Othman Alharbi, Mohammad Saud Alanazi
Background: Inflammation is a fundamental factor that contributes to the development and progression of several types of cancer including colon cancer. Toll-like receptors ( TLRs ) and their signaling pathways have been reported to be associated with chronic inflammation and thereby induced cancer. Our aim was to investigate the expression and polymorphisms of TLR2 and their association with colon cancer. Methods: Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate TLR2 gene expression and to evaluate the potential risk of predisposition to colon cancer caused by three tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on TLR2 , including rs3804100, rs4696480, and rs3804099...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Eleonora Feletto, Xue Qin Yu, Jie-Bin Lew, D James B St John, Mark A Jenkins, Finlay A Macrae, Suzanne E Mahady, Karen Canfell
Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in Australia. Emerging evidence from several countries suggests increasing incidence in people aged <50 years. Methods: We assessed colon and rectal cancer incidence trends in people aged 20+ in Australia from 1982 to 2014. We used data on 375,008 incident cases (248,162 colon and 126,846 rectal). We quantified the annual percentage change (APC) in rates by age group using Joinpoint regression. Results: For people aged <50 years, colon cancer rates increased from the mid-2000s, with the increase in APCs ranging from 1...
December 7, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Antonio Facciorusso, Konstantinos Triantafyllou, Mohammad Hassan Murad, Larry J Prokop, Georgios Tziatzios, Nicola Muscatiello, Siddharth Singh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is a quality metric for colorectal cancer screening. We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis to assess the overall and comparative efficacies of different endoscopic techniques in adenoma detection. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of published articles and abstracts, through March 15, 2018, to identify randomized controlled trials of adults undergoing colonoscopy that compared the efficacy of different devices in detection of adenomas...
December 6, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Riham F George, Nermin Samir, Iriny M Ayoub, ElSayed M Shalaby, Nicola Demitri, Michael Wink
AIM: Colon cancer is the third leading cause of death worldwide; therefore, there is a need for an effective therapy with lower side effects. METHODS: A series of 8-alkyl-2,4-bisbenzylidene-3-nortropinones 3 & 14-39 was prepared via Claisen-Schmidt condensation of 8-alkyl-3-nortropinones 11-13 with different aromatic aldehydes. The target compounds were screened for their antiproliferative activity. RESULTS: Most of the prepared compounds showed promising antiproliferative activity against many of 60 National Cancer Institute cell lines at 10 μM...
December 10, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Dan Wang, Shengyun Liang, Xipeng Zhang, Subrata Kumar Dey, Yuwei Li, Chen Xu, Yongjun Yu, Mingsen Li, Guoru Zhao, Zhao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disease which primarily manifested with developing adenomas or polyps in colon or rectum. It is caused by the germline mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Patients with FAP are usually manifested with "hundreds or even thousands" adenomas or polyps in colon or rectum. However, without proper clinical diagnosis and timely surgical interventions, colorectal adenomas, or polyps gradually increase in size and in numbers which finally leads to colorectal cancer (CRC) at the mean age of 36 years of the patient...
December 6, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Tristan Cudennec, Stéphanie Benyahia
Given its high frequency in elderly people and the lack of organised national screening after the age of 74, it is essential for caregivers to be aware of the symptoms and the tests which can lead to a diagnosis of cancer of the colon or rectum. It is also necessary to know which asssessment to carry out in order to gather all the elements concerning the cancer and to carry out a global evaluation of the patient before discussing treatment options through cross-disciplinary consultation.
July 2018: Soins. Gérontologie
Albane de Thézy, Marie Simon, Pauline Jouët, Tristan Cudennec
There are numerous indications for gastrointestinal endoscopies in elderly people. These include notably bleeding of the digestive tract, unexplained anorexia, abdominal pain, a pathology of the colon or screening for cancerous lesions. These examinations are carried out by a multidisciplinary team. It is essential that the patient is informed as a certain amount of prior preparation is required to ensure the good quality of the examinations.
July 2018: Soins. Gérontologie
Stephen T McSorley, Mark Johnstone, Colin W Steele, Campbell S D Roxburgh, Paul G Horgan, Donald C McMillan, David Mansouri
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to characterise the prevalence and prognostic impact of normocytic anaemia in patients undergoing curative treatment for colorectal cancer. METHODS: All individuals invited to the first round of bowel cancer screening, diagnosed with colorectal cancer and treated with curative intent from April 2009 to March 2011 in a single health board were included. The modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) was used to quantify preoperative systemic inflammation...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Sunny Dhadlie, Daniel Mehanna
Introduction: Acute appendicitis in older adults is relatively uncommon and could be the first presentation of an underlying colorectal carcinoma. Colonoscopy in these individuals affords the opportunity for earlier diagnosis and treatment. The finding of increased rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) with older patients who have had appendicitis was supported by a number of small studies and case reports in the early 1980s.With the advent of CT scanning and laparoscopic appendicectomy, increased ability to visualize the caecum has been achieved...
December 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Sumaira Sharif, Asia Atta, Tayyaba Huma, Asad Ali Shah, Gulnaz Afzal, Saira Rashid, Muhammad Shahid, Ghulam Mustafa
Mushrooms have been accepted as nutraceutical foods because of their high nutritional and functional values. They have also gained interest due to their medicinal properties, economic importance, and organoleptic merit. In this study, wild Ganoderma lucidum and four commercial mushrooms, that is, Pleurotus ostreatus, Volvariella volvacea, Hericium erinaceus, and Lentinus edodes from Pakistan were screened for their biological activities such as anticancer, antityrosinase, anti-α-glucosidase, and antithrombotic activities from their methanol, ethanol, and water extracts...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Han Hee Lee, Bo-In Lee
From dye-assisted conventional chromoendoscopy to novel virtual chromoendoscopy, image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) is continuously evolving to meet clinical needs and improve the quality of colonoscopy. Dye-assisted chromoendoscopy using indigo carmine or crystal violet, although slightly old-fashioned, is still useful to emphasize the pit patterns of the colonic mucosa and predict the histological structures of relevant lesions. Equipment-based virtual chromoendoscopy has the advantage of being relatively easy to use...
November 2018: Clinical Endoscopy
SriGita K Madiraju, Tariq S Hakky, Paul E Perito, Jared J Wallen
BACKGROUND: Penile prosthesis for erectile restoration remains the only surgical option for medical refractory erectile dysfunction. Many expert prosthetic surgeons recommend special care when placing a reservoir in a patient who has undergone prior radical pelvic surgery (PRPS) due to distortion of anatomy and obliteration of the dead space in the traditionally used space of Retzius. AIM: Review all the current literature on penile prosthesis implantation in patients with prior pelvic surgery, with an emphasis on tips and tricks for reservoir placement in this unique population...
November 29, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Jiamin Peng, Huiyu Xu, Yuan Chen, Wei Wang, Lifen Zhu, Yanfei Shao, Jianchao Wang
Tumor vessel normalization can increase pericyte coverage, perfusion efficiency and immune infiltration, while reducing hypoxia, vessel leakage, CTC and metastasis. In this study, we systemically presented the expression pattern of tumor angiogenesis gene signatures in 31 cancer types and its association with immune infiltration and cancer metastasis. Specifically, READ, COAD etc. have relatively similar expression patterns with low GPAGs and high PPAGs. Patients with this expression pattern may benefit from tumor vessel normalization...
November 29, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Eric A Miller, Paul F Pinsky, Robert E Schoen, Philip C Prorok, Timothy R Church
BACKGROUND: Screening flexible sigmoidoscopy reduces incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer. Previously reported results from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) screening trial had a median follow-up of 12 years. Whether the benefit is sustained over the long term and remains so in both sexes and all age groups is uncertain. We report long-term results after an additional 5 years of follow-up. METHODS: Participants in the PLCO trial were recruited from the general population in the catchment areas of ten screening centres across the USA, without previous diagnosis of a prostate, lung, colorectal, or ovarian cancer or current cancer treatment...
November 28, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mahmoud S Abdelbaset, Mohamed Abdel-Aziz, Gamal El-Din A Abuo-Rahma, Mostafa H Abdelrahman, Mohamed Ramadan, Bahaa G M Youssif
Novel quinoline derivatives carrying nitrones and oxime as nitric oxide donors were prepared and characterized using different spectroscopic techniques. Nitrones can release nitric oxide in larger amounts compared to corresponding oximes. Antiproliferative screening results showed that the 2-benzylthioquinoline nitrones 6e and 6f and the 2-methylthio analogues 6g and 6h exhibited promising antiproliferative activity especially against leukemia and colon cancer cell lines. Compounds 6c, 6e, and 6f exhibited higher potency as anticancer agents compared to doxorubicin, with IC50 ranging from 0...
November 30, 2018: Archiv der Pharmazie
Manisha Majhi, Nisha Kanwar, Megha Chouksey, Ruchi Sukhla, Anuraj Nayarisseri, Sanjeev Kumar Singh
CLC commonly gives the risk symptoms to older age, obesity and lack of physical exercise, but less likely to generate in people having little genetic risk. Colorectal cancer originates in the vicinity of the colon as well as rectum. Epithelium or lamina proparia is the top layer lining of the colon or rectum of the gastrointestinal tract where the most frequent mutations take place in the Wnt signaling pathway, TGF-β signaling, EGFR, PI3K. The adjuvant therapy for the colorectal cancer consider the EGFR inhibitors, eventually many drugs had been approved and terminate the genetic alteration in EGFR...
November 29, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
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