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Retrosplenial cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30504281/a-posterior-anterior-distinction-between-scene-perception-and-scene-construction-in-human-medial-parietal-cortex
#1
Edward H Silson, Adrian W Gilmore, Sarah E Kalinowski, Adam Steel, Alexis Kidder, Alex Martin, Chris I Baker
Human retrosplenial complex (RSC), located in medial parietal cortex, has been implicated in numerous cognitive functions, including scene perception, spatial navigation, and autobiographical memory retrieval. Recently, a posterior-anterior distinction within RSC was proposed, such that posterior aspects process scene-related visual information (constituting a "medial place area;" MPA), whereas anterior aspects process information that is vividly retrieved from memory, thereby supporting remembering and potentially navigation...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458222/brain-sub-region-specific-effects-of-olanzapine-on-c-fos-expression-of-chronically-socially-isolated-rats
#2
Andrijana Stanisavljević, Ivana Perić, Peter Gass, Dragos Inta, Undine E Lang, Stefan Borgwardt, Dragana Filipović
Olanzapine (Olz) is an atypical antipsychotic used to treat depression, anxiety and schizophrenia, which can be caused by chronic psychosocial stress. c-Fos protein expression has been used as an indirect marker of neuronal activity in response to various forms of stress or pharmacological treatments. We examined the effects of a 3-week treatment of Olz (7.5 mg/kg/day) on c-Fos protein expression in stress-relevant brain sub/regions, its relationship with isolation-induced behavioral changes, and potential sites of Olz action on control and male rats exposed to 6 weeks of chronic social isolation (CSIS), an animal model of depression...
November 17, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429814/rapid-eye-movements-in-sleep-furnish-a-unique-probe-into-consciousness
#3
REVIEW
Charles C-H Hong, James H Fallon, Karl J Friston, James C Harris
The neural correlates of rapid eye movements (REMs) in sleep are extraordinarily robust; including REM-locked multisensory-motor integration and accompanying activation in the retrosplenial cortex, the supplementary eye field and areas encompassing cholinergic basal nucleus (Hong et al., 2009). The phenomenology of REMs speaks to the notion that perceptual experience in both sleep and wakefulness is a constructive process - in which we generate predictions of sensory inputs and then test those predictions through actively sampling the sensorium with eye movements...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416111/-delusional-misidentification-syndromes-in-organic-brain-disorders
#4
Yoshinari Kawai
Delusional misidentification syndromes (DMSs) are a fascinating group of disorders involving a fixed, false belief about the identity of persons, places, and objects in one's environment. DMSs include Capgras syndrome, Frégoli syndrome, intermetamorphosis, the syndrome of subjective doubles, and reduplicative paramnesia. Although DMSs have been described in patients with focal neurological lesions, they are more commonly associated with neurodegenerative diseases, specifically dementia with Lewy bodies. Lesion network mapping was used to identify brain regions functionally connected to the lesion locations in patients with lesion-induced DMSs...
November 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30410438/the-neural-basis-of-individual-differences-in-directional-sense
#5
Heather Burte, Benjamin O Turner, Michael B Miller, Mary Hegarty
Individuals differ greatly in their ability to learn and navigate through environments. One potential source of this variation is "directional sense" or the ability to identify, maintain, and compare allocentric headings. Allocentric headings are facing directions that are fixed to the external environment, such as cardinal directions. Measures of the ability to identify and compare allocentric headings, using photographs of familiar environments, have shown significant individual and strategy differences; however, the neural basis of these differences is unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367943/distribution-of-hap1-immunoreactive-cells-in-the-retrosplenial-retrohippocampal-area-of-adult-rat-brain-and-its-application-to-a-refined-neuroanatomical-understanding-of-the-region
#6
Greggory Wroblewski, Md Nabiul Islam, Akie Yanai, Mir Rubayet Jahan, Koh-Hei Masumoto, Koh Shinoda
Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) is a neural interactor of huntingtin in Huntington's disease and interacts with gene products in a number of other neurodegenerative diseases. In normal brains, HAP1 is expressed abundantly in the hypothalamus and limbic-associated regions. These areas tend to be spared from neurodegeneration while those with little HAP1 are frequently neurodegenerative targets, suggesting its role as a protective factor against apoptosis. In light of the relationship between neurodegenerative diseases and deterioration of higher nervous activity, it is important to definitively clarify HAP1 expression in a cognitively important brain region, the retrosplenial-retrohippocampal area...
December 1, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367247/meta-analysis-of-functional-subdivisions-within-human-posteromedial-cortex
#7
Yuefeng Huang, Jeffrey Hullfish, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
The posteromedial cortex (PMC)-comprising posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), retrosplenial cortex (RSC), and the precuneus (PrC)-is perhaps best known for its involvement in the default mode network. There is no consensus regarding the specific functions of PMC, however, and its component regions each exhibit distinct, but partially overlapping functional profiles. To date, there has been minimal effort to disentangle the functions of these regions. In the present study, we use Neurosynth ( http://neurosynth...
October 26, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346212/neurofunctional-correlates-of-geometry-and-feature-use-in-a-virtual-environment
#8
Martha R Forloines, Meredith A Reid, Andie M Thompkins, Jennifer L Robinson, Jeffrey S Katz
There are mixed results regarding the differentiation of neurofunctional correlates of spatial abilities. Previous studies employed complex environments or alternate memory tasks which could potentially add to inconsistencies across studies of navigation. To help elucidate the existing mixed findings, we conducted a study in a simplistic environment without a supplemental memory task in order to examine navigationally relevant neural function using fMRI. Participants completed a virtual navigation task where they learned the relationship between landmarks, environmental features, and a goal...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321028/experience-memory-and-the-places-they-meet
#9
Kiriana K Cowansage
Studies of learning and memory have made significant advances in characterizing the mechanisms of single memories, formed when surprising and unpredictable events trigger synaptic modifications in response to tightly timed coincidental cues. Yet outside the laboratory setting, few natural experiences are wholly unique, and much of our behavior is shaped progressively through the interactions of perceived experiences, recently formed memories and distant acquired knowledge. Despite the necessity of these memory dynamics, relatively little is known about how previously established associations are accessed, updated, and applied to inform new learning at the appropriate moments in time...
October 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321027/anterior-thalamic-nuclei-but-not-retrosplenial-cortex-lesions-abolish-latent-inhibition-in-rats
#10
Andrew J D Nelson, Anna L Powell, Lisa Kinnavane, John P Aggleton
The present study examined the effects of excitotoxic lesions in 2 closely related structures, the anterior thalamic nuclei and the retrosplenial cortex, on latent inhibition. Latent inhibition occurs when nonreinforced preexposure to a stimulus retards the subsequent acquisition of conditioned responding to that stimulus. Latent inhibition was assessed in a within-subject procedure with auditory stimuli and food reinforcement. As expected, sham-operated animals were slower to acquire conditioned responding to a stimulus that had previously been experienced without consequence, relative to a non-preexposed stimulus...
October 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321026/when-is-the-rat-retrosplenial-cortex-required-for-stimulus-integration
#11
Andrew J D Nelson, Emma L Hindley, Seralynne D Vann, John P Aggleton
The rodent retrosplenial cortex is known to be vital for spatial cognition, but evidence has also pointed to a role in processing nonspatial information. It has been suggested that the retrosplenial cortex may serve as a site of integration of incoming sensory information. To examine this proposal, the current set of experiments assessed the impact of excitotoxic lesions in the retrosplenial cortex on two behavioral tasks that tax animals' ability to process multiple and overlapping environmental stimuli. In Experiment 1, rats with retrosplenial lesions acquired a negative patterning discrimination, a form of configural learning that can be solved only by learning the conjunction of cues...
October 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321025/converging-meta-analytic-and-connectomic-evidence-for-functional-subregions-within-the-human-retrosplenial-region
#12
Elizabeth R Chrastil, Sean M Tobyne, Rachel K Nauer, Allen E Chang, Chantal E Stern
Interest in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) has surged in recent years, as this region has been implicated in a range of cognitive processes. Previously reported anatomical and functional definitions of the human RSC encompass a larger area than expected from underlying cytoarchitectonic profiles. Here, we used a large-scale, unbiased, and data-driven approach combining functional MRI meta-analysis and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) methods to test the nature of this heterogeneity. The automated toolset Neurosynth was used to conduct meta-analyses in order to (a) identify heterogeneous areas in the retrosplenial region (RS region) associated with one or more cognitive domains, and (b) contrast the activation profiles related to these domains...
October 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321024/introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-the-cognitive-functions-of-the-retrosplenial-cortex
#13
David J Bucci, Chantal E Stern
This special issue on the cognitive functions of the retrosplenial cortex highlights progress that has been made in recent years in understanding the anatomy and function of the retrosplenial cortex in both animals and humans. The articles in this issue of Behavioral Neuroscience use a number of different approaches that together provide an up-to-date account of recent progress in understanding how the retrosplenial cortex contributes to cognition, with an emphasis on its functional role in spatial navigation and learning and memory...
October 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311654/whole-brain-imaging-reveals-distinct-spatial-patterns-of-amyloid-beta-deposition-in-three-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Jennifer D Whitesell, Alex R Buckley, Joseph E Knox, Leonard Kuan, Nile Graddis, Andrew Pelos, Alice Mukora, Wayne Wakeman, Phillip Bohn, Anh Ho, Karla E Hirokawa, Julie A Harris
A variety of Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models overexpress mutant forms of human amyloid precursor protein (APP), producing high levels of amyloid β (Aβ) and forming plaques. However, the degree to which these models mimic spatiotemporal patterns of Aβ deposition in brains of AD patients is unknown. Here, we mapped the spatial distribution of Aβ plaques across ages in three APP-overexpression mouse lines (APP/PS1, Tg2576, hAPP-J20) using in vivo labeling with methoxy-X04, high throughput whole brain imaging, and an automated informatics pipeline...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30279649/eight-weddings-and-six-funerals-an-fmri-study-on-autobiographical-memories
#15
Francesca Benuzzi, Daniela Ballotta, Giacomo Handjaras, Andrea Leo, Paolo Papale, Michaela Zucchelli, Maria Angela Molinari, Fausta Lui, Luca Cecchetti, Emiliano Ricciardi, Giuseppe Sartori, Pietro Pietrini, Paolo Frigio Nichelli
"Autobiographical memory" (AM) refers to remote memories from one's own life. Previous neuroimaging studies have highlighted that voluntary retrieval processes from AM involve different forms of memory and cognitive functions. Thus, a complex and widespread brain functional network has been found to support AM. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used a multivariate approach to determine whether neural activity within the AM circuit would recognize memories of real autobiographical events, and to evaluate individual differences in the recruitment of this network...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30252130/input-output-organization-of-the-mouse-claustrum
#16
Brian Zingg, Hong-Wei Dong, Huizhong Whit Tao, Li I Zhang
Progress in determining the precise organization and function of the claustrum (CLA) has been hindered by the difficulty in reliably targeting these neurons. To overcome this, we used a projection-based targeting strategy to selectively label CLA principal neurons. Combined with adeno-associated virus (AAV) and monosynaptic rabies tracing techniques, we systematically examined the pre-synaptic input and axonal output of this structure. We found that CLA neurons projecting to retrosplenial cortex (RSP) collateralize extensively to innervate a variety of higher-order cortical regions...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30226886/altered-functional-connectivity-within-the-default-mode-network-in-two-animal-models-with-opposing-episodic-memories
#17
Muhuo Ji, Jiangyan Xia, Xiaohui Tang, Jianjun Yang
Memory enhancement and memory decline are two opposing cognitive performances commonly observed in clinical practice, yet the neural mechanisms underlying these two different phenomena remain poorly understood. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the default-mode network (DMN) is implicated in diverse cognitive, social, and affective processes. In the present study, we used the retrosplenial cortex as a seed region to study the functional connectivity within the DMN in two animal models with opposing episodic memories, of which memory enhancement was induced by footshocks to mimic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and memory decline was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge to mimic sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221204/retrosplenial-cortex-and-its-role-in-spatial-cognition
#18
REVIEW
Anna S Mitchell, Rafal Czajkowski, Ningyu Zhang, Kate Jeffery, Andrew J D Nelson
Retrosplenial cortex is a region within the posterior neocortical system, heavily interconnected with an array of brain networks, both cortical and subcortical, that is, engaged by a myriad of cognitive tasks. Although there is no consensus as to its precise function, evidence from both human and animal studies clearly points to a role in spatial cognition. However, the spatial processing impairments that follow retrosplenial cortex damage are not straightforward to characterise, leading to difficulties in defining the exact nature of its role...
2018: Brain and Neuroscience Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30220306/electroacupuncture-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-and-spontaneous-low-frequency-brain-activity-in-rats-with-ischemic-stroke
#19
Tao Wen, Xiufeng Zhang, Shengxiang Liang, Zuanfang Li, Xuemei Xing, Weilin Liu, Jing Tao
BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether electroacupuncture (EA) at Baihui (DU20) and Shenting (DU24) acupoints could improve cognitive function and enhance spontaneous low-frequency brain activity in rats with ischemic stroke. METHODS: Total 36 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups-the sham surgery (Sham) group, the middle cerebral artery occlusion induced cognitive deficit (MICD) group, and the MICD with EA (MICD + EA) treatment group. The rats in MICD + EA group received EA treatment at DU20 and DU24 acupoints for 14 consecutive days after the surgery...
October 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178326/changes-of-doublecortin-immunoreactive-cells-from-the-acute-phase-to-chronic-phase-after-transient-global-brain-ischemia-in-rat-cingulate-cortex
#20
Kosei Goto, Nobuo Kutsuna, Akiko Yamashita, Hideki Oshima, Takeshi Suma, Atsuo Yoshino
Doublecortin (DCX)-immunoreactive (-ir) cells play important roles in adult cortical remodeling. We previously reported that DCX-ir cells decrease after transient global brain ischemia (GBI) in the cingulate cortex (Cg) of rats. In the present study, we examined the changes of DCX-ir cells from the acute to the chronic phase after GBI in rats. Transient GBI was induced by a four-vessel occlusion model as described previously. Thirty-six rats were divided into six groups: day 7 after sham operation (Group Sham+A), day 7 after 3 min GBI (Group GBI3+A), day 7 after 10 min GBI (Group GBI10+A), day 90 after sham operation (Group Sham+C), day 90 after 3 min GBI (Group GBI3+C), and day 90 after 10 min GBI (Group GBI10+C)...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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