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Retrosplenial cortex

Benjamin J Clark, Christine M Simmons, Laura E Berkowitz, Aaron A Wilber
The retrosplenial cortex is anatomically positioned to integrate sensory, motor, and visual information and is thought to have an important role in processing spatial information and guiding behavior through complex environments. Anatomical and theoretical work has argued that the retrosplenial cortex participates in spatial behavior in concert with input from the parietal cortex. Although the nature of these interactions is unknown, a central position is that the functional connectivity is hierarchical with egocentric spatial information processed in the parietal cortex and higher-level allocentric mappings generated in the retrosplenial cortex...
August 9, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Cesar A O Coelho, Tatiana L Ferreira, Juliana C Kramer-Soares, João R Sato, Maria Gabriela M Oliveira
Hippocampal damage results in profound retrograde, but no anterograde amnesia in contextual fear conditioning (CFC). Although the content learned in the latter have been discussed, alternative regions supporting CFC learning were seldom proposed and never empirically addressed. Here, we employed network analysis of pCREB expression quantified from brain slices of rats with dorsal hippocampal lesion (dHPC) after undergoing CFC session. Using inter-regional correlations of pCREB-positive nuclei between brain regions, we modelled functional networks using different thresholds...
August 7, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Miguel Antonio Xavier de Lima, Marcus Vinicius C Baldo, Newton Sabino Canteras
The ventral part of the anteromedial thalamic nucleus (AMv) receives substantial inputs from hypothalamic sites that are highly responsive to a live predator or its odor trace and represents an important thalamic hub for conveying predatory threat information to the cerebral cortex. In the present study, we begin by examining the cortico-amygdalar-hippocampal projections of the main AMv cortical targets, namely, the caudal prelimbic, rostral anterior cingulate, and medial visual areas, as well as the rostral part of the ventral retrosplenial area, one of the main targets of the anterior cingulate area...
July 31, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Susan A Rapley, Timothy C R Prickett, John C Dalrymple-Alford, Eric A Espiner
Beneficial molecular and neuroplastic changes have been demonstrated in response to environmental enrichment (EE) in laboratory animals across the lifespan. Here, we investigated whether these effects extend to C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP), a widely expressed neuropeptide with putative involvement in neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, anxiety, and learning and memory. We determined the CNP response in 36 young (8-9 months) and 36 aged (22-23 months) male PVGc hooded rats that were rehoused with new cage mates in either standard laboratory cages or EE for periods of 14 or 28 days...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Hector J I Page, Kate J Jeffery
Maintaining a sense of direction is fundamental to navigation, and is achieved in the brain by a network of head direction (HD) cells, which update their signal using stable environmental landmarks. How landmarks are detected and their stability determined is still unknown. Recently we reported a new class of cells (Jacob et al., 2017), the bidirectional cells, in a brain region called retrosplenial cortex (RSC) which relays environmental sensory information to the HD system. A subset of these cells, between-compartment (BC) cells, are directionally tuned (like ordinary HD cells) but follow environmental cues in preference to the global HD signal, resulting in opposing (i...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Nicola Solari, Balázs Hangya
Spatial learning, including encoding and retrieval of spatial memories as well as holding spatial information in working memory generally serving navigation under a broad range of circumstances, relies on a network of structures. While central to this network are medial temporal lobe structures with a widely appreciated crucial function of the hippocampus, neocortical areas such as the posterior parietal cortex and the retrosplenial cortex also play essential roles. Since the hippocampus receives its main subcortical input from the medial septum of the basal forebrain cholinergic system, it is not surprising that the potential role of the septo-hippocampal pathway in spatial navigation has been investigated in many studies...
July 28, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Zheng Tian, Chao Dong, Atsuhiro Fujita, Yuko Fujita, Kenji Hashimoto
The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist (R,S)-ketamine has robust antidepressant effects in depressed patients although it has detrimental side effects such as psychotomimetic and dissociative symptoms. (R,S)-Ketamine is known to cause the expression of heat shock protein HSP-70 (a marker for neuronal injury) in the retrosplenial cortex of rat brain, suggesting that the neuropathological changes may play a role in the detrimental side effects of (R,S)-ketamine. This study was undertaken to examine whether (R,S)-ketamine and its two enantiomers, (R)-ketamine and (S)-ketamine, causes the expression of HSP-70 in the rat retrosplenial cortex after a single administration...
September 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Michael Siniatchkin, Jan Moehring, Bianca Kroeher, Andreas Galka, Gisela von Ondarza, Friederike Moeller, Stephan Wolff, Enzo Tagliazucchi, Elisabeth Steinmann, Rainer Boor, Ulrich Stephani
OBJECTIVE: Multifocal epileptic activity is an unfavourable feature of a number of epileptic syndromes (Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, West syndrome, severe focal epilepsies) which suggests an overall vulnerability of the brain to pathological synchronization. However, the mechanisms of multifocal activity are insufficiently understood. This explorative study investigates whether pathological connectivity within brain areas of the default mode network as well as thalamus, brainstem and retrosplenial cortex may predispose individuals to multifocal epileptic activity...
July 5, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Dun Mao, Adam R Neumann, Jianjun Sun, Vincent Bonin, Majid H Mohajerani, Bruce L McNaughton
Retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is involved in visuospatial integration and spatial learning, and RSC neurons exhibit discrete, place cell-like sequential activity that resembles the population code of space in hippocampus. To investigate the origins and population dynamics of this activity, we combined longitudinal cellular calcium imaging of dysgranular RSC neurons in mice with excitotoxic hippocampal lesions. We tracked the emergence and stability of RSC spatial activity over consecutive imaging sessions. Overall, spatial activity in RSC was experience-dependent, emerging gradually over time, but, as seen in the hippocampus, the spatial code changed dynamically across days...
July 31, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jessica A Collins, Bradford C Dickerson
Activity in category selective regions of the temporal and parietal lobes during encoding has been associated with subsequent memory for face and scene stimuli. Reactivation theories of memory consolidation predict that after encoding connectivity between these category-selective regions and the hippocampus should be modulated and predict recognition memory. However, support for this proposal has been limited in humans. Here, participants completed a resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) scan, followed by face- and place-encoding tasks, followed by another resting-state fMRI scan during which they were asked to think about the stimuli they had previously encountered...
July 15, 2018: Hippocampus
Satoshi Umeda
This article reviews memory functions in the medial parietal areas, which consist of the retrosplenial cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex, and the precuneus. These areas are involved in various cognitive functions including memory processing, spatial cognition, and self-related processing. Fundamental previous studies from the areas of neuropsychology, neuroimaging, psychiatry, and neurology, are covered to describe memory-related functions in the medial parietal areas. The focus is on the default mode network and the encoding/retrieval flip as key issues for understanding memory functions in the medial parietal areas...
July 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Akiya Watakabe, Junya Hirokawa
In primates, proximal cortical areas are interconnected via within-cortex "intrinsic" pathway, whereas distant areas are connected via "extrinsic" white matter pathway. To date, such distinction has not been clearly done for small-brained mammals like rodents. In this study, we systematically analyzed the data of Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas to answer this question and found that the ipsilateral cortical connections in mice are almost exclusively contained within the gray matter, although we observed exceptions for projections from the retrosplenial area and the medial/orbital frontal areas...
July 9, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Yuguang Meng, Xiaoping Hu, Xiaodong Zhang, Jocelyne Bachevalier
Neonatal hippocampal lesions can result in long-term effects on the morphological and functional integrity of the adult brain. To investigate the effects of neonatal hippocampal lesions on the microstructural integrity of corpus callosum in adulthood, macaque monkeys (n = 5) received neonatal bilateral hippocampal lesion (Neo-Hibo) induced by infusion of ibotenic acid at 1-2 weeks of age and were scanned using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 8-10 years old. Age and gender -matched control animals that had received sham operation (Neo-C, n = 5) at 1-2 weeks of age were scanned for comparison purpose...
July 6, 2018: Hippocampus
Masahiro Fujino, Yoshiyuki Ueda, Hiroaki Mizuhara, Jun Saiki, Michio Nomura
Mindfulness meditation consists of focused attention meditation (FAM) and open monitoring meditation (OMM), both of which reduce activation of the default mode network (DMN) and mind-wandering. Although it is known that FAM requires intentional focused attention, the mechanisms of OMM remain largely unknown. To investigate this, we examined striatal functional connectivity in 17 experienced meditators (mean total practice hours = 920.6) during pre-resting, meditation, and post-resting states comparing OMM with FAM, using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
July 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bin Jing, Bo Liu, Hui Li, Jianfeng Lei, Zhanjing Wang, Yutao Yang, Phillip Zhe Sun, Bing Xue, Hesheng Liu, Zhi-Qing David Xu
BACKGROUND: Various neurological and psychological disorders are related to cortical volume changes in specific brain regions, which can be measured in vivo using structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI). There is an increasing interest in MRI studies using rat models, especially in longitudinal studies of brain disorders and pharmacologic interventions. However, morphometric changes observed in sMRI are only meaningful if the measurements are reliable. To date, a systematic evaluation of the test-retest reliability of the morphometric measures in the rat brain is still lacking...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Thomas P O'Connell, Per B Sederberg, Dirk B Walther
Distributed representations of scene categories are consistent between color photographs (CPs) and line drawings (LDs) in the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), as shown using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA). Here, we used repetition suppression (RS) to further investigate the degree of representational convergence between CPs and LDs of natural scenes. MVPA and RS can capture different aspects of visual representations, and RS may prove useful in elucidating important differences in the representations of CPs and LDs of natural scenes...
June 21, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Arielle Tambini, Derek Evan Nee, Mark D'Esposito
The hippocampus plays a critical role in episodic memory, among other cognitive functions. However, few tools exist to causally manipulate hippocampal function in healthy human participants. Recent work has targeted hippocampal-cortical networks by performing TMS to a region interconnected with the hippocampus, posterior inferior parietal cortex (pIPC). Such hippocampal-targeted TMS enhances associative memory and influences hippocampal functional connectivity. However, it is currently unknown which stages of mnemonic processing (encoding or retrieval) are affected by hippocampal-targeted TMS...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Michal M Milczarek, Seralynne D Vann, Frank Sengpiel
Memory relies on lasting adaptations of neuronal properties elicited by stimulus-driven plastic changes [1]. The strengthening (and weakening) of synapses results in the establishment of functional ensembles. It is presumed that such ensembles (or engrams) are activated during memory acquisition and re-activated upon memory retrieval. The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) has emerged as a key brain area supporting memory [2], including episodic and topographical memory in humans [3-5], as well as spatial memory in rodents [6, 7]...
June 18, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Kevin A Corcoran, Naoki Yamawaki, Katherine Leaderbrand, Jelena Radulovic
This work summarizes evidence for the role of RSC in processing fear-inducing context memories. Specifically, we discuss molecular, cellular, and network mechanisms by which RSC might contribute the processing of contextual fear memories. We focus on glutamatergic and cholinergic mechanisms underlying encoding, retrieval, and extinction of context-dependent fear. RSC mechanisms underlying retrieval of recently and remotely acquired memories are compared to memory mechanisms of anterior cortices. Due to the strong connectivity between hippocampus and RSC, we also compare the extent to which their mechanisms of encoding, retrieval, and extinction show overlap...
June 7, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Naoki Yamawaki, Kevin A Corcoran, Anita L Guedea, Gordon M G Shepherd, Jelena Radulovic
Learning to associate stressful events with specific environmental contexts depends on excitatory transmission in the hippocampus, but how this information is transmitted to the neocortex for lasting memory storage is unclear. We identified dorsal hippocampal (DH) projections to the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), which arise mainly from the subiculum and contain either the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) or vGlut2. Both vGlut1+ and vGlut2+ axons strongly excite and disynaptically inhibit RSC pyramidal neurons in superficial layers, but vGlut2+ axons trigger greater inhibition that spreads to deep layers, indicating that these pathways engage RSC circuits via partially redundant, partially differentiated cellular mechanisms...
June 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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