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Memory retrieval

Prabahan Chakraborty, Sumantra Chattarji
RATIONALE: Stress disorders cause abnormal regulation of fear-related behaviors. In most rodent models of these effects, stress was administered before fear conditioning, thereby assessing its impact on both the formation and extinction of fear memories, not the latter alone. Here, we dissociated the two processes by also administering stress after fear conditioning, and then compared how pre-conditioning versus post-conditioning exposure to chronic stress affects subsequent acquisition and recall of fear extinction...
October 10, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Andrey V Bocharov, Gennady G Knyazev, Alexander N Savostyanov, Tatiana N Astakhova, Sergey S Tamozhnikov
In this study, we aimed to compare the oscillatory dynamics accompanying self-referential and non-self-referential stimulus-independent thoughts. Electroencephalograms were recorded in 30 healthy participants who were asked to press buttons classifying their spontaneous thoughts as self-referential or non-self-referential. EEG data were analyzed using independent component analysis in conjunction with dipole localization. Self-referential thoughts, as compared to non-self-referential thoughts, were accompanied by more pronounced decrease of theta, alpha, and beta spectral power in the anterior hub of the default-mode network, in the left lateral prefrontal, motor/somatosensory, and temporal cortices...
October 10, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Elodie Drapeau, Mohammed Riad, Yuji Kajiwara, Joseph D Buxbaum
Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a rare genetic disorder in which one copy of the SHANK3 gene is missing or mutated, leading to a global developmental delay, intellectual disability (ID), and autism. Multiple intragenic promoters and alternatively spliced exons are responsible for the formation of numerous isoforms. Many genetically-modified mouse models of PMS have been generated but most disrupt only some of the isoforms. In contrast, the vast majority of known SHANK3 mutations found in patients involve deletions that disrupt all isoforms...
May 2018: ENeuro
Rongzhen Yan, Qiang Zhou
Contexts play critical roles in many important aspects of an animal's routine functions, such as the interpretation of incoming signals and retrieved memories. The roles played by prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons in the coding of contexts have been largely studied in relation to aversive stimuli (such as foot shock in conditioned fear). Whether PFC neurons may code contexts that mice encounter in everyday life, such as their home cage, is poorly understood. Here, we report the identification of a subpopulation of ventral medial PFC (vmPFC) neurons which change their spike rates when mice enter or leave their home cages...
October 6, 2018: Neuroscience
Valérie Camos, Gérôme Mora, Anne-Laure Oftinger, Stéphanie Mariz Elsig, Philippe Schneider, Evie Vergauwe
Attentional refreshing allows the maintenance of information in working memory and has received growing interest in recent years. However, it is still ill-defined and several proposals have been put forward to account for its functioning. Among them, some proposals suggest that refreshing relies on the retrieval of knowledge from semantic long-term memory. To examine such a proposal, the present study examined the impact on refreshing of two effects known to affect the retrieval from semantic long-term memory: word frequency and lexicality...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Myrthe Faber, Sidney K D'Mello
What do we think about when we mind wander and where do these thoughts come from? We tested the idea that semantically rich stimuli yield patterns of mind wandering that are closely coupled with the stimuli compared to being more internally triggered. We analyzed the content of 949 self-reported zone outs (1218 thoughts) and 519 of their triggers from 88 participants who read an instructional text and watched a film for 20 min each. We found that mind wandering associated with memory retrieval was more frequent than prospection and introspection across both stimuli...
September 26, 2018: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
Vishnu Sreekumar, Dylan M Nielson, Troy A Smith, Simon J Dennis, Per B Sederberg
The human posteromedial cortex, which includes core regions of the default mode network (DMN), is thought to play an important role in episodic memory. However, the nature and functional role of representations in these brain regions remain unspecified. Nine participants (all female) wore smartphone devices to record episodes from their daily lives for multiple weeks, each night indicating the personally-salient attributes of each episode. Participants then relived their experiences in an fMRI scanner cued by images from their own lives...
October 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Olumide Akinwande
In-network caching is one of the key features of information-centric networks (ICN), where forwarding entities in a network are equipped with memory with which they can temporarily store contents and satisfy en route requests. Exploiting in-network caching, therefore, presents the challenge of efficiently coordinating the forwarding of requests with the volatile cache states at the routers. In this paper, we address information-centric networks and consider in-network caching specifically for Named Data Networking (NDN) architectures...
October 8, 2018: Sensors
Tanya R Jonker, Halle Dimsdale-Zucker, Maureen Ritchey, Alex Clarke, Charan Ranganath
Remembering is a complex process that involves recalling specific details, such as who you were with when you celebrated your last birthday, as well as contextual information, such as the place where you celebrated. It is well established that the act of remembering enhances long-term retention of the retrieved information, but the neural and cognitive mechanisms that drive memory enhancement are not yet understood. One possibility is that the process of remembering results in reactivation of the broader episodic context...
October 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ryan P M Hackländer, Christina Bermeitinger
Information is retrieved more effectively when the retrieval occurs in the same context as that in which the information was first encoded. This is termed context dependent memory (CDM). One category of cues that have been shown to effectively produce CDM effects are odors. However, it is unclear what the boundary conditions of these CDM effects are. In particular, given that olfaction has been called an implicit sense, it is possible that odors are only effective mnemonic cues when they are presented in the background...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lawrence Patihis, Lavina Y Ho, Elizabeth F Loftus, Mario E Herrera
What we believe about how memory works affects the decisions we make in many aspects of life. In Patihis, Ho et al. [Patihis, L., Ho, L. Y., Tingen, I. W., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Loftus, E. F. (2014). Are the "memory wars" over? A scientist-practitioner gap in beliefs about repressed memory. Psychological Science, 25, 519-530.], we documented several group's beliefs on repressed memories and other aspects of how memory works. Here, we present previously unreported data on the beliefs of perhaps the most credible minority in our dataset: memory experts...
October 7, 2018: Memory
Karen Morris, Graeme Reid, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a severe mental health condition that is characterised by positive symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions; negative symptoms, such as flattened affect, thought disorder (disrupted speech), and lack of motivation; and cognitive symptoms, such as problems with memory and attention. Schizophrenia can occur as an isolated episode, or as a recurring cycle of remission and relapse, and is associated with impairment in psychosocial and occupational functioning...
October 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Julian Matthews, Jamin Wu, Vanessa Corneille, Jakob Hohwy, Jeroen van Boxtel, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
In visual search of natural scenes, differentiation of briefly fixated but task-irrelevant distractor items from incidental memory is often comparable to explicit memorization. However, many characteristics of incidental memory remain unclear, including the capacity for its conscious retrieval. Here, we examined incidental memory for faces in either upright or inverted orientation using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP). Subjects were instructed to detect a target face in a sequence of 8-15 faces cropped from natural scene photographs (Experiment 1)...
October 5, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Peter E Wais, Olivia Montgomery, Craig E L Stark, Adam Gazzaley
Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated regions of both ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and angular gyrus in processes associated with retrieving goal-relevant information, which increases the fidelity and richness of long-term memory (LTM). To further investigate the roles of these cortical regions as nodes in functional networks with memory regions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), we used fMRI-guided, 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to perturb normal neuronal function...
October 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jorge Mario Andreau, Santiago Torres Batán
The original approach of the Hemispheric Encoding/Retrieval Asymmetry model (HERA) was aimed at the operations of encoding and retrieving episodic memories. However, whether HERA presumptions can apply to different types of stimuli (e.g., words and pictures) continues to be a matter of debate. Therefore, in order to analyse the effects of brain pre-activation on subsequent memory, HERA was tested through a hand-clenching paradigm using four types of stimuli: words, fractal images, silhouettes of common objects, and pseudowords...
October 5, 2018: Laterality
Wei-Chun Wang, Nadia M Brashier, Erik A Wing, Elizabeth J Marsh, Roberto Cabeza
Depending on a person's goals, different aspects of stored knowledge are accessed. Decades of behavioral work document the flexible use of knowledge, but little neuroimaging work speaks to these questions. We used representational similarity analysis to investigate whether the relationship between brain activity and semantic structure of statements varied in two tasks hypothesized to differ in the degree to which knowledge is accessed: judging truth (semantic task) and judging oldness (episodic task). During truth judgments, but not old/new recognition judgments, a left-lateralized network previously associated with semantic memory exhibited correlations with semantic structure...
October 5, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Mehdi Bayati, Torsten Neher, Jan Melchior, Kamran Diba, Laurenz Wiskott, Sen Cheng
Episodic memories have been suggested to be represented by neuronal sequences, which are stored and retrieved from the hippocampal circuit. A special difficulty is that realistic neuronal sequences are strongly correlated with each other since computational memory models generally perform poorly when correlated patterns are stored. Here, we study in a computational model under which conditions the hippocampal circuit can perform this function robustly. During memory encoding, CA3 sequences in our model are driven by intrinsic dynamics, entorhinal inputs, or a combination of both...
2018: PloS One
Marius Rosier, Léa Le Barillier, David Meunier, Malika El Yacoubi, Gaël Malleret, Paul-Antoine Salin
Study Objectives: Paradoxical sleep (PS) has been shown to play an important role in memory, in particular in emotional memory processes. However, the involvement of this particular sleep stage in the systemic consolidation of remote (30 days old) memory has never been tested. We examined whether post-learning PS could play a role in the consolidation of remote fearful memory and in the brain network reorganization that depends on it. Methods: Mice were PS-deprived during 6 hours after contextual fear conditioning using an automated method, and their memory was tested either 1 day or 30 days after learning...
October 4, 2018: Sleep
Neil W Mulligan, S Adam Smith, Zachary L Buchin
The generation effect is moderated by experimental design, as are a number of other encoding variables, such that the generation effect recall is typically larger in mixed-list than pure-list designs. In typical experiments on design effects, each study list is followed by its own recall test. Rowland, Littrell-Baez, Sensenig, and DeLosh (2014) found that the testing effect was not moderated by experimental design using a procedures in which multiple study lists were followed by a single, end-of-session recall test over all lists...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Tian-Xiao Yang, Lu-Xia Jia, Qi Zheng, Richard J Allen, Zheng Ye
The ability to flexibly retrieve and implement sequences of actions is essential to motor learning and planning. Recent research has indicated that serial memory for instructions is influenced by presentation modality (spoken vs. visual demonstration) and recall modality (verbal vs. enacted recall). The present study extended this work by investigating the impact of recall direction (forward vs. backward), in addition to that of presentation and recall modality, on working memory for instruction sequences in healthy young adults...
October 3, 2018: Memory & Cognition
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