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Memory retrieval

Marcel Niklaus, Henrik Singmann, Klaus Oberauer
In working memory research, individual items are sometimes said to be in the "focus of attention". According to one view, this occurs for the last item in a sequentially presented list (last-item benefit). According to a second view, this occurs when items are externally cued during the retention interval (retro-cue benefit). We investigated both phenomena at the same time to determine whether both result from the same cognitive mechanisms. If that were the case, retro-cue benefits should be reduced when the retro-cue is directed to the item that already benefits from being presented last...
December 11, 2018: Cognition
Daniel García-Pérez, Szilamer Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, M Victoria Milanés
Negative affective aspects of opiate abstinence contribute to the persistence of substance abuse. Importantly, interconnected brain areas involved in aversive motivational processes, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), become activated when animals are confined to withdrawal-paired environments. In the present study, place aversion was elicited in sham and adrenalectomized (ADX) animals by conditioned naloxone-precipitated drug withdrawal following exposure to chronic morphine...
December 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Marlène Abadie, Valérie Camos
False memories are well-established long-term memory (LTM) phenomena. Recent reports of false recognition at short term suggest that working memory (WM) could also give rise to false memories, supporting the unitary view of memory. Alternatively, we hypothesized that the emergence of false memories at short term results from the impairment of WM maintenance, memory performance relying then on LTM. More specifically, we assumed that false memories rely on the retrieval of gist traces of the memory items while their verbatim traces that could block false memories are no longer accessible...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Jonathan C Flavell, Bryony McKean, Steven P Tipper, Alexander J Kirkham, Tim Vestner, Harriet Over
In 8 experiments, we investigated motion fluency effects on object preference. In each experiment, distinct objects were repeatedly seen moving either fluently (with a smooth and predictable motion) or disfluently (with sudden and unpredictable direction changes) in a task where participants were required to respond to occasional brief changes in object appearance. Results show that (a) fluent objects are preferred over disfluent objects when ratings follow a moving presentation, (b) there is some evidence that object-motion associations can be learned with repeated exposures, (c) sufficiently potent motions can yield preference for fluent objects after a single viewing, and (d) learned associations do not transfer to situations where ratings follow a stationary presentation, even after deep levels of encoding...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Richard W Hass, Roger E Beaty
Recent studies have highlighted both similarities and differences between the cognitive processing that underpins memory retrieval and that which underpins creative thinking. To date, studies have focused more heavily on the Alternative Uses task, but fewer studies have investigated the processing underpinning other idea generation tasks. This study examines both Alternative Uses and Consequences idea generation with a methods pulled from cognitive psychology, and a novel method for evaluating the creativity of such responses...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lisa Marieke Kluen, Lisa Catherine Dandolo, Gerhard Jocham, Lars Schwabe
Updating established memories in light of new information is fundamental for memory to guide future behavior. However, little is known about the brain mechanisms by which existing memories can be updated. Here, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate representational similarity analysis to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying the updating of consolidated memories. To this end, participants first learned face-city name pairs. Twenty-four hours later, while lying in the MRI scanner, participants were required to update some of these associations, but not others, and to encode entirely new pairs...
December 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Juan C Meléndez, Ana I Agusti, Encarnación Satorres, Alfonso Pitarque
Autobiographical memory consists of a person's personal history and contributes to building a feeling of identity and continuity. Aging affects episodic autobiographical memory negatively, whereas semantic autobiographical memory is preserved or even enhanced in older adults. The study aim was to analyze whether these hypotheses continue to find support, or if there are differences when these memories are analyzed according to the components of life cycle retrieval. The sample was composed of 151 participants: 78 young and 73 older adults...
December 2018: European Journal of Ageing
Holly S Hake, Jazmyne K P Davis, River R Wood, Margaret K Tanner, Esteban C Loetz, Anais Sanchez, Mykola Ostrovskyy, Erik B Oleson, Jim Grigsby, Rick Doblin, Benjamin N Greenwood
Clinical trials have demonstrated that 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) paired with psychotherapy is more effective at reducing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy, alone or in combination. The processes through which MDMA acts to enhance psychotherapy are not well understood. Given that fear memories contribute to PTSD symptomology, MDMA could augment psychotherapy by targeting fear memories. The current studies investigated the effects of a single administration of MDMA on extinction and reconsolidation of cued and contextual fear memory in adult, male Long-Evans rats...
December 4, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Cai-Hong Xiong, Ming-Gang Liu, Lan-Xue Zhao, Mu-Wen Chen, Ling Tang, Ying-Hui Yan, Hong-Zhuan Chen, Yu Qiu
Cognitive flexibility is an important aspect of executive function. The cholinergic system, an important component of cognition, has been shown to modulate cognitive flexibility mainly through the striatum and prefrontal cortex. The role of M1 muscarinic receptors (M1 mAChRs), an important therapeutic target in the cholinergic system, in hippocampus-dependent cognitive flexibility is unclarified. In the present study, we demonstrated that selective activation of M1 mAChRs promoted extinction of initial learned response and facilitated acquisition of reversal learning in the Morris water maze, a behavior test that is mainly dependent on the hippocampus...
December 6, 2018: Neuropharmacology
V P Nikitin, S V Solntseva, P V Nikitin
The involvement of protein synthesis in the mechanisms of conditioned food aversion memory impairment and recovery in grape snails was studied. It was found that protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide) injections before a reminder by the conditioned stimulus (CS) caused amnesia development. Three days after amnesia induction, injections of cycloheximide or another protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin, combined with a reminder by four CSs resulted in memory retrieval, which was saved for 24 h. Cycloheximide injections and the administration of one CS as a reminder to an amnestic animals caused the memory expression only in response to this CS, while it was absent the next day...
December 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Assaf Taubenfeld, Michael C Anderson, Daniel A Levy
When people suppress retrieval of episodic memories, it can induce forgetting on later direct tests of memory for those events. Recent reports indicate that suppressing retrieval affects less conscious, unintentional retrieval of unwanted memories as well, at least on perceptually-oriented indirect tests. In the current study we examined how suppressing retrieval affects conceptual implicit memory for the suppressed content, using a category verification task. Participants studied cue-target words pairs in which the targets were exemplars of 22 semantic categories, such as vegetables or occupations...
December 7, 2018: Memory
Abigail N Hoskin, Aaron M Bornstein, Kenneth A Norman, Jonathan D Cohen
A fundamental question in memory research is how different forms of memory interact. Previous research has shown that people rely on working memory (WM) in short-term recognition tasks; a common view is that episodic memory (EM) only influences performance on these tasks when WM maintenance is disrupted. However, retrieval of memories from EM has been widely observed during brief periods of quiescence, raising the possibility that EM retrievals during maintenance-critically, before a response can be prepared-might affect short-term recognition memory performance even in the absence of distraction...
December 4, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Andrew Melnik, Felix Schüler, Constantin A Rothkopf, Peter König
Theories of embodied cognition postulate that the world can serve as an external memory. This implies that instead of storing visual information in working memory the information may be equally retrieved by appropriate eye movements. Given this assumption, the question arises, how we balance the effort of memorization with the effort of visual sampling our environment. We analyzed eye-tracking data in a sensorimotor task where participants had to produce a copy of a LEGO® -blocks-model displayed on a computer screen...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Sheng-Chiang Wang, Chen-Cheng Lin, Chun-Chuan Chen, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Yia-Ping Liu
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma-induced mental disorder characterized by fear extinction abnormalities, which involve biological dysfunctions among fear circuit areas in the brain. Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide that regulates sexual reproduction and social interaction and has recently earned specific attention due to its role in adjusting neurobiological and behavioral correlates of PTSD; however, the mechanism by which this is achieved remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine whether the effects of OXT on traumatic stress-induced abnormalities of fear extinction (specifically induced by single prolonged stress (SPS), an animal model of PTSD) are associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dorina Cadar, Marius Usher, Eddy J Davelaar
Although ageing is known to affect memory, the precise nature of its effect on retrieval and encoding processes is not well understood. Here, we examine the effect of ageing on the free recall of word lists, in which the semantic structure of word sequences was manipulated from unrelated words to pairs of associated words with various separations (between pair members) within the sequence. We find that ageing is associated with reduced total recall, especially for sequences with associated words. Furthermore, we find that the degree of semantic clustering (controlled for chance clustering) shows an age effect and that it interacts with the distance between the words within a pair...
November 30, 2018: Brain Sciences
Mitchell G Uitvlugt, M Karl Healey
Some memories are linked such that recalling one can trigger the retrieval of another. What determines which memories are linked? Some models predict that simply occurring close together in time is sufficient for links to form between memories. A competing theory suggests that temporal proximity is generally not sufficient, and existing evidence for such links is an artifact of using chainlike lists of items in artificial laboratory tasks. To test these competing accounts, we asked subjects to recall news stories that they had encountered over the past 2 years (Experiment 1) or 4 months (Experiment 2)...
December 4, 2018: Psychological Science
Seiko Goto, Xuting Shen, Minkai Sun, Yutaka Hamano, Karl Herrup
Dementia is highly prevalent among the worldwide elderly population. Only a small number of the currently marketed drugs are effective in controlling its symptoms, and none has any effect on its progression. Further, as the condition advances, even these pharmaceuticals lose their efficiency, and new research into interventions that might improve the life quality of patients at the end stage of dementia and their families is increasingly rare. In our previous studies, we explored the benefits of exposure to nature, in the form of Japanese garden, for persons with advanced dementia...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Fergus I M Craik, Eldar Eftekhari, Ellen Bialystok, Nicole D Anderson
Two prominent aspects of memory problems in older adults are a difficulty in retrieving recent episodic events and an often transient inability to retrieve names and other well-known facts from semantic memory. The question addressed in the present studies was whether these age-related difficulties reflect a common cause-a retrieval problem related to inefficient executive functions (EF). In the first study, 50 older adults were given 4 tests of EF; a derived composite measure correlated strongly with a measure of retrieval efficacy in free recall, less strongly with paired-associate recall, and nonsignificantly with retrieval of general knowledge...
December 3, 2018: Psychology and Aging
Kennett D Radford, Thomas Y Park, Shalini Jaiswal, Hongna Pan, Andrew Knutsen, Michael Zhang, Mercedes Driscoll, Lisa A Osborne-Smith, Bernard J Dardzinski, Kwang H Choi
Ketamine is a multimodal dissociative anesthetic, which provides powerful analgesia for victims with traumatic injury. However, the impact of ketamine administration in the peri-trauma period on the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains controversial. Moreover, there is a major gap between preclinical and clinical studies because they utilize different doses and routes of ketamine administration. Here, we investigated the effects of sub-anesthetic doses of intravenous (IV) ketamine infusion on fear memory and brain glucose metabolism (BGluM) in rats...
November 30, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Edward H Silson, Adrian W Gilmore, Sarah E Kalinowski, Adam Steel, Alexis Kidder, Alex Martin, Chris I Baker
Human retrosplenial complex (RSC), located in medial parietal cortex, has been implicated in numerous cognitive functions, including scene perception, spatial navigation, and autobiographical memory retrieval. Recently, a posterior-anterior distinction within RSC was proposed, such that posterior aspects process scene-related visual information (constituting a "medial place area;" MPA), whereas anterior aspects process information that is vividly retrieved from memory, thereby supporting remembering and potentially navigation...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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