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Memory retrieval

Graham MacKenzie, Georgia Alexandrou, Peter J B Hancock, David I Donaldson
Are all faces recognized in the same way, or does previous experience with a face change how it is retrieved? Previous research using human scalp-recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) demonstrates that recognition memory can produce dissociable brain signals under a variety of circumstances. While many studies have reported dissociations between the putative 'dual processes' of familiarity and recollection, a growing number of reports demonstrate that recollection itself may be fractionated into component processes...
August 7, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Susanne Mayr, Malte Möller, Axel Buchner
Contextual similarity between learning and test phase has been shown to be beneficial for memory retrieval. Negative priming is known to be caused by multiple processes; one of which is episodic retrieval. Therefore, the contextual similarity of prime and probe presentations should influence the size of the negative priming effect. This has been shown for the visual modality. In Experiment 1, an auditory four-alternative forced choice reaction time task was used to test the influence of prime-probe contextual similarity on negative priming and the processes underlying the modulation by context...
August 9, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Majdouline Sarhane, Agnès Daurat
Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) exhibit impaired retrieval of item-specific information, increasing their propensity to generate false recognitions. The present study investigated the effect of OSAS on false recognition, using a divided-attention paradigm to examine whether reducing the availability of attentional resources during encoding or retrieval in healthy participants mimics the effect of OSAS. We tested four groups of participants, using the Deese - Roediger - McDermott paradigm: patients with OSAS and controls, either under full attention or under divided attention at encoding or retrieval...
August 9, 2018: Memory
Marta Walentynowicz, Stefan Schneider, Arthur A Stone
BACKGROUND: The degree to which episodic and semantic memory processes contribute to retrospective self-reports have been shown to depend on the length of reporting period. Robinson and Clore (2002) argued that when the amount of accessible detail decreases due to longer reporting periods, an episodic retrieval strategy is abandoned in favor of a semantic retrieval strategy. The current study further examines this shift between retrieval strategies by conceptually replicating the model of Robinson and Clore (2002) for both emotions and symptoms and by attempting to estimate the exact moment of the theorized shift...
2018: PloS One
Katie H Walsh, Ravi K Das, Michael E Saladin, Sunjeev K Kamboj
BACKGROUND: Consolidated memories can undergo enduring modification through retrieval-dependent treatments that modulate reconsolidation. This represents a potentially transformative strategy for weakening or overwriting the maladaptive memories that underlie substance use and anxiety/trauma-related disorders. However, modulation of naturalistic maladaptive memories may be limited by 'boundary conditions' imposed on the reconsolidation process by the nature of these memories. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of behavioural and pharmacological studies examining retrieval-dependent modulation of reward- and threat-related memories in (sub) clinical substance use and anxiety/trauma, respectively...
August 8, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Ana M Capelo, Pedro B Albuquerque, Sara Cadavid
Recent research has provided evidence for memory modifications when a post-reactivation treatment (e.g., drugs, new learning) interferes with the memory re-stabilisation (reconsolidation) process. This finding contradicts the long-standing consolidation theory and has high practical and theoretical implications. With an object-learning paradigm, it was shown that episodic memory is highly susceptible to interfering material presented after its reactivation [Hupbach, A., Gomez, R., Hardt, O., & Nadel, L...
August 7, 2018: Memory
Natalie C Tronson
Recent work on sex differences in learning and memory has demonstrated that females and males differ in cognitive and behavioral strategies, as well as neural mechanisms required to learn, retrieve and express memory. Although our understanding of the mechanisms of memory is highly sophisticated, this work is based on male animals. As such, the study of female memory is narrowed to a comparison with behavior and mechanisms defined in males, resulting in findings of male-specific mechanisms but little understanding of how females learn and store information...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Timothy P Brawn, Howard C Nusbaum, Daniel Margoliash
Reconsolidation theory describes memory formation as an ongoing process that cycles between labile and stable states. Though sleep is critical for the initial consolidation of a memory, there has been little evidence that sleep facilitates reconsolidation. We now demonstrate in two experiments that a sleep-consolidated memory can be destabilized if the memory is reactivated by retrieval. The destabilized memory, which can be impaired if an interference task is encountered after, but not before, the memory is reactivated, is then reconsolidated after sleep...
August 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Nicole S Rafidi, Justin C Hulbert, Paula P Brooks, Kenneth A Norman
Repeated testing leads to improved long-term memory retention compared to repeated study, but the mechanism underlying this improvement remains controversial. In this work, we test the hypothesis that retrieval practice benefits subsequent recall by reducing competition from related memories. This hypothesis implies that the degree of reduction in competition between retrieval practice attempts should predict subsequent memory for practiced items. To test this prediction, we collected electroencephalography (EEG) data across two sessions...
August 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gaurav Narula, Maya Prasad, Shalini Jatia, Papagudi G Subramanian, Nikhil Patkar, Prashant Tembhare, Dhanlaxmi Shetty, Nehal Khanna, Siddharth Laskar, Tanuja Shet, Sridhar Epari, Seema Kembhavi, Sneha Shah, Sajid Qureshi, Sumeet Gujral, Shripad D Banavali
INTRODUCTION: The Pediatric Hematolymphoid Disease Management Group (PHL-DMG) at a tertiary cancer care hospital developed extensive patient support programs to improve retention and outcomes while focusing on protocols adapted to meet patient needs. An audit of measures and outcomes was done for a 7-year period from January 2010 to December 2016. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DMG protocols and patient support activities over the study period were documented and audited...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Amit Joshi, Amitesh Anand, Kumar Prabhash, Vanita Noronha, Sameer Shrirangwar, Ganesh Bakshi, Mahendra Pal, Vedang Murthy, Rahul Krishnatry, Sangeeta Desai, Santosh Menon, Deepali Patil, Sheetal Kulkarni, Nilesh Sable, Palak Popat, Archi Agrawal, Venkatesh Rangarajan, Gagan Prakash
INTRODUCTION: The stage at diagnosis of renal cell cancer (RCC) in developed countries is lower due to increased utilization of routine health checkups by patients compared to developed countries. This study aims to determine the sociodemographic and clinical distribution of RCC in patients presenting to Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective audit of all patients presenting to TMH with a diagnosis of RCC. Data were retrieved from our electronic medical record system from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Oressia Zalucki, Danyon Harkins, Lachlan Harris, Thomas H J Burne, Richard M Gronostajski, Michael Piper
OBJECTIVE: The active place avoidance task (APA) is a behavioural task used to assess learning and memory in rodents. This task relies on the hippocampus, a region of the cerebral cortex capable of generating new neurons from neural stem cells. In this study, to gain further insight into the behavioural phenotype of mice deficient in the transcription factor Nfix, a gene expressed by adult neural stem cells, we examined learning and memory parameters from the APA task that were not published in our original investigation...
August 6, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Anthony J Ryals, Jonathan T O'Neil, M-Marsel Mesulam, Sandra Weintraub, Joel L Voss
Successful memory is normally accompanied by explicit awareness of retrieval and confidence in the accuracy of the retrieval product. Prior findings suggest that these features of metamemory can be dissociated from retrieval accuracy in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). However, the literature on this question contains variable and conflicting results, likely because of differences in experimental conditions. We sought to systematically evaluate memory awareness disruptions in aMCI using multiple measures and stimulus formats within the same individuals...
August 6, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Luke Strickland, Shayne Loft, Roger W Remington, Andrew Heathcote
Event-based prospective memory (PM) requires remembering to perform intended deferred actions when particular stimuli or events are encountered in the future. We propose a detailed process theory within Braver's (2012) proactive and reactive framework of the way control is maintained over the competing demands of prospective memory decisions and decisions associated with ongoing task activities. The theory is instantiated in a quantitative "Prospective Memory Decision Control" (PMDC) architecture, which uses linear ballistic evidence accumulation (Brown & Heathcote, 2008) to model both PM and ongoing decision processes...
August 6, 2018: Psychological Review
Savvas Avraam, Adamantini Hatzipanayioti, Marios N Avraamides
We examined whether spatial representations for scenes experienced on the screens of mobile devices are orientation dependent and whether the type of movement (physical vs. simulated) during learning affects the encoding and the retrieval of spatial information. Participants studied a spatial layout depicted on a tablet and then carried out perspective-taking trials in which they localized objects from imagined perspectives. Depending on condition, participants either rotated the tablet along with their body or remained stationary and swiped with their finger on the screen to change their viewpoint within the scene...
August 4, 2018: Psychological Research
Alexandre Salvador, Lucie Berkovitch, Fabien Vinckier, Laurent Cohen, Lionel Naccache, Stanislas Dehaene, Raphaël Gaillard
Recent evidence suggests that high-level executive control can occur unconsciously. In this study, we tested whether unconscious executive control extends to memory retrieval and forgetting. In a first experiment, participants learned word-word associations and were trained to either actively recall or forget theses associations in response to conscious visual cues (Think/No-Think paradigm). Then, the very same cues were subliminally presented while participants were performing a grammatical gender categorization task on distinct word pairs...
July 31, 2018: Cognition
Jena B Hales, Jonathan L Vincze, Nicole T Reitz, Amber C Ocampo, Stefan Leutgeb, Robert E Clark
The hippocampus is critically involved in the acquisition and retrieval of spatial memories. Even though some memories become independent of the hippocampus over time, expression of spatial memories have consistently been found to permanently depend on the hippocampus. Recent studies have focused on the adjacent medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), as it provides major projections to the hippocampus. These studies have shown that lesions of the MEC disrupt spatial processing in the hippocampus and impair spatial memory acquisition on the watermaze task...
July 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Menahem Yeari, Eli Vakil, Lee Schifer, Rachel Schiff
INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that skilled and disabled readers recall central ideas, which are important to the overall comprehension of the text, to a greater extent than peripheral, less important ideas after reading. However, readers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) recall significantly fewer central ideas than skilled readers. The present study was designed to examine whether difficulties in identifying, attending, and/or retrieving central ideas underlie their centrality deficit...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Sara Caviola, Irene C Mammarella, Massimiliano Pastore, Jo-Anne LeFevre
We examined how children's strategy choices in solving complex subtraction problems are related to grade and to variations in problem complexity. In two studies, third- and fifth-grade children (N≈160 each study) solved multi-digit subtraction problems (e.g., 34-18) and described their solution strategies. In the first experiment, strategy selection was investigated by means of a free-choice paradigm, whereas in the second study a discrete-choice approach was implemented. In both experiments, analyses of strategy repertoire indicated that third-grade children were more likely to report less-efficient strategies (i...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Elisabetta Indelicato, Wolfgang Nachbauer, Elfriede Karner, Andreas Eigentler, Michaela Wagner, Iris Unterberger, Werner Poewe, Margarete Delazer, Sylvia Boesch
BACKGROUND: CACNA1A encodes the α1-subunit of the neuronal calcium channel P/Q. CACNA1A mutations underlie three allelic disorders: familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6. A clear-cut genotype-phenotype correlation is often lacking since clinical manifestations may overlap. Several case reports have described cognitive and behavioral features in CACNA1A disorders, but studies in larger case series are lacking. METHODS: Genetically confirmed CACNA1A cases were retrieved from the database of the ataxia outpatient-clinic of the Department of Neurology at Innsbruck Medical University...
July 31, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
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