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Myocardial ischaemia

Naveen Kumar Tirkey, Shashank Gupta
Cannabis is a frequently used illicit recreational drug that is known to be associated with a variety of psychopharmacological effects. Negative somatic effects such as myocardial infarction and stroke have been reported, though, less frequently. Most of the literature available has focused on the complications due to smoked forms of cannabis (ganja and charas). Here we report a case of acute myocardial ischaemia with acute ischaemic stroke developing after oral ingestion of 'Bhang', a preparation of cannabis...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Moritz Flick, Martin Albrecht, Gezina T M L Oei, Renske Steenstra, Raphaela P Kerindongo, Coert J Zuurbier, Hemal H Patel, Markus W Hollmann, Benedikt Preckel, Nina C Weber
Caveolae, lipid enriched invaginations of the plasma membrane, are epicentres of cellular signal transduction. The structural proteins of caveolae, caveolins, regulate effector pathways in anaesthetic-induced cardioprotection, including the RISK pathway. Helium (He) postconditioning (HePoc) is known to mimic anaesthetic conditioning and to prevent damage from myocardial infarction. We hypothesize that HePoc regulates caveolin-1 and caveolin-3 (Cav-1 and Cav-3) expression in the rat heart and activates the RISK pathway...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Sudhir Kumar, R Girish, A S Menon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Mark W Kennedy, Enrico Fabris, Alexander J Ijsselmuiden, Holger Nef, Sebastian Reith, Javier Escaned, Fernando Alfonso, Niels van Royen, Wojtek Wojakowski, Adam Witkowski, Ciro Indolfi, Jan Paul Ottervanger, Harry Suryapranata, Elvin Kedhi
BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a widely used tool for the identification of ischaemia-generating stenoses and to guide decisions on coronary revascularisation. However, the safety of FFR-based decisions in high-risk subsets, such as patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) or vulnerable stenoses presenting thin-cap fibro-atheroma (TCFA), is unknown. This study will examine the impact of optical coherence tomography (OCT) plaque morphological assessment and the identification of TCFA, in combination with FFR to better predict clinical outcomes in DM patients...
October 10, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Marina Basalay, Svetlana Mastitskaya, Aleksander Mrochek, Gareth L Ackland, Ana Gutierrez Del Arroyo, Jenifer Sanchez, Per-Ove Sjoquist, John Pernow, Alexander V Gourine, Andrey Gourine
AIMS: Although the nature of the humoral factor which mediates cardioprotection established by remote ischaemic conditioning (RIc) remains unknown, parasympathetic (vagal) mechanisms appear to play a critical role. As the production and release of many gut hormones is modulated by the vagus nerve, here we tested the hypothesis that RIc cardioprotection is mediated by the actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). METHODS AND RESULTS: A rat model of myocardial infarction (coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion) was used...
October 4, 2016: Cardiovascular Research
Sothinathan Gurunathan, Asrar Ahmed, Jatinder Pabla, Nikos Karogiannis, Alina Hua, Grace Young, Benoy Nalin Shah, Roxy Senior
INTRODUCTION: Although stress echocardiography (SE) is invaluable in younger populations, its prognostic value may be attenuated in the elderly due to shorter life expectancy and the frequent presence of severe comorbidities. This study sought to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of SE in octogenarians, particularly its prognostic value over clinical variables, in predicting hard events. METHODS: A total of 374 consecutive octogenarians who underwent SE for evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD) were assessed for feasibility, diagnostic accuracy and safety of the test, and followed up for hard outcomes (all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) deaths and non-fatal myocardial infarction (NFMI))...
September 30, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Cher-Rin Chong, Gao J Ong, John D Horowitz
Angina pectoris, or symptomatic myocardial ischaemia, reflects an impairment of coronary blood flow, and usually a deficiency of available myocardial energetics. Treatment options vary with the precise cause, which may vary with regards to the roles of increased myocardial oxygen demand versus reduced supply. Traditionally, organic nitrates, β-adrenoceptor antagonists, and non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists were the only commonly used prophylactic anti-anginal agents. However, many patients failed to respond adequately to such therapy, and/or were unsuitable for their use...
October 6, 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Jun-Long Gao, Yu-Lan Li, Xiu-Mei Wang, Qian-Long Zhao, Hai-Jun Zhang, Fang-Fang Han, Xia-Xia Li, Dong-Hang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that electroacupuncture (EA) protects against arrhythmia and myocardial injury induced by myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion. However, to our knowledge, it remains unknown whether EA could alleviate bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity. Therefore, we aimed to explore the effect of EA pretreatment on bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest and outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in rats. METHODS: 24 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: EA (n=12), and minimal acupuncture (MA) (n=12)...
September 23, 2016: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Andrea De Lorenzo, Leticia Glerian, Ana Carolina Amaral, Thiago B Reis, Ronaldo S L Lima
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of the "metabolically healthy" (MH) or "metabolically unhealthy" (MU) obesity phenotypes and their association with cardiorespiratory fitness and inducible myocardial ischaemia. METHODS: Individuals without known coronary artery disease undergoing myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (MPS) were studied. Those without dyslipidemia, hypertension, or diabetes were considered MH, and when ≥1 of these was present, MU status was considered present...
September 13, 2016: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
S Vemulapalli, L Cohen, V Hsu
OBJECTIVES: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is more common in systemic sclerosis (SSc) compared to the general population. Focal myocardial ischaemia and fibrosis may be important in its pathogenesis. LVDD is associated with increased mortality and little is known about the risk factors. Advanced SSc lung complications may accompany LVDD. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 300 SSc outpatients with and without LVDD, seen between May 2012 and May 2014, and performed univariate and multivariate regression analyses to determine clinical factors associated with LVDD...
September 16, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
Soon Jun Hong, Chul Min Ahn, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Young-Guk Ko, Seung-Ho Hur, Cheol Woong Yu, Seung-Jin Lee, Cheol Ung Choi, Je Sang Kim, Jung-Han Yoon, Young Joon Hong, Jae-Woong Choi, Seung-Hyuk Choi, Yangsoo Jang, Do-Sun Lim
AIMS: At present no proven standard treatment for drug-eluting stent (DES) restenosis is available, and the efficacy and safety of everolimus-eluting stent (EES) and zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) for DES restenosis are limited. The purpose of this prospective, randomized 9-month intracoronary ultrasound (IVUS) and 3-year clinical follow-up study was to compare the effects of EESs and ZESs on neointima volume and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) such as death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR) and stent thrombosis in DES restenosis patients...
September 15, 2016: European Heart Journal
L N Maslov
It was determined that remote post-conditioning (RP) exerts infarction-limiting and antiapoptotic effects. The infarction-limiting effect of RP is associated with enhancement of autophagia of cardiomyocytes. It was determined that RP may be an effective method of preventing reperfusion contractile dysfunction of the heart. The problem of whether RP exerts an antiarrhythmic effect in cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion remains unsolved as yet. Limitation of leukocytic invasion may have direct relation to the cardioprotector effect of RP...
2016: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
O Milleron, C Bouleti, S Mazouz, E Brochet, F Rouzet, P Nataf, W Ghodbane, D Messika-Zeitoun, M P Dilly, S Cattan, A Vahanian, B Iung, G Jondeau
AIMS: So far, a total of five patients with eclipsed mitral regurgitation (MR) have been reported in the literature by three different teams. The aim of this article was to detail clinical and echocardiographic characteristics, and outcome of patients presenting eclipsed MR. METHODS AND RESULTS: We defined eclipsed MR as spontaneous appearance, at rest, from 1 min to the next of an acute restriction in the motion of mitral leaflets preventing coaptation and leading to massive MR in patients with normal left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, left ventricular ejection fraction >45%, and baseline MR ≤2...
September 13, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Guillermo Ventosa-Fernandez, Bosco Moscoso, Ramón Cartañá, Daniel Pereda
Entrapment or device loss during percutaneous coronary intervention is a rare but potentially fatal complication. Percutaneous retrieval is possible but surgery can be required on an emergency basis. We present the case of an entrapped balloon catheter in the left anterior descending coronary artery during an elective percutaneous coronary intervention. The patient developed acute myocardial ischaemia and cardiac arrest. Emergency surgical intervention with device retrieval and distal bypass grafting was life-saving...
September 13, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Paul C Cremer, Amgad Mentias, Srikanth Koneru, Paul Schoenhagen, David Majdalany, Richard Lorber, Scott D Flamm, Robert E Hobbs, Gosta Pettersson, Wael A Jaber
OBJECTIVE: In adults with an interarterial and intramural course of an anomalous right coronary artery from the left sinus (AAORCA), surgical unroofing is recommended in the setting of myocardial ischaemia. However, data regarding functional testing are limited, and the management of adults without ischaemia is unclear. To evaluate these patients, we employed an exercise N(13)-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) protocol. We hypothesised that patients with typical angina and exertional dyspnoea would be more likely to have ischaemia and that patients without ischaemia could be managed conservatively...
2016: Open Heart
Barbara K Butland, Richard W Atkinson, Ai Milojevic, Mathew R Heal, Ruth M Doherty, Ben G Armstrong, Ian A MacKenzie, Massimo Vieno, Chun Lin, Paul Wilkinson
OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between daily concentrations of air pollution and myocardial infarction (MI), ST-elevation MI (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI). METHODS: Modelled daily ground-level gaseous, total and speciated particulate pollutant concentrations and ground-level daily mean temperature, all at 5 km×5 km horizontal resolution, were linked to 202 550 STEMI and 322 198 NSTEMI events recorded on the England and Wales Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP) database...
2016: Open Heart
Ashleigh Dind, Usaid Allahwala, Kaleab N Asrress, Sanjit S Jolly, Ravinay Bhindi
Recent advances have caused a major shift in the way ST-elevation myocardial infarctions are managed. This review explores the pharmacological and interventional techniques that have evidence for improving outcomes and the landmark trials that have sparked change. The new P2Y12 inhibitors, ticagrelor and prasugrel, have been shown to be superior to clopidogrel in STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Concurrently, many technical aspects of percutaneous coronary intervention have been further clarified by trial data, with bare-metal stents, routine thrombus aspiration and femoral access showing evidence of inferiority...
August 22, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Lars Wallentin, Lars Lindhagen, Elisabet Ärnström, Steen Husted, Magnus Janzon, Søren Paaske Johnsen, Frederic Kontny, Tibor Kempf, Lars-Åke Levin, Bertil Lindahl, Mats Stridsberg, Elisabeth Ståhle, Per Venge, Kai C Wollert, Eva Swahn, Bo Lagerqvist
BACKGROUND: The FRISC-II trial was the first randomised trial to show a reduction in death or myocardial infarction with an early invasive versus a non-invasive treatment strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Here we provide a remaining lifetime perspective on the effects on all cardiovascular events during 15 years' follow-up. METHODS: The FRISC-II prospective, randomised, multicentre trial was done at 58 Scandinavian centres in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway...
October 15, 2016: Lancet
Wijnand J Stuijfzand, Roel S Driessen, Pieter G Raijmakers, Mischa T Rijnierse, Joren Maeremans, Maurits R Hollander, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Albert C van Rossum, Jo Dens, Alexander Nap, Niels van Royen, Paul Knaapen
AIMS: Previous studies on invasive assessment of collateral function in patients with a chronic total occlusion (CTO) have displayed only a limited increase in collateral flow and high occurrence of coronary steal during pharmacological stress. This could question the necessity for ischaemia testing prior to revascularization of CTOs in the presence of myocardial viability. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of perfusion impairments in patients with a CTO as assessed by [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET)...
September 1, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Sergiy Yakovlev, Alexey M Belkin, Ling Chen, Chunzhang Cao, Li Zhang, Dudley K Strickland, Leonid Medved
Our previous studies revealed that the interaction of fibrin with the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) promotes transendothelial migration of leukocytes and thereby inflammation, and localised the fibrin-binding site to CR-domains 2-4 of this receptor. In the present study, we tested interaction of three anti-VLDLR monoclonal antibodies, mAb 1H10, 1H5, and 5F3, with recombinant fragments of VLDLR containing various combinations of its CR-domains and found that the epitopes for mAb 1H10 and mAb 1H5 overlap with the fibrin-binding site of VLDLR...
September 1, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
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