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Myocardial ischaemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319269/withdrawn-trimetazidine-for-stable-angina
#1
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Rudolf Pizarro, Jeff Harrison
BACKGROUND: Patients with stable angina not controlled by monotherapy with nitrates, beta blockers, or calcium channel blockers are often treated with combinations of these drugs. There may be adverse effects from, or contraindications to, the use of combinations. In low risk groups, medical treatment appears to be as good an option as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in terms of averting myocardial infarction, death, or subsequent revascularization. Revascularization procedures are too costly or inaccessible for many patients in developing countries therefore effective and safe medical treatment is needed...
March 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302152/myocardial-susceptibility-to-ischaemia-reperfusion-in-obesity-a-re-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-age
#2
I Webster, R Salie, E Marais, W-J Fan, G Maarman, B Huisamen, A Lochner
BACKGROUND: Reports on the effect of age and obesity on myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and ischaemic preconditioning are contradictory. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the effects of age and diet-induced obesity (DIO) on myocardial I/R injury and preconditioning potential. METHODS: Four groups of Wistar male rats were used: age-matched controls (AMC) receiving standard rat chow for (i) 16 weeks and (ii) 16 months respectively; DIO rats receiving a sucrose-supplemented diet for (iii) 16 weeks and (iv) 16 months respectively...
March 17, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290994/derivation-and-validation-of-the-predicting-bleeding-complications-in-patients-undergoing-stent-implantation-and-subsequent-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-precise-dapt-score-a-pooled-analysis-of-individual-patient-datasets-from-clinical-trials
#3
Francesco Costa, David van Klaveren, Stefan James, Dik Heg, Lorenz Räber, Fausto Feres, Thomas Pilgrim, Myeong-Ki Hong, Hyo-Soo Kim, Antonio Colombo, Philippe Gabriel Steg, Thomas Zanchin, Tullio Palmerini, Lars Wallentin, Deepak L Bhatt, Gregg W Stone, Stephan Windecker, Ewout W Steyerberg, Marco Valgimigli
BACKGROUND: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor prevents ischaemic events after coronary stenting, but increases bleeding. Guidelines support weighting bleeding risk before the selection of treatment duration, but no standardised tool exists for this purpose. METHODS: A total of 14 963 patients treated with DAPT after coronary stenting-largely consisting of aspirin and clopidogrel and without indication to oral anticoagulation-were pooled at a single-patient level from eight multicentre randomised clinical trials with independent adjudication of events...
March 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281186/calcium-sensing-receptor-mediated-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-pathway-improves-the-status-of-transplanted-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-in-rats-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#4
Jian Sun, Tao Wei, Shuzhi Bai, Hongtao Zhao, Xiaoqin Liu, Jinfeng Yu, Li Li, Gaochen Song, Hairong Luan, Changqing Xu
Several studies have identified the critical role of calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) in cardiac ischaemia/reperfusion injury and cardiac hypertrophy and have demonstrated that CaSRs induce myocardial apoptosis by activating MAPKs. Using acute myocardial infarction rat models, we found that a combination therapy of CaSR inhibition and embryonic stem cell (ESC) transplantation after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) leads to a dramatic reduction in the infarct size; a significant increase in the maximum rising and falling rate (+dp/dtmax and -dp/dtmax, respectively) of left ventricular pressure; a significant decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure; a significant decrease in the mRNA expression level of CaSR, Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, p-ERK, p-JNK and p-P38 protein together with apoptosis indexes in the C and E groups; and a significant decrease in cTnT levels as well as LDH and CK activity...
March 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266127/mitochondrial-pkc-%C3%AE%C2%B5-deficiency-promotes-i-r-mediated-myocardial-injury-via-gsk3%C3%AE-dependent-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore-opening
#5
Shijun Wang, Feng Zhang, Gang Zhao, Yong Cheng, Ting Wu, Bing Wu, You-En Zhang
Mitochondrial fission is critically involved in cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which has been considered as one of the leading causes of ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury. In our previous works, we demonstrate that aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) deficiency aggravates cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether ALDH2 deficiency promotes mitochondrial injury and cardiomyocyte death in response to I/R stress and the underlying mechanism. I/R injury was induced by aortic cross-clamping for 45 min...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245882/development-of-a-surrogate-potency-assay-to-determine-the-angiogenic-activity-of-stempeucel%C3%A2-a-pooled-ex-vivo-expanded-allogeneic-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-product
#6
Charan Thej, Balamurugan Ramadasse, Ankita Walvekar, Anish S Majumdar, Sudha Balasubramanian
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have emerged as a more beneficial alternative to conventional therapy and may offer a potential cure for unmet medical needs. MSCs are known to possess strong immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, they promote angiogenesis and tissue regeneration through the secretion of trophic factors. For these reasons, the past decade witnessed a sharp increase in the number of clinical trials conducted with stem cells for various vascular diseases requiring angiogenesis...
February 28, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245772/structure-of-atherosclerotic-plaques-in-different-vascular-territories-clinical-relevance
#7
Pavel Poredos, Peter Poredos, Mateja Kaja Jezovnik
Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease with different faces. Despite similar, or even identical, risk factors and pathogenesis, atherosclerotic lesions and their clinical manifestations vary in different parts of the vasculature. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the superficial femoral artery (SFA) represents a frequent clinical manifestations of atherosclerotic disease. The pathohistological characteristics of plaques in PAD differ from lesions in the coronary arteries. Plaques in the SFA have more fibrotic elements with less lipid and degenerative tissue elements; this makes them more stable and less prone to rupture...
February 26, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238711/efficacy-and-safety-of-ticagrelor-versus-aspirin-in-acute-stroke-or-transient-ischaemic-attack-of-atherosclerotic-origin-a-subgroup-analysis-of-socrates-a-randomised-double-blind-controlled-trial
#8
Pierre Amarenco, Gregory W Albers, Hans Denison, J Donald Easton, Scott R Evans, Peter Held, Michael D Hill, Jenny Jonasson, Scott E Kasner, Per Ladenvall, Kazuo Minematsu, Carlos A Molina, Yongjun Wang, K S Lawrence Wong, S Claiborne Johnston
BACKGROUND: Ticagrelor is an effective antiplatelet therapy for patients with coronary atherosclerotic disease and might be more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events in patients with acute cerebral ischaemia of atherosclerotic origin. Our aim was to test for a treatment-by-ipsilateral atherosclerotic stenosis interaction in a subgroup analysis of patients in the Acute Stroke or Transient Ischaemic Attack Treated with Aspirin or Ticagrelor and Patient Outcomes (SOCRATES) trial...
February 23, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238076/delta-opioid-receptors-and-cardioprotection
#9
Louise See Hoe, Hemal H Patel, Jason N Peart
The opioid receptor family, with associated endogenous ligands, has numerous roles throughout the body. Moreover, the delta opioid receptor (DORs) has various integrated roles within the physiological systems, including the cardiovascular system. While DORs are important modulators of cardiovascular autonomic balance, they are well-established contributors to cardioprotective mechanisms. Both endogenous and exogenous opioids acting upon DORs have roles in myocardial hibernation and protection against ischaemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury...
February 26, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236568/evaluation-of-screening-for-myocardial-ischaemia-in-women-at-cardiovascular-risk
#10
Anne-Laure Madika, Patrick Devos, Pascal Delsart, Fanny Boudghène, Anne-Sophie Polge, Christophe Bauters, Claire Mounier-Vehier
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death in women. Prevention, screening and diagnosis are generally implemented at later stages and less frequently than in men, and provision of treatment is not optimal in women. AIMS: To assess the relevance of targeted screening for myocardial ischaemia in women with multiple risk factors, and to identify which specific factors target women more effectively. METHODS: We undertook a prospective observational study with retrospective data collection based on a cohort of symptomatic or asymptomatic women with multiple cardiovascular risk factors...
February 21, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225183/protective-effects-of-araloside-c-against-myocardial-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-potential-involvement-of-heat-shock-protein-90
#11
Min Wang, Yu Tian, Yu-Yang Du, Gui-Bo Sun, Xu-Dong Xu, Hai Jiang, Hui-Bo Xu, Xiang-Bao Meng, Jing-Yi Zhang, Shi-Lan Ding, Miao-di Zhang, Ming-Hua Yang, Xiao-Bo Sun
The present study was designed to investigate whether Araloside C, one of the major triterpenoid compounds isolated from Aralia elata known to be cardioprotective, can improve heart function following ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and elucidate its underlying mechanisms. We observed that Araloside C concentration-dependently improved cardiac function and depressed oxidative stress induced by I/R. Similar protection was confirmed in isolated cardiomyocytes characterized by maintaining Ca(2+) transients and cell shortening against I/R...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218306/plin5-alleviates-myocardial-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-through-inhibiting-the-lipolysis-of-lipid-droplets
#12
Pengfei Zheng, Zhonglin Xie, Yuan Yuan, Wen Sui, Chao Wang, Xing Gao, Yuanlin Zhao, Feng Zhang, Yu Gu, Peizhen Hu, Jing Ye, Xuyang Feng, Lijun Zhang
Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a complex pathophysiological process. Current research has suggested that energy metabolism disorders, of which the abnormal consumption of fatty acids is closely related, compose the main pathological basis for myocardial I/R injury. Lipid droplets (LD) are critical regulators of lipid metabolism by LD-associated proteins. Among the lipid droplet proteins, the perilipin family members regulate lipolysis and lipogenesis through different mechanisms. Plin5, an important perilipin protein, promotes LD generation and lowers fatty acid oxidation, thus protecting the myocardium from lipotoxicity...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213564/seven-year-tolerability-profile-of-glucocorticoids-use-in-early-rheumatoid-arthritis-data-from-the-espoir-cohort
#13
Camille Roubille, Nathalie Rincheval, Maxime Dougados, René-Marc Flipo, Jean-Pierre Daurès, Bernard Combe
OBJECTIVE: To explore the 7-year tolerability profile of glucocorticoids (GC) for early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We examined data for 602 patients with RA from the early arthritis Etude et Suivi des POlyarthrites Indifférenciées Récentes (ESPOIR) cohort (<6 months disease duration) stratified into two groups: with or without GC treatment at least once during follow-up (median 7 years (IQR 0.038-7.65)). The main outcome was a composite of death, cardiovascular disease (including myocardial ischaemia, cerebrovascular accident and heart failure), severe infection and fracture...
February 17, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207997/chronically-elevated-bilirubin-protects-from-cardiac-reperfusion-injury-in-the-male-gunn-rat
#14
Bhavisha Bakrania, Eugene F Du Toit, Kevin J Ashton, Karl-Heinz Wagner, John P Headrick, Andrew C Bulmer
AIMS: Bilirubin is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, as evidenced in conditions of mild hyperbilirubinaemia (Gilbert's Syndrome). Little is known regarding myocardial stress-resistance in hyperbilirubinemic conditions or whether life-long exposure modifies cardiac function, which might contribute to protection from cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Hyperbilirubinemic rats and littermate controls underwent echocardiography at 3, 6 and 12 mo of age, with hearts subsequently assessed for resistance to 30 min of ischaemia...
February 16, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195519/troponin-t-release-is-associated-with-silent-myocardial-ischaemia-in-black-men-the-sabpa-study
#15
Madelein E Griffiths, Leoné Malan, Rhena Delport, Marike Cockeran, Manja Reimann
Background High sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) is a validated marker of myocardial damage and may reflect the degree of silent myocardial ischaemia (SMI) and ventricular strain. Our aim was to compare hs-cTnT levels in black and white South Africans taking SMI into consideration. We further explored the capability of hs-cTnT to predict the presence of compensatory systolic hypertension in this South African cohort. Methods A bi-ethnic sex cohort ( n = 404) with similar socioeconomic status (198 black participants and 206 white participants, aged 20-65 years) participated in this target population study where 24 h ambulatory blood pressure, electrocardiogram and overnight fasting cardiometabolic variables were measured...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186163/label-free-detection-of-myocardial-ischaemia-in-the-perfused-rat-heart-by-spontaneous-raman-spectroscopy
#16
Suguru Ohira, Hideo Tanaka, Yoshinori Harada, Takeo Minamikawa, Yasuaki Kumamoto, Satoaki Matoba, Hitoshi Yaku, Tetsuro Takamatsu
Raman spectroscopy, which identifies intrinsic molecular constituents, has a potential for determining myocardial viability under label-free conditions. However, its suitability for evaluating myocardial ischaemia is undetermined. Focusing on cytochromes, i.e., representative molecules reflecting mitochondrial activity, we tested whether Raman spectroscopy is applicable for evaluating myocardial ischaemia especially during early ischaemic phase. We obtained spontaneous Raman spectra of the subepicardial myocardium in the Langendorff-perfused rat heart upon 532-nm excitation before and during the "stopped-flow," global ischaemia...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183205/inhibition-of-rho-kinase-protects-from-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-via-regulation-of-arginase-activity-and-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-type-1-diabetes
#17
Yahor Tratsiakovich, Attila Kiss, Adrian T Gonon, Jiangning Yang, Per-Ove Sjöquist, John Pernow
AIM: RhoA/Rho-associated kinase and arginase are implicated in vascular complications in diabetes. This study investigated whether RhoA/Rho-associated kinase and arginase inhibition protect from myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury in type 1 diabetes and the mechanisms behind these effects. METHODS: Rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and non-diabetic rats were subjected to 30 min myocardial ischaemia and 2 h reperfusion after being randomized to treatment with (1) saline, (2) RhoA/Rho-associated kinase inhibitor hydroxyfasudil, (3) nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine monoacetate followed by hydroxyfasudil, (4) arginase inhibitor N-omega-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine, (5) N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine monoacetate followed by N-omega-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine or (6) N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine monoacetate given intravenous before ischaemia...
February 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169296/small-molecule-biased-formyl-peptide-receptor-agonist-compound-17b-protects-against-myocardial-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#18
Cheng Xue Qin, Lauren T May, Renming Li, Nga Cao, Sarah Rosli, Minh Deo, Amy E Alexander, Duncan Horlock, Jane E Bourke, Yuan H Yang, Alastair G Stewart, David M Kaye, Xiao-Jun Du, Patrick M Sexton, Arthur Christopoulos, Xiao-Ming Gao, Rebecca H Ritchie
Effective treatment for managing myocardial infarction (MI) remains an urgent, unmet clinical need. Formyl peptide receptors (FPR) regulate inflammation, a major contributing mechanism to cardiac injury following MI. Here we demonstrate that FPR1/FPR2-biased agonism may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of MI. The small-molecule FPR1/FPR2 agonist, Compound 17b (Cmpd17b), exhibits a distinct signalling fingerprint to the conventional FPR1/FPR2 agonist, Compound-43 (Cmpd43). In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with human FPR1 or FPR2, Compd17b is biased away from potentially detrimental FPR1/2-mediated calcium mobilization, but retains the pro-survival signalling, ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation, relative to Compd43...
February 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164013/stenotic-flow-reserve-derived-from-quantitative-coronary-angiography-has-modest-but-incremental-value-in-predicting-functionally-significant-coronary-stenosis-as-evaluated-by-fractional-flow-reserve
#19
Elizabeth L Potter, Colin Machado, Yuvaraj Malaiapan, Om Narayan, Brian S H Ko, Peter J Psaltis, Kiran Munnur, James D Cameron, Ian T Meredith, Dennis Thiam Leong Wong
BACKGROUND: Stenotic flow reserve (SFR) derived from quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) has been correlated with myocardial ischaemia as determined by pharmacological stress echocardiography. However, the diagnostic accuracy of SFR in predicting functionally significant coronary stenosis as assessed by the gold standard, fractional flow reserve (FFR), has not been previously characterised. METHODS: Patients who underwent coronary angiography and FFR assessment between January 2010 and February 2012 in a single tertiary centre were retrospectively assessed...
February 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140457/assessment-and-validation-of-a-novel-angiographic-scoring-system-for-peripheral-artery-disease
#20
D R Morris, T P Singh, J V Moxon, A Smith, F Stewart, R E Jones, J Golledge
BACKGROUND: Angiography is used routinely in the assessment of lower-limb arteries, but there are few well validated angiographic scoring systems. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a novel angiographic scoring system for peripheral artery disease. METHODS: An angiographic scoring system (the ANGIO score) was developed and applied to a sample of patients from a single vascular surgical department who underwent CT angiography of the lower limbs. The reproducibility of the ANGIO score was compared with those of the Bollinger and Trans-Atlantic inter-Society Consensus (TASC) IIb systems in a series of randomly selected patients...
January 31, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
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