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Myocardial ischaemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534645/the-mitochondria-targeting-peptide-elamipretide-diminishes-circulating-htra2-in-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#1
Marcus Hortmann, Samuel Robinson, Moritz Mohr, Maximillian Mauler, Daniela Stallmann, Jochen Reinöhl, Daniel Duerschmied, Karlheinz Peter, James Carr, C Michael Gibson, Christoph Bode, Ingo Ahrens
BACKGROUND: The extent of myocardial damage in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) depends on both the time to reperfusion as well as injury induced by ischaemia-reperfusion resulting in a cascade of cellular and humoral reactions. As a consequence of ischaemia-reperfusion in the heart, the high-temperature requirement serine peptidase 2 (HtrA2) is translocated from the mitochondria to the cytosol, whereupon it induces protease activity-dependent apoptosis mediated via caspases...
May 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529484/targeting-adenosine-receptors-for-the-treatment-of-cardiac-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Vecchio, Paul J White, Lauren T May
Adenosine is a ubiquitous molecule with key regulatory and cytoprotective mechanisms at times of metabolic imbalance in the body. Among a plethora of physiological actions, adenosine has an important role in attenuating ischaemia-reperfusion injury and modulating the ensuing fibrosis and tissue remodeling following myocardial damage. Adenosine exerts these actions through interaction with four adenosine G protein-coupled receptors expressed in the heart. The adenosine A2B receptor (A2BAR) is the most abundant adenosine receptor (AR) in cardiac fibroblasts and is largely responsible for the influence of adenosine on cardiac fibrosis...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515027/early-versus-delayed-invasive-strategies-in-high-risk-non-st-elevation-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients-a-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#3
REVIEW
Delara Javat, Clare Heal, Stefan Buchholz, Zhihua Zhang
RATIONALE: It is unclear whether it is beneficial to perform angiography and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as an early or delayed invasive strategy amongst high-risk non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an early invasive strategy could further reduce recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) and early mortality compared to a delayed invasive strategy. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS and performed a meta-analysis of nine RCTs with a total of 5274 patients...
April 11, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511069/ischaemic-preconditioning-current-knowledge-and-potential-future-applications-after-30-years-of-experience
#4
REVIEW
Karolina Stokfisz, Anna Ledakowicz-Polak, Maciej Zagorski, Marzenna Zielinska
Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) phenomenon has been known for thirty years. During that time several studies showed that IPC provided by brief ischaemic and reperfusion episodes prior to longer ischaemia can bestow a protective effect to both preconditioned and also remote organs. IPC affecting remote organs is called remote ischaemic preconditioning. Initially, most IPC studies were focused on enhancing myocardial resistance to subsequent ischaemia and reperfusion injury. However, preconditioning was found to be a universal phenomenon and was observed in various organs and tissues including the heart, liver, brain, retina, kidney, skeletal muscles and intestine...
May 13, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507234/modelling-far-field-pacing-for-terminating-spiral-waves-pinned-to-ischaemic-heterogeneities-in-cardiac-tissue
#5
E Boccia, S Luther, U Parlitz
In cardiac tissue, electrical spiral waves pinned to a heterogeneity can be unpinned (and eventually terminated) using electric far field pulses and recruiting the heterogeneity as a virtual electrode. While for isotropic media the process of unpinning is much better understood, the case of an anisotropic substrate with different conductivities in different directions still needs intensive investigation. To study the impact of anisotropy on the unpinning process, we present numerical simulations based on the bidomain formulation of the phase I of the Luo and Rudy action potential model modified due to the occurrence of acute myocardial ischaemia...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504219/one-year-clinical-results-of-the-italian-diffuse-multivessel-disease-absorb-prospective-registry-it-disappears
#6
Luca Testa, Marco De Carlo, Alessandro Petrolini, Claudio Rapetto, Ferdinando Varbella, Bernardo Cortese, Gabriele Gabrielli, Salvatore Geraci, Bruno Loi, Giacomo Boccuzzi, Giuseppe Tarantini, Daniela Fischetti, Paolo Calabria, Fabrizio Tomai, Flavio Ribichini, Corrado Tamburino, Ciro Indolfi, Antonio L Bartorelli, Anna Sonia Petronio, Francesco Bedogni
AIMS: The present multicentre prospective study, IT-DISAPPEARS, was designed with the aim of evaluating early and long-term clinical outcomes of the Absorb BVS in patients with long coronary lesions and/or multivessel coronary artery disease. The aim of this article is to present the one-year clinical results of this study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between November 2014 and January 2016, we enrolled 1,002 patients undergoing BVS implantation (long lesion [≥ 24 mm] of a single vessel in 80...
May 16, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504218/first-in-human-evaluation-of-a-novel-poly-l-lactide-based-sirolimus-eluting-bioresorbable-vascular-scaffold-for-the-treatment-of-de-novo-native-coronary-artery-lesions-meres-1-trial
#7
Ashok Seth, Yoshinobu Onuma, Ricardo Costa, Praveen Chandra, Vinay K Bahl, Cholenahally N Manjunath, Ajaykumar U Mahajan, Viveka Kumar, Pravin K Goel, Gurpreet S Wander, Mathew S Kalarickal, Upendra Kaul, V K Ajit Kumar, Pratap C Rath, Vijay Trehan, Gunasekaran Sengottuvelu, Sundeep Mishra, Alexandre Abizaid, Patrick W Serruys
AIMS: The MeRes-1 trial sought to study the safety and effectiveness of a novel sirolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (MeRes100 BRS) in treating de novo native coronary artery lesions by clinical evaluation and using multiple imaging modalities. METHODS AND RESULTS: The MeRes-1 first-in-human trial was a single-arm, prospective, multicentre study, which enrolled 108 patients with de novo coronary artery lesions (116 scaffolds were deployed to treat 116 lesions in 108 patients)...
May 16, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503301/is-there-a-role-for-ischaemic-conditioning-in-cardiac-surgery
#8
REVIEW
Luciano Candilio, Derek Hausenloy
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is the revascularisation strategy of choice in patients with diabetes mellitus and complex CAD. Owing to a number of factors, including the ageing population, the increased complexity of CAD being treated, concomitant valve and aortic surgery, and multiple comorbidities, higher-risk patients are being operated on, the result of which is an increased risk of sustaining perioperative myocardial injury (PMI) and poorer clinical outcomes...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502640/a-cohort-study-reveals-myocarditis-to-be-a-rare-and-life-threatening-presentation-of-large-vessel-vasculitis
#9
Katie Bechman, Deepa Gopalan, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, Justin C Mason
BACKGROUND: The predominant forms of adult large vessel vasculitis (LVV) are giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TA). Cardiac involvement in LVV is a cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in TA. Cardiac failure is most commonly secondary to uncontrolled arterial hypertension or myocardial ischaemia. Pulmonary hypertension and aortic valve incompetence following ascending aortic dilatation represent other serious cardiovascular complications. However, cardiac failure as a consequence of myocarditis is rarely reported, principally in single case reports or in autopsy studies...
April 4, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501910/targeting-the-dominant-mechanism-of-coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-with-intracoronary-physiology-tests
#10
REVIEW
Hernán Mejía-Rentería, Nina van der Hoeven, Tim P van de Hoef, Julius Heemelaar, Nicola Ryan, Amir Lerman, Niels van Royen, Javier Escaned
The coronary microcirculation plays a key role in modulating blood supply to the myocardium. Several factors like myocardial oxygen demands, endothelial and neurogenic conditions determine its function. Although there is available evidence supporting microvascular dysfunction as an important cause of myocardial ischaemia, with both prognostic and symptomatic implications, its diagnosis and management in clinical practice is still relegated to a second plane. Both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are hampered by the broadness of the concept of microvascular dysfunction, which fails addressing the plurality of mechanisms leading to dysfunction...
May 13, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497164/metformin-prevents-ischaemic-ventricular-fibrillation-in-metabolically-normal-pigs
#11
Li Lu, Shuyu Ye, Rebecca L Scalzo, Jane E B Reusch, Clifford R Greyson, Gregory G Schwartz
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metformin is the drug most often used to treat type 2 diabetes. Evidence suggests that metformin may reduce mortality of individuals with type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism of such an effect is unknown and outcomes of metformin treatment in people without diabetes have not been determined. If metformin favourably affected mortality of non-diabetic individuals, it might have even broader therapeutic utility. We evaluated the effect of metformin on myocardial energetics and ischaemic ventricular fibrillation (VF) in metabolically normal pigs...
May 11, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494088/peripheral-nerve-blocks-for-hip-fractures
#12
REVIEW
Joanne Guay, Martyn J Parker, Richard Griffiths, Sandra Kopp
BACKGROUND: Various nerve blocks with local anaesthetic agents have been used to reduce pain after hip fracture and subsequent surgery. This review was published originally in 1999 and was updated in 2001, 2002, 2009 and 2017. OBJECTIVES: This review focuses on the use of peripheral nerves blocks as preoperative analgesia, as postoperative analgesia or as a supplement to general anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery. We undertook the update to look for new studies and to update the methods to reflect Cochrane standards...
May 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490545/red-blood-cell-distribution-width-and-myocardial-scar-burden-in-coronary-artery-disease
#13
Caroline Jane Magri, Tan Xiao Tian, Liberato Camilleri, Robert Xuereb, Joseph Galea, Stephen Fava
INTRODUCTION: Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a novel independent marker of cardiovascular disease including heart failure, coronary artery disease and myocardial ischaemia. The aim of the study was to investigate a possible relationship between RDW and myocardial scar burden, as assessed by a MIBI viability scan. A secondary objective was to assess whether there is an association between RDW and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). METHODS: The study comprised 123 subjects with ischaemic heart disease who underwent a myocardial viability scan between June 2008 and July 2014...
May 10, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485179/what-to-do-when-you-question-cardiac-troponin-values
#14
Johannes Mair, Bertil Lindahl, Christian Müller, Evangelos Giannitsis, Kurt Huber, Martin Möckel, Mario Plebani, Kristian Thygesen, Allan S Jaffe
High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays enable cardiac troponin measurement with a high degree of analytical sensitivity and a low level of analytical imprecision at the low measuring range. One of the most important advantages of these new assays is that they allow novel, more rapid approaches for ruling in or ruling out acute myocardial infarctions. The increase in the early diagnostic sensitivity of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays comes at the cost of a reduced acute myocardial infarction specificity of the biomarker, because more patients with other causes of acute or chronic myocardial injury without overt myocardial ischaemia are detected than with previous cardiac troponin assays...
May 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475685/the-effect-of-c-reactive-protein-deposition-on-myocardium-with-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#15
Se Jin Oh, Eun Na Kim, Chong Jai Kim, Jae-Sung Choi, Ki-Bong Kim
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of monomeric C-reactive protein (CRP) deposition on areas at risk (AAR) of myocardium with ischaemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury model was produced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min followed by 45 min of reperfusion using female Sprague-Dawley rats. Tissue from non-ischaemic areas, areas at risk and infarct areas determined by Evans blue and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining was obtained from the sham group, the ischaemia-reperfusion injury without C-reactive protein (CRP) injection group (I/R only group), and the ischaemia-reperfusion injury with CRP injection group (I/R + CRP group)...
May 5, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472483/a-single-chain-antibody-cd39-fusion-protein-targeting-activated-platelets-protects-from-cardiac-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury
#16
Melanie Ziegler, Jan David Hohmann, Amy Kate Searle, Meike-Kristin Abraham, Harshal H Nandurkar, Xiaowei Wang, Karlheinz Peter
Aims: CD39 is a cell membrane NTPase with anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet effects. However, its clinical use is limited by its bleeding side effect. With the goal of harnessing its therapeutic potential while avoiding haemostatic problems, we designed a fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of CD39 and a single-chain antibody (Targ-CD39) that specifically binds to activated glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa and thus to activated platelets. Through this enrichment at activated platelets, the required systemic dose is below the dose impairing haemostasis...
May 2, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470696/complete-versus-culprit-only-revascularisation-in-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-with-multi-vessel-disease
#17
REVIEW
Claudio A Bravo, Sameer A Hirji, Deepak L Bhatt, Rachna Kataria, David P Faxon, E Magnus Ohman, Kevin L Anderson, Akil I Sidi, Michael H Sketch, Stuart W Zarich, Asishana A Osho, Christian Gluud, Henning Kelbæk, Thomas Engstrøm, Dan Eik Høfsten, James M Brennan
BACKGROUND: Multi-vessel coronary disease in people with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is common and is associated with worse prognosis after STEMI. Based on limited evidence, international guidelines recommend intervention on only the culprit vessel during STEMI. This, in turn, leaves other significantly stenosed coronary arteries for medical therapy or revascularisation based on inducible ischaemia on provocative testing. Newer data suggest that intervention on both the culprit and non-culprit stenotic coronary arteries (complete intervention) may yield better results compared with culprit-only intervention...
May 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470327/relationship-between-coronary-tortuosity-and-plateletcrit-coronary-tortuosity-and-plateletcrit
#18
Levent Cerit, Zeynep Cerit
BACKGROUND: Coronary tortuosity (CorT) is a common angiographic finding and may be associated with myocardial ischaemia, even without coronary artery disease. Platelets play a crucial role in inflammatory and thrombotic processes and the physiopathology of cardiovascular disease. Larger platelets are more active enzymatically and have higher thrombotic ability compared to smaller platelets. Plateletcrit (PCT) provides complete information on total platelet mass. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between CorT and PCT in patients with chronic stable angina...
April 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453734/novel-targets-and-future-strategies-for-acute-cardioprotection-position-paper-of-the-european-society-of-cardiology-working-group-on-cellular-biology-of-the-heart
#19
Derek J Hausenloy, David Garcia-Dorado, Hans Erik Bøtker, Sean M Davidson, James Downey, Felix B Engel, Robert Jennings, Sandrine Lecour, Jonathan Leor, Rosalinda Madonna, Michel Ovize, Cinzia Perrino, Fabrice Prunier, Rainer Schulz, Joost P G Sluijter, Linda W Van Laake, Jakob Vinten-Johansen, Derek M Yellon, Kirsti Ytrehus, Gerd Heusch, Péter Ferdinandy
Ischaemic heart disease and the heart failure that often results, remain the leading causes of death and disability in Europe and worldwide. As such, in order to prevent heart failure and improve clinical outcomes in patients presenting with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, novel therapies are required to protect the heart against the detrimental effects of acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). During the last three decades, a wide variety of ischaemic conditioning strategies and pharmacological treatments have been tested in the clinic-however, their translation from experimental to clinical studies for improving patient outcomes has been both challenging and disappointing...
May 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453728/cardiac-mglur1-metabotropic-receptors-in-cardioprotection
#20
Anne Vincent, Catherine Sportouch, Aurélie Covinhes, Christian Barrère, Laura Gallot, Viviana Delgado-Betancourt, Benoît Lattuca, Kamila Solecki, Prisca Boisguérin, Christophe Piot, Joël Nargeot, Stéphanie Barrère-Lemaire
Aims: In a previous study using a genome-wide microarray strategy, we identified metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) as a putative cardioprotective candidate in ischaemic postconditioning (PostC). In the present study, we investigated the role of cardiac mGluR1 receptors during cardioprotection against myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the mouse myocardium. Methods and results: mGluR1 activation by glutamate administered 5 min before reperfusion in C57Bl/6 mice subjected to a myocardial ischaemia protocol strongly decreased both infarct size and DNA fragmentation measured at 24 h reperfusion...
May 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
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