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Resting state network

Kamil Jonak, Paweł Krukow, Katarzyna E Jonak, Cezary Grochowski, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz
The aim of this study was to compare neural network topology of 30 patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES) and 30 multiepisode schizophrenia (mean number of psychotic relapses =4 years, duration of illness >5 years) patients, who were assessed with graph theory methods. This comparison was designed to identify network differences, which might be assigned to the burden of a mental disease. To estimate functional connectivity, we applied the phase lag index algorithm and the minimum spanning tree (MST) for the characterization of network topology...
October 16, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Yanbing Hou, Jing Yang, Chunyan Luo, Ruwei Ou, Yutong Zou, Wei Song, Qiyong Gong, Huifang Shang
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) could be classified into akinetic-rigidity (PDAR ), tremor-dominant (PDTD ) and mixed subtypes. PDAR patients are more prone to develop cognitive deficits. The default mode network (DMN), fronto-parietal network (FPN) and dorsal attention network (DAN) play important roles in cognitive processing. Our aim was to evaluate changes in connectivity patterns of the DMN, and its interrelation with the FPN and DAN in cognitively unimpaired drug-naïve PDAR patients...
October 3, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Scott A Langenecker, Lisanne M Jenkins, Jonathan P Stange, Yi-Shin Chang, Sophie R DelDonno, Katie L Bessette, Alessandra M Passarotti, Runa Bhaumik, Olusola Ajilore, Rachel H Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a prevalent, disruptive illness. A majority of those with MDD are at high risk for recurrence and increased risk for morbidity and mortality. This study examined whether multimodal baseline (and retest) Cognitive Control performance and neuroimaging markers (task activation and neural connectivity between key brain nodes) could differentiate between those with and without future recurrence of a major depressive (MD) episode within one year...
October 4, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Elizabeth R Chrastil, Sean M Tobyne, Rachel K Nauer, Allen E Chang, Chantal E Stern
Interest in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) has surged in recent years, as this region has been implicated in a range of cognitive processes. Previously reported anatomical and functional definitions of the human RSC encompass a larger area than expected from underlying cytoarchitectonic profiles. Here, we used a large-scale, unbiased, and data-driven approach combining functional MRI meta-analysis and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) methods to test the nature of this heterogeneity. The automated toolset Neurosynth was used to conduct meta-analyses in order to (a) identify heterogeneous areas in the retrosplenial region (RS region) associated with one or more cognitive domains, and (b) contrast the activation profiles related to these domains...
October 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Jonathan Dale Ho, Hye Jin Chung, Alexander Ms Barron, Djavila Amari Ho, Debjani Sahni, Jeffrey L Browning, Jag Bhawan
BACKGROUND: CD90 fibroblasts have been described arising from and replacing the homeostatic CD34 network in scleroderma, but have not been specifically examined in other forms of cutaneous fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: To address expression, timelines, and spatial relationships of CD90, CD34, and smooth muscle actin (SMA) expressing fibroblasts in scars and to examine for the presence of a CD34-to-CD90 transition. METHODS: One hundred and seventeen scars (reparative/hypertrophic/keloidal) were evaluated for CD90, CD34, and SMA expression...
September 4, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Hongming Li, Yong Fan
Dynamic functional connectivity analysis provides valuable information for understanding brain functional activity underlying different cognitive processes. Besides sliding window based approaches, a variety of methods have been developed to automatically split the entire functional MRI scan into segments by detecting change points of functional signals to facilitate better characterization of temporally dynamic functional connectivity patterns. However, these methods are based on certain assumptions for the functional signals, such as Gaussian distribution, which are not necessarily suitable for the fMRI data...
September 2018: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
Zhenxiang Zang, Lena S Geiger, Urs Braun, Hengyi Cao, Maria Zangl, Axel Schäfer, Carolin Moessnang, Matthias Ruf, Janine Reis, Janina I Schweiger, Luanna Dixson, Alexander Moscicki, Emanuel Schwarz, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Heike Tost
Graph theoretical functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated that brain networks reorganize significantly during motor skill acquisition, yet the associations between motor learning ability, brain network features, and the underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we applied a visually guided sequential pinch force learning task and graph theoretical analyses to investigate the associations between short-term motor learning ability and resting-state brain network metrics in 60 healthy subjects...
2018: Network neuroscience
Laura Päeske, Maie Bachmann, Toomas Põld, Sara Pereira Mendes de Oliveira, Jaanus Lass, Jaan Raik, Hiie Hinrikus
The aim of the study is to clarify the impact of the strong cyclic signal component on the results of surrogate data method in the case of resting electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. In addition, the impact of segment length is analyzed. Different non-linear measures (fractality, complexity, etc.) of neural signals have been demonstrated to be useful to infer the non-linearity of brain functioning from EEG. The surrogate data method is often applied to test whether or not the non-linear structure can be captured from the data...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lin Zhu, Hao Shu, Duan Liu, Qihao Guo, Zan Wang, Zhijun Zhang
The presence of both apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are considered to be risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Numerous neuroimaging studies have suggested that the modulation of APOE ε4 affects intrinsic functional brain networks, both in healthy populations and in AD patients. However, it remains largely unclear whether and how ε4 allele modulates the brain's functional network architecture in subjects with aMCI. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and graph-theory approaches-functional connectivity strength (FCS), we investigate the topological organization of the whole-brain functional network in 28 aMCI ε4 carriers and 38 aMCI ε3ε3 carriers...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Zhe Tu, Yuan Yuan Jia, Tao Wang, Hang Qu, Jun Xi Pan, Jie Jie, Xiao Yan Xu, Hai Yang Wang, Peng Xie
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is mediated by chronic dysregulation of complex neural circuits, particularly the specific neurotransmitters or other neural substrates. Recently, both increases and decreases in resting-state functional connectivity have been observed in patients with MDD. However, previous research has only assessed the functional connectivity within a specific network or some regions of interests, without considering the modulatory effects of the entire brain regions...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Neha Sinha, Zachariah M Reagh, Nicholas J Tustison, Chelsie N Berg, Ashlee Shaw, Catherine E Myers, Diane Hill, Michael A Yassa, Mark A Gluck
Using high-resolution resting state fMRI, the present study tested the hypothesis that ABCA7 genetic risk differentially affects intra-medial temporal lobe (MTL) functional connectivity between MTL subfields, versus internetwork connectivity of the MTL with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), in non-demented older African Americans. Although the association of ABCA7 risk variants with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been confirmed worldwide, its effect size on the relative odds of being diagnosed with AD is significantly higher in African Americans...
October 14, 2018: Hippocampus
Yoshihiro Noda, Reza Zomorrodi, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger, Motoaki Nakamura
The underlying mechanism of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) effects on cognition has not been fully examined. Previously, we have reported the left hippocampal volume increase and theta-gamma coupling (TGC) enhancement associated with working memory improvement following rTMS in depression. This study was aimed to examine whether there is a structure-function relationship in hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by prefrontal rTMS. Thirty-one patients with major depression underwent longitudinal MRI scans and resting-state EEG recordings with the 10-20 system using averaged ear-lobes reference, following 10 sessions of high-frequency rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
November 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Adriana L Ruiz-Rizzo, Christian Sorg, Natan Napiórkowski, Julia Neitzel, Aurore Menegaux, Hermann J Müller, Signe Vangkilde, Kathrin Finke
The neural factors that account for the visual processing speed reduction in aging are incompletely understood. Based on previous reports of age-related decreases in the intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) within the cingulo-opercular network and its relevance for processing speed, we hypothesized that these decreases are associated with age-related reductions in visual processing speed. We used a whole-report task and modeling based on Bundesen's "theory of visual attention" to parameterize visual processing speed in 91 healthy participants aged from 20 to 77 years...
September 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Shi Tang, Lu Lu, Lianqing Zhang, Xinyu Hu, Xuan Bu, Hailong Li, Xiaoxiao Hu, Yingxue Gao, Zirui Zeng, Qiyong Gong, Xiaoqi Huang
BACKGROUND: Although dysfunction of amygdala-related circuits is centrally implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD), little is known about how this dysfunction differs between adult and adolescent MDD patients. METHODS: Voxel-wise meta-analyses of abnormal amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) were conducted in adult and adolescent groups separately, followed by a quantitative meta-analytic comparison of the two groups. FINDINGS: Nineteen studies that included 665 MDD patients (392 adults and 273 adolescents) and 546 controls (341 adults and 205 adolescents) were identified in the current study...
October 10, 2018: EBioMedicine
Xuyun Wen, Han Zhang, Gang Li, Mingxia Liu, Weiyan Yin, Weili Lin, Jun Zhang, Dinggang Shen
The human brain develops rapidly in the first postnatal year, in which rewired functional brain networks could shape later behavioral and cognitive performance. Resting-state functional magnetic resonances imaging (rs-fMRI) and complex network analysis have been widely used for characterizing the developmental brain functional connectome. Yet, such studies focusing on the first year of postnatal life are still very limited. Leveraging normally developing longitudinal infant rs-fMRI scans from neonate to one year of age, we investigated how brain functional networks develop at a fine temporal scale (every 3 months)...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Han Zhang, Chong-Yaw Wee, Joann S Poh, Qiang Wang, Lynette P Shek, Yap-Seng Chong, Marielle V Fortier, Michael J Meaney, Birit F P Broekman, Anqi Qiu
Early numeracy provides the foundation of acquiring mathematical skills that is essential for future academic success. This study examined numerical functional networks in relation to counting and number relational skills in preschoolers at 4 and 6 years of age. The counting and number relational skills were assessed using school readiness test (SRT). Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) was acquired in 123 4-year-olds and 146 6-year-olds. Among them, 61 were scanned twice over the course of 2 years. Meta-analysis on existing task-based numeracy fMRI studies identified the left parietal-dominant network for both counting and number relational skills and the right parietal-dominant network only for number relational skills in adults...
October 12, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Laura E Engelhardt, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Jessica A Church
Executive functions (EFs) are regulatory cognitive processes that support goal-directed thoughts and behaviors and that involve two primary networks of functional brain activity in adulthood: the fronto-parietal and cingulo-opercular networks. The current study assessed whether the same networks identified in adulthood underlie child EFs. Using task-based fMRI data from a diverse sample of N = 117 children and early adolescents (M age = 10.17 years), we assessed the extent to which neural activity was shared across switching, updating, and inhibition domains, and whether these patterns were qualitatively consistent with adult EF-related activity...
October 9, 2018: NeuroImage
D Kumral, H L Schaare, F Beyer, J Reinelt, M Uhlig, F Liem, L Lampe, A Babayan, A Reiter, M Erbey, J Roebbig, M Loeffler, M L Schroeter, D Husser, A V Witte, A Villringer, M Gaebler
Resting heart rate variability (HRV), an index of parasympathetic cardioregulation and an individual trait marker related to mental and physical health, decreases with age. Previous studies have associated resting HRV with structural and functional properties of the brain - mainly in cortical midline and limbic structures. We hypothesized that aging affects the relationship between resting HRV and brain structure and function. In 388 healthy subjects of three age groups (140 younger: 26.0 ± 4.2 years, 119 middle-aged: 46...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Olimpia Musumeci, Silvia Marino, Francesca Granata, Rosa Morabito, Lilla Bonanno, Teresa Brizzi, Viviana Lo Buono, Francesco Corallo, Marcello Longo, Antonio Toscano
BACKGROUND: Late Onset Pompe Disease (LOPD) is a rare, multisystem disorder, that is well established to mainly impair skeletal muscle function. Systematic studies exploring brain functions in LOPD are lacking. Aim of this study is to detect morphological and functional brain alterations as well as neuropsychological impairment in LOPD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 21 patients (10M, 11F, mean-age 49±18,4years), with defined diagnosis of LOPD, divided in two groups: one with presymptomatic hyperCKemia with no muscle weakness and the second with Limb-Girdle Muscle Weakness (LGMW group)...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Nele De Bruyn, Sarah Meyer, Simon S Kessner, Bea Essers, Bastian Cheng, Götz Thomalla, Andre Peeters, Stefan Sunaert, Thierry Duprez, Vincent Thijs, Hilde Feys, Kaat Alaerts, Geert Verheyden
BACKGROUND: Aberrant functional connectivity in brain networks associated with motor impairment after stroke is well described, but little is known about the association with somatosensory impairments. AIM: The objective of this cross-sectional observational study was to investigate the relationship between brain functional connectivity and severity of somatosensory impairments in the upper limb in the acute phase post stroke. METHODS: Nineteen first-ever stroke patients underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and a standardized clinical somatosensory profile assessment (exteroception and higher cortical somatosensation) in the first week post stroke...
2018: PloS One
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