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Glutamate Transporters and Brain Injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105933/the-etiological-changes-of-acetylation-in-peripheral-nerve-injury-induced-neuropathic-hypersensitivity
#1
Xian Wang, Xiaofeng Shen, Yingli Xu, Shiqin Xu, Fan Xia, Bei Zhu, Yusheng Liu, Wei Wang, Haibo Wu, Fuzhou Wang
Neuropathic pain is a common chronic pain condition with mechanisms far clearly been elucidated. Mounting preclinical and clinical studies have shown neuropathic pain is highly associated with histone acetylation modification, which follows expression regulation of various pain-related molecules such as mGluR1/5, glutamate aspartate transporter, glutamate transporter-1, GAD65, Nav1.8, Kv4.3, μ-opioid receptor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and certain chemokines. As two types of pivotal enzymes involved in histone acetylation, histone deacetylases (HDACs) induce histone deacetylation to silence gene expression; in contrast, histone acetyl transferases (HATs) facilitate histone acetylation to potentiate gene transcription...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093535/akap1-protects-from-cerebral-ischemic-stroke-by-inhibiting-drp1-dependent-mitochondrial-fission
#2
Kyle H Flippo, Aswini Gnanasekaran, Guy A Perkins, Ajmal Ahmad, Ronald A Merrill, Audrey S Dickey, Susan S Taylor, G S McKnight, Anil K Chauhan, Yuriy M Usachev, Stefan Strack
Mitochondrial fission and fusion impact numerous cellular functions and neurons are particularly sensitive to perturbations in mitochondrial dynamics. Here we describe that male mice lacking the mitochondrial A-kinase anchoring protein 1 (AKAP1) exhibit increased sensitivity in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model of focal ischemia. At the ultrastructural level, AKAP1-/- mice have smaller mitochondria and increased contacts between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum in the brain. Mechanistically, deletion of AKAP1 dysregulates complex II of the electron transport chain, increases superoxide production and impairs Ca2+ homeostasis in neurons subjected to excitotoxic glutamate...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30028091/impaired-neural-stem-cell-expansion-and-hypersensitivity-to-epileptic-seizures-in-mice-lacking-the-egfr-in-the-brain
#3
Jonathan P Robson, Bettina Wagner, Elisabeth Glitzner, Frank L Heppner, Thomas Steinkellner, Deeba Khan, Claudia Petritsch, Daniela D Pollak, Harald H Sitte, Maria Sibilia
Mice lacking the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) develop an early postnatal degeneration of the frontal cortex and olfactory bulbs and show increased cortical astrocyte apoptosis. The poor health and early lethality of EGFR-/- mice prevented the analysis of mechanisms responsible for the neurodegeneration and function of the EGFR in the adult brain. Here, we show that postnatal EGFR-deficient neural stem cells are impaired in their self-renewal potential and lack clonal expansion capacity in vitro. Mice lacking the EGFR in the brain (EGFRΔbrain ) show low penetrance of cortical degeneration compared to EGFR-/- mice despite genetic recombination of the conditional allele...
July 20, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29999457/variability-with-astroglial-glutamate-transport-genetics-is-associated-with-increased-risk-for-post-traumatic-seizures
#4
Raj Gopalan Kumar, Kristen B Breslin, Anne Ritter, Yvette P Conley, Amy K Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Excitotoxicity contributes to epileptogenesis following severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). Demographic and clinical risk factors for post-traumatic seizures (PTS) have been identified, but genetic risk remains largely unknown. Thus, we investigated if genetic variation in astroglial glutamate transporter genes is associated with accelerated epileptogenesis and PTS risk after sTBI. METHODS: Adults (n=267) 18-75 years old were assessed over a 3-year period post-TBI...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977228/circadian-regulation-of-glutamate-transporters
#5
REVIEW
Donají Chi-Castañeda, Arturo Ortega
L-glutamate is the major excitatory amino acid in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). This neurotransmitter is essential for higher brain functions such as learning, cognition and memory. A tight regulation of extra-synaptic glutamate levels is needed to prevent a neurotoxic insult. Glutamate removal from the synaptic cleft is carried out by a family of sodium-dependent high-affinity transporters, collectively known as excitatory amino acid transporters. Dysfunction of glutamate transporters is generally involved in acute neuronal injury and neurodegenerative diseases, so characterizing and understanding the mechanisms that lead to the development of these disorders is an important goal in the design of novel treatments for the neurodegenerative diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955038/glutamate-as-a-potential-survival-factor-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-neuronal-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-leading-role-of-the-na-ca-2-exchanger
#6
Silvia Piccirillo, Pasqualina Castaldo, Maria Loredana Macrì, Salvatore Amoroso, Simona Magi
In brain ischemia, reduction in oxygen and substrates affects mitochondrial respiratory chain and aerobic metabolism, culminating in ATP production impairment, ionic imbalance, and cell death. The restoration of blood flow and reoxygenation are frequently associated with exacerbation of tissue injury, giving rise to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this setting, the imbalance of brain bioenergetics induces important metabolic adaptations, including utilization of alternative energy sources, such as glutamate...
June 28, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913949/long-term-pain-neuroinflammation-and-glial-activation
#7
Elisabeth Hansson
Nociceptive and neuropathic pain signals are known to result from noxious stimuli, which are converted into electrical impulses within tissue nociceptors. There is a complex equilibrium of pain-signalling and pain-relieving pathways connecting PNS and CNS. Drugs against long-term pain are today directed against increased neuronal excitability, mostly with less success. An injury often starts with acute physiological pain, which becomes inflammatory, nociceptive, or neuropathic, and may be transferred into long-term pain...
April 1, 2010: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779216/glutamate-metabolism-in-cerebral-mitochondria-after-ischemia-and-post-ischemic-recovery-during-aging-relationships-with-brain-energy-metabolism
#8
Federica Ferrari, Antonella Gorini, Siegfried Hoyer, Roberto Federico Villa
Glutamate is involved in cerebral ischemic injury, but its role has not been completely clarified and studies are required to understand how to minimize its detrimental effects, contemporarily boosting the positive ones. In fact, glutamate is not only a neurotransmitter, but primarily a key metabolite for brain bioenergetics. Thus, we investigated the relationships between glutamate and brain energy metabolism in an in vivo model of complete cerebral ischemia of 15 min and during post-ischemic recovery after 1, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h in 1-year-old adult and 2-year-old aged rats...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722912/region-specific-deletions-of-the-glutamate-transporter-glt1-differentially-affect-nerve-injury-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-mice
#9
Zhuoyang Zhao, Yuichi Hiraoka, Hiroshi Ogawa, Kohichi Tanaka
Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter and plays an important role in neuropathic pain, which is frequently caused by nerve damage. According to recent studies, nerve injury induces changes in glutamatergic transmission in the spinal cord and several supraspinal regions, including the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Among glutamate signaling components, accumulating evidence suggests that the glial glutamate transporter GLT1 plays a critical role in neuropathic pain. Indeed, GLT1 expression is reduced in the spinal cord but increased in the PAG after nerve injury, suggesting that the role of GLT1 in neuropathic pain may vary according to the brain region...
May 3, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713996/the-effects-of-exposure-to-mephedrone-during-adolescence-on-brain-neurotransmission-and-neurotoxicity-in-adult-rats
#10
Katarzyna Kamińska, Karolina Noworyta-Sokołowska, Anna Górska, Joanna Rzemieniec, Agnieszka Wnuk, Adam Wojtas, Grzegorz Kreiner, Małgorzata Kajta, Krystyna Gołembiowska
According to the European Drug Report (2016), the use of synthetic cathinones, such as mephedrone, among young people has rapidly increased in the last years. Studies in humans indicate that psychostimulant drug use in adolescence increases risk of drug abuse in adulthood. Mephedrone by its interaction with transporters for dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT) stimulates their release to the synaptic cleft. In animal studies, high repeated doses of mephedrone given to adolescent but not adult mice or rats induced toxic changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons...
April 30, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710550/cerebral-ischemia-induced-inflammatory-response-and-altered-glutaminergic-function-mediated-through-brain-at-1-and-not-at-2-receptor
#11
A Justin, S Divakar, M Ramanathan
In the present study, we investigated the effects of angiotensin (Ang II) receptor blockers in cerebral ischemia by administration of telmisartan (AT1 blocker) and/or PD123319 (AT2 blocker) in global ischemic mice model. The neuroprotective effect of AT antagonists was evaluated through monitoring muscle co-ordination and cerebral blood perfusion in ischemic mice. Gene expression studies (NF-κB, GSK-3β, EAAT-2, AT1 & AT2 receptors) and staining of brain regions with cresyl violet, GFAP, synaptophysin and NSE methods were carried out in to understand the molecular mechanisms...
June 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577884/regional-specific-effects-of-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-and-dehydroepiandrosterone-on-synaptic-nmdar-psd-95-complex-in-male-wistar-rats
#12
Marina Zaric, Dunja Drakulic, Ivana Gusevac Stojanovic, Natasa Mitrovic, Ivana Grkovic, Jelena Martinovic
Excessive glutamate efflux and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) over-activation represent well-known hallmarks of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, still, expression of proteins involved in this aspect of I/R pathophysiology show inconsistent data. Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been proposed as potent NMDAR modulator, but its influence on I/R-induced changes up to date remains questionable. Therefore, I/R-governed alteration of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1), synaptic NMDAR subunit composition, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) and neuronal morphology alone or following DHEA treatment were examined...
June 1, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574129/activity-dependent-internalization-of-the-glutamate-transporter-glt-1-requires-calcium-entry-through-the-ncx-sodium-calcium-exchanger
#13
Ignacio Ibáñez, David Bartolomé-Martín, Dolores Piniella, Cecilio Giménez, Francisco Zafra
GLT-1 is the main glutamate transporter in the brain and its trafficking controls its availability at the cell surface, thereby shaping glutamatergic neurotransmission under physiological and pathological conditions. Extracellular glutamate is known to trigger ubiquitin-dependent GLT-1 internalization from the surface of the cell to the intracellular compartment, yet here we show that internalization also requires the participation of calcium ions. Consistent with previous studies, the addition of glutamate (1 mM) to mixed primary cultures (containing neurons and astrocytes) promotes GLT-1 internalization, an effect that was suppressed in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ ...
March 21, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532970/neonatal-hyperglycemia-alters-the-neurochemical-profile-dendritic-arborization-and-gene-expression-in-the-developing-rat-hippocampus
#14
Raghavendra Rao, Motaz Nashawaty, Saher Fatima, Kathleen Ennis, Ivan Tkac
Hyperglycemia (blood glucose concentration >150 mg/dL) is common in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs; birth at <28 week gestation). Hyperglycemia increases the risk of brain injury in the neonatal period. The long-term effects are not well understood. In adult rats, hyperglycemia alters hippocampal energy metabolism. The effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus were studied in rat pups. In Experiment 1, recurrent hyperglycemia of graded severity (moderate hyperglycemia (moderate-HG), mean blood glucose 214...
May 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530755/glial-glutamate-transporters-expression-glutamate-uptake-and-oxidative-stress-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#15
J D Neves, A F Vizuete, F Nicola, C Da Ré, A F Rodrigues, F Schmitz, R G Mestriner, D Aristimunha, A T S Wyse, C A Netto
Glial glutamate transporters (EAAT1 and EAAT2), glutamate uptake, and oxidative stress are important players in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain injury. However, the changes in EAAT1 and EAAT2 expression, glutamate uptake and the oxidative profile during intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) development have not been described. The present study sought to investigate the changes of the above-mentioned variables, as well as the Na+ /K+ -ATPase and glutamine synthetase activities (as important contributors of glutamate homeostasis) and the percentage of neuronal cells after 6 h, 24 h, 72 h and 7 days of ICH...
June 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526759/adenosine-a-2a-receptor-inhibition-restores-the-normal-transport-of-endothelial-glutamate-transporters-in-the-brain
#16
Wei Bai, Ping Li, Ya-Lei Ning, Yan Peng, Ren-Ping Xiong, Nan Yang, Xing Chen, Yuan-Guo Zhou
Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) on cerebral vascular endothelial cells play an important role in maintaining glutamate homeostasis in the brain. The dysfunction of endothelial EAATs is an important reason for the dramatically elevated brain glutamate levels after brain injury, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). The adenosine A2A receptor (A2A R) plays an important role in regulating the brain glutamate level after brain injury; however, researchers have not clearly determined whether this role was related to its ability to regulate endothelial EAATs...
April 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466910/the-role-of-ventral-tegmental-area-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-in-chronic-neuropathic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#17
Moon Yi Ko, Eun Young Jang, June Yeon Lee, Soo Phil Kim, Sung Hun Whang, Bong Hyo Lee, Hee Young Kim, Chae Ha Yang, Hee Jung Cho, Young S Gwak
Spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently results in chronic neuropathic pain (CNP). However, the understanding of brain neural circuits in CNP modulation is unclear. The present study examined the changes of ventral tegmental area (VTA) putative GABAergic and dopaminergic neuronal activity with CNP attenuation in rats. SCI was established by T10 clip compression injury (35 g, 1 min) in rats, and neuropathic pain behaviors, in vivo extracellular single-cell recording of putative VTA gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/dopamine neurons, extracellular GABA level, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and vesicular GABA transporters (VGATs) were measured in the VTA, respectively...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171427/baicalin-protects-neonatal-rat-brains-against-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-by-upregulating-glutamate-transporter-1-via-the-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-protein-kinase-b-signaling-pathway
#18
Zhi-Qing Zhou, Yong-Liang Li, Zhen-Bo Ao, Zhi-Li Wen, Qi-Wen Chen, Zheng-Gang Huang, Bing Xiao, Xiao-Hua Yan
Baicalin is a flavonoid compound extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis root. Recent evidence indicates that baicalin is neuroprotective in models of ischemic stroke. Here, we investigate the neuroprotective effect of baicalin in a neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Seven-day-old pups underwent left common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia (8% oxygen at 37°C) for 2 hours, before being injected with baicalin (120 mg/kg intraperitoneally) and examined 24 hours later. Baicalin effectively reduced cerebral infarct volume and neuronal loss, inhibited apoptosis, and upregulated the expression of p-Akt and glutamate transporter 1...
October 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135354/depression-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice-is-associated-with-down-regulation-of-hippocampal-astrocyte-glutamate-transporters-by-thrombin
#19
Chun-Shu Piao, Ashley L Holloway, Sue Hong-Routson, Mark S Wainwright
Depression after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common but the mechanisms by which TBI causes depression are unknown. TBI decreases glutamate transporters GLT-1 and GLAST and allows extravasation of thrombin. We examined the effects of thrombin on transporter expression in primary hippocampal astrocytes. Application of a PAR-1 agonist caused down-regulation of GLT-1, which was prevented by inhibition of Rho kinase (ROCK). To confirm these mechanisms in vivo, we subjected mice to closed-skull TBI. Thrombin activity in the hippocampus increased one day following TBI...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054733/disrupted-ionic-homeostasis-in-ischemic-stroke-and-new-therapeutic-targets
#20
REVIEW
Hui-Jie Hu, Mingke Song
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability. All neuroprotectants targeting excitotoxicity have failed to become stroke medications. In order to explore and identify new therapeutic targets for stroke, we here reviewed present studies of ionic transporters and channels that are involved in ischemic brain damage. METHOD: We surveyed recent literature from animal experiments and clinical reports in the databases of PubMed and Elsevier ScienceDirect to analyze ionic mechanisms underlying ischemic cell damage and suggest promising ideas for stroke therapy...
December 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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