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HIV AIDS Neurology

Davide De Francesco, Sebastiaan O Verboeket, Jonathan Underwood, Emmanouil Bagkeris, Ferdinand W Wit, Patrick W G Mallon, Alan Winston, Peter Reiss, Caroline A Sabin
Background: The aims of this study were to identify common patterns of comorbidities observed in people living with HIV (PLWH), using a data-driven approach, and evaluate associations between patterns identified. Methods: A wide range of comorbidities were assessed in PLWH participating in 2 independent cohorts (POPPY: UK/Ireland; AGEh IV: Netherlands). The presence/absence of each comorbidity was determined using a mix of self-reported medical history, concomitant medications, health care resource use, and laboratory parameters...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Elena Chiappini, Martina Bianconi, Annalisa Dalzini, Maria Raffaella Petrara, Luisa Galli, Carlo Giaquinto, Anita De Rossi
BACKGROUND: Premature aging and related diseases have been documented in HIV-infected adults. Data are now emerging also regarding accelerated aging process in HIV-infected children. METHODS: A narrative review was performed searching studies on PubMed published in English language in 2004-2017, using appropriate key words, including "aging", "children", "HIV", "AIDS", "immunosenescence", "pathogenesis", "clinical conditions"...
November 11, 2018: Aging
Abbas Ali, Abhishek Kalla
Burkitt lymphoma is a late complication of HIV, and bilateral cranial nerve palsies are extremely rare in patients with AIDS. A twenty year old Caucasian male with known congenital HIV who had been non-adherent with anti-retroviral therapy presented with multiple cranial nerve palsies and was eventually diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma. Before chemotherapy, he was started on radiation therapy to the brain, meninges, and base of skull with the intent of improving cranial nerve palsies and preventing further neurological sequelae since the cranial nerve palsies were dense and there was concern that intrathecal chemotherapy would have less penetration than radiation...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Rachel R Atherton, Jayne Ellis, Fiona V Cresswell, Joshua Rhein, David R Boulware
Cryptococcal meningitis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected persons, accounting for 15% of AIDS-related deaths. Visual disturbance is commonly reported, and a wide range of ophthalmic signs may be present on examination. There is limited published literature to date describing the range and incidence of ophthalmic signs in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Nested within the Adjunctive Sertraline for the Treatment of HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis (ASTRO-CM) trial (ClinicalTrials...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Asher J Albertson, Alexander R Dietz, John R Younce, Arun S Varadhachary
Here we report the challenging case of a 41-year-old man with HIV complicated by AIDS and a history of prior neurologic injury from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy who presented with headache, fevers, lower extremity weakness, hyperreflexic upper extremities, and diminished lower extremity reflexes. We review the clinical decision-making and differential diagnosis for this presentation as the physical examination evolved and diagnostic testing changed over time.
October 2018: Neurohospitalist
Ángel H Álvarez, Moisés Martínez Velázquez, Ernesto Prado Montes de Oca
Human β-defensin 1 (hBD-1) is a multifaceted antimicrobial peptide being a tumour suppressor and, depending on call of duty, capable of inducing self-nets and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to capture and/or kill bacteria, participates in inflammatory responses in chronic diseases including hBD-3 upregulation and also capable of up/downregulation in the presence of certain species of Lactobacillus sp. Thus, is regulated by host microbiota. Alleles, genotypes and/or altered gene expression of its coding gene, DEFB1, have been associated with several human diseases/conditions ranging from metabolic/chronic (e...
November 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Kevin R Robertson, Hongyu Jiang, Johnstone Kumwenda, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo, Christina M Marra, Baiba Berzins, James Hakim, Ned Sacktor, Thomas B Campbell, Jeff Schouten, Katie Mollan, Srikanth Tripathy, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Alberto La Rosa, Breno Santos, Marcus T Silva, Cecilia Kanyama, Cindy Firhnhaber, Robert Murphy, Colin Hall, Cheryl Marcus, Linda Naini, Reena Masih, Mina C Hosseinipour, Rosie Mngqibisa, Sharlaa Badal-Faesen, Sarah Yosief, Alyssa Vecchio, Apsara Nair
Background: Neurocognitive impairment remains a common complication of HIV despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). We previously reported improved neurocognitive functioning with ART initiation in seven resource limited settings (RLS) countries for HIV+ participants from AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 5199 (International Neurological Study (INS)). Here we apply normative data from the International Neurocognitive Normative Study (INNS) to INS, to provide previously unknown rates of neurocognitive impairment...
September 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Haijun Han, Zhongli Yang, Sulie L Chang, Ming D Li
Nicotine, one of the key active ingredients in tobacco smoke, exerts its effects via binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Although both negative and positive pharmacological effects of nicotine have been shown in numerous animals and human studies, its interaction with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have not been fully elucidated. Even though combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) limits the progression of HIV-1 to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent...
December 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Mihaja Raberahona, Tiana Razafinambinintsoa, Volatiana Andriananja, Njaratiana Ravololomanana, Juliana Tongavelona, Rado Rakotomalala, Johary Andriamamonjisoa, Radonirina Lazasoa Andrianasolo, Rivonirina Andry Rakotoarivelo, Mamy Jean de Dieu Randria
BACKGROUND: During the last few years, significant efforts have been made to improve access to antiretroviral therapy which led to dramatic reduction in AIDS-related events and mortality in HIV positive patients at the global level. However, current data in Africa suggested modest impact of widespread antiretroviral therapy scale-up especially regarding HIV-related hospitalization. In this study, we aimed to describe causes of hospitalization and factors associated with AIDS-defining events and inpatient mortality...
2018: PloS One
Mvr Ratnam, Abhishek Singh Nayyar, D Santhosh Reddy, B Ruparani, K V Chalapathi, Sania Md Azmi
Context: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an acronym for AIDS caused by a retrovirus known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which breaks down the body's immune system leaving a patient vulnerable to a host of life-threatening opportunistic infections, neurological disorders or unusual malignancies. According to estimates by the World Health Organization and UNAIDS, 35 million people were living with HIV globally at the end of 2013. The first AIDS case in India was detected in 1986...
May 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
K Robertson, B Oladeji, H Jiang, J Kumwenda, K Supparatpinyo, T Campbell, J Hakim, S Tripathy, M Hosseinipour, C M Marra, N Kumarasamy, S Evans, A Vecchio, A La Rosa, B Santos, M T Silva, S Montano, C Kanyama, C Firnhaber, R Price, C Marcus, B Berzins, R Masih, U Lalloo, I Sanne, S Yosief, A Walawander, A Nair, N Sacktor, C Hall
Background: AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) 5199 compared neurological and neuropsychological (NP) test performance of HIV-1+ participants in resource-limited settings (RLS) treated with three WHO recommended antiretroviral (ART) regimens. We investigated the impact of tuberculosis (TB) on neurological and neuropsychological outcomes. Methods: Standardized neurological and brief NP examinations were administered to participants every 24 weeks. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models assessed the association between TB with neurological and NP performance...
August 20, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Elena Bruzzesi, Irini Sereti
The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the 1990s has dramatically changed the course of HIV infection, decreasing the risk for both AIDS- and non-AIDS-related events. Cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), liver and kidney disease, neurological disorders and frailty have become of great importance lately in the clinical management as they represent the principal cause of death in people living with HIV who receive cART (Kirk et al. in Clin Infect Dis 45(1):103-10, 2007; Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Study et al...
August 14, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
R B Bassey, S N Chapman, M Pessu, A Jayam-Trouth, M C Gondré-Lewis
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a serious immunological disease with new infections in the U.S. disproportionately reported in minority populations. For many years, the District of Columbia (DC) has reported the highest HIV infection rate in the nation. Drug abuse and addiction is also prevalent in DC and has traditionally been linked to HIV/AIDS because of the likelihood for opportunistic infections. Despite this data, the relationship between HIV status, drugs of abuse, and the incidence of neurological disorders are scarcely reported for minority populations...
2018: Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience
Payal B Patel, Serena S Spudich
With the advent of combination antiretroviral therapies, the mortality rate from HIV has declined, while the prevalence of long-term HIV-related neurologic complications continues to rise. Thirty-six million individuals are living with HIV around the world, many of whom reside in resource-limited settings. The majority of studies have focused on individuals residing in the developed world, while the impact of HIV disproportionately affects people living in developing countries. This review focuses on recent domestic and international studies regarding neurologic complications related to HIV, including opportunistic infections, peripheral neuropathy, cerebrovascular disease, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, in light of the growing population affected by these conditions...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Swatantra Kumar, Vimal K Maurya, Himanshu R Dandu, Madan Lb Bhatt, Shailendra K Saxena
Among Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals, around two-thirds of patients present with neuroAIDS, where HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) are the most prevailing neurological complications. The neuropathology of neuroAIDS can be characterized by the presence of HIV infected macrophages and microglia in the brain, with the formation of multinucleated giant cells. Global predominant subtypes of HIV-1 clade B and C infections influence the differential effect of immune and neuronal dysfunctions, leading to clade-specific clinical variation in neuroAIDS patient cohorts...
May 8, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
Jullye Campos Mendes, Palmira de Fátima Bonolo, Maria das Graças Braga Ceccato, Juliana de Oliveira Costa, Adriano Max Moreira Reis, Henrique Dos Santos, Micheline Rosa Silveira
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and associated factors during the use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in patients initiating treatment. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective study conducted in three public referral services specialized in HIV/AIDS care in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Self-reported ADR and explanatory variables were obtained from face-to-face interview and from Information Systems...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Fasihah Irfani Fitri, Aldy Safruddin Rambe, Aida Fitri
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an epidemic worldwide, despite the marked benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) in reducing severe HIV-associated dementia. A milder form of neurocognitive disorders are still prevalent and remain a challenge. AIM: This study aimed to determine the correlation between plasma cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) lymphocyte, duration of ARV treatment, opportunistic infections, and cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Craig Miller, Zaid Abdo, Aaron Ericsson, John Elder, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally-occurring retrovirus that infects domestic and non-domestic feline species, producing progressive immune depletion that results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much has been learned about FIV since it was first described in 1987, particularly in regard to its application as a model to study the closely related lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In particular, FIV and HIV share remarkable structure and sequence organization, utilize parallel modes of receptor-mediated entry, and result in a similar spectrum of immunodeficiency-related diseases due to analogous modes of immune dysfunction...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
Laura Benjamin, Saye Khoo
The landscape of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is changing with the increasing coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients are living longer but continually exposed to a virologically suppressed HIV infection. This has resulted in a decrease in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related complications such as opportunistic infections, and an increase in non-AIDS complications such as stroke. In this era, stroke is perhaps the most important neurologic complication of HIV infection...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Dieta Brandsma, Jacoline E C Bromberg
Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) has been designated an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining disease since 1983 and accounts for up to 15% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. The majority of HIV patients are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related. The most likely etiology is ineffective immunoregulation of EBV, inducing oncogenic protein expression, and subsequent loss of apoptosis and increased proliferation of lymphocytes. PCNSL generally presents with supratentorial, single or multiple, contrast-enhancing lesions...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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