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HIV AIDS Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105422/residual-immune-activation-and-latency
#1
Elena Bruzzesi, Irini Sereti
The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the 1990s has dramatically changed the course of HIV infection, decreasing the risk for both AIDS- and non-AIDS-related events. Cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), liver and kidney disease, neurological disorders and frailty have become of great importance lately in the clinical management as they represent the principal cause of death in people living with HIV who receive cART (Kirk et al. in Clin Infect Dis 45(1):103-10, 2007; Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Study et al...
August 14, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079290/is-the-history-of-substance-abuse-correlated-with-neuropsychiatric-disorders-and-co-morbid-hiv-infection-an-urban-population-study
#2
R B Bassey, S N Chapman, M Pessu, A Jayam-Trouth, M C Gondré-Lewis
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a serious immunological disease with new infections in the U.S. disproportionately reported in minority populations. For many years, the District of Columbia (DC) has reported the highest HIV infection rate in the nation. Drug abuse and addiction is also prevalent in DC and has traditionally been linked to HIV/AIDS because of the likelihood for opportunistic infections. Despite this data, the relationship between HIV status, drugs of abuse, and the incidence of neurological disorders are scarcely reported for minority populations...
2018: Journal of neurology and neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791950/global-health-neurology-hiv-aids
#3
Payal B Patel, Serena S Spudich
With the advent of combination antiretroviral therapies, the mortality rate from HIV has declined, while the prevalence of long-term HIV-related neurologic complications continues to rise. Thirty-six million individuals are living with HIV around the world, many of whom reside in resource-limited settings. The majority of studies have focused on individuals residing in the developed world, while the impact of HIV disproportionately affects people living in developing countries. This review focuses on recent domestic and international studies regarding neurologic complications related to HIV, including opportunistic infections, peripheral neuropathy, cerebrovascular disease, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, in light of the growing population affected by these conditions...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742062/global-perspective-of-novel-therapeutic-strategies-for-the-management-of-neuroaids
#4
Swatantra Kumar, Vimal K Maurya, Himanshu R Dandu, Madan Lb Bhatt, Shailendra K Saxena
Among Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals, around two-thirds of patients present with neuroAIDS, where HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) are the most prevailing neurological complications. The neuropathology of neuroAIDS can be characterized by the presence of HIV infected macrophages and microglia in the brain, with the formation of multinucleated giant cells. Global predominant subtypes of HIV-1 clade B and C infections influence the differential effect of immune and neuronal dysfunctions, leading to clade-specific clinical variation in neuroAIDS patient cohorts...
May 8, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740676/adverse-reactions-associated-with-first-line-regimens-in-patient-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy
#5
Jullye Campos Mendes, Palmira de Fátima Bonolo, Maria das Graças Braga Ceccato, Juliana de Oliveira Costa, Adriano Max Moreira Reis, Henrique Dos Santos, Micheline Rosa Silveira
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and associated factors during the use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in patients initiating treatment. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective study conducted in three public referral services specialized in HIV/AIDS care in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Self-reported ADR and explanatory variables were obtained from face-to-face interview and from Information Systems...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731931/correlation-between-lymphocyte-cd4-count-treatment-duration-opportunistic-infection-and-cognitive-function-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-hiv-aids-patients
#6
Fasihah Irfani Fitri, Aldy Safruddin Rambe, Aida Fitri
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an epidemic worldwide, despite the marked benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) in reducing severe HIV-associated dementia. A milder form of neurocognitive disorders are still prevalent and remain a challenge. AIM: This study aimed to determine the correlation between plasma cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) lymphocyte, duration of ARV treatment, opportunistic infections, and cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677122/applications-of-the-fiv-model-to-study-hiv-pathogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Craig Miller, Zaid Abdo, Aaron Ericsson, John Elder, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally-occurring retrovirus that infects domestic and non-domestic feline species, producing progressive immune depletion that results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much has been learned about FIV since it was first described in 1987, particularly in regard to its application as a model to study the closely related lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In particular, FIV and HIV share remarkable structure and sequence organization, utilize parallel modes of receptor-mediated entry, and result in a similar spectrum of immunodeficiency-related diseases due to analogous modes of immune dysfunction...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604976/hiv-infection-and-stroke
#8
Laura Benjamin, Saye Khoo
The landscape of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is changing with the increasing coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients are living longer but continually exposed to a virologically suppressed HIV infection. This has resulted in a decrease in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related complications such as opportunistic infections, and an increase in non-AIDS complications such as stroke. In this era, stroke is perhaps the most important neurologic complication of HIV infection...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604975/primary-cns-lymphoma-in-hiv-infection
#9
Dieta Brandsma, Jacoline E C Bromberg
Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) has been designated an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining disease since 1983 and accounts for up to 15% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. The majority of HIV patients are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related. The most likely etiology is ineffective immunoregulation of EBV, inducing oncogenic protein expression, and subsequent loss of apoptosis and increased proliferation of lymphocytes. PCNSL generally presents with supratentorial, single or multiple, contrast-enhancing lesions...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563297/central-nervous-system-inflammation-and-infection-during-early-nonaccelerated-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-rhesus-macaques
#10
Denise C Hsu, Piyanate Sunyakumthorn, Matthew Wegner, Alexandra Schuetz, Decha Silsorn, Jacob D Estes, Claire Deleage, Khamis Tomusange, Samir K Lakhashe, Ruth M Ruprecht, Eric Lombardini, Rawiwan Im-Erbsin, Yanin Kuncharin, Yuwadee Phuang-Ngern, Dutsadee Inthawong, Weerawan Chuenarom, Robin Burke, Merlin L Robb, Lishomwa C Ndhlovu, Jintanat Ananworanich, Victor Valcour, Robert J O'Connell, Serena Spudich, Nelson L Michael, Sandhya Vasan
Studies utilizing highly pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) have largely focused on the immunopathology of the central nervous system (CNS) during end-stage neurological AIDS and SIV encephalitis. However, this may not model pathophysiology in earlier stages of infection. In this nonaccelerated SHIV model, plasma SHIV RNA levels and peripheral blood and colonic CD4+ T cell counts mirrored early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561424/nonopportunistic-infection-leading-to-rapidly-progressive-dementia-in-a-patient-with-hiv-aids-a-case-report
#11
Johannes Eimer, Jan Vesterbacka, Irina Savitcheva, Rayomand Press, Homayoun Roshanisefat, Piotr Nowak
RATIONALE: Cognitive dysfunction is a common presenting symptom in patients with HIV/AIDS. It is usually directly associated with HIV infection or due to opportunistic infection. Rapidly progressive dementia, however, is rarely observed in acute HIV infection or during immune reconstitution. Recently, a case of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD) has been reported in a patient with chronic HIV infection. The incidence of CJD is not known to be increased among immunocompromised patients. PATIENT CONCERNS: We here report the case of a 59-year-old male patient with a recent diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia presenting with secondary behavioral changes and disorientation...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488596/-focal-brain-lesion-due-to-cerebral-aspergillosis-in-a-patient-with-aids-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
Emilse Vázquez, Fernando Messina, Gabriela Santiso, Humberto Metta, Ricardo Negroni
Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare disease with high mortality rates in AIDS patients. It is important to take this into account in the differential diagnosis of a brain expansive lesion. A high level of suspicion is required to make an early diagnosis. We present a case of an HIV-infected patient with progresive neurological disease caused by Aspergillus flavi. We review 40 previously published cases of central nervous system aspergillosis in patients with AIDS.
October 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451598/performance-of-cryptococcal-antigen-lateral-flow-assay-in-serum-cerebrospinal-fluid-whole-blood-and-urine-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-culture-proven-cryptococcal-meningitis-admitted-at-a-brazilian-referral-center
#13
José E Vidal, Carolina Toniolo, Adriana Paulino, Arnaldo L Colombo, Marilena Dos Anjos Martins, Cristina da Silva Meira, Renata Guise Soares Azevedo, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola, Hélio Rodrigues Gomes, Marcia Dos Santos Lazera, Augusto C Penalva de Oliveira, David R Boulware
Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common cause of opportunistic meningitis in HIV-infected patients in Brazil and causes unacceptable high mortality rates. In this study, HIV-infected patients with a first episode of culture-proven cryptococcal meningitis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were prospectively included in order to evaluate sensitivity of cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) lateral flow assay (LFA) in serum, CSF, whole blood (fingerstick), and fresh urine. In addition, HIV-infected patients with other neurological confirmed diseases were included in order to evaluate the specificity of CrAg LFA in serum...
2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321229/the-national-incidence-of-pml-in-sweden-1988-2013
#14
Ellen Iacobaeus, Sarah Burkill, Shahram Bahmanyar, Ramil Hakim, Camilla Byström, Michael Fored, Tomas Olsson, Lou Brundin, Scott Montgomery
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and patient characteristics in Sweden between 1988 and 2013. METHODS: All PML diagnoses in Sweden between 1988 and 2013 were identified in the National Patient Register. Information to validate the diagnosis and patient characteristics was obtained from medical records. RESULTS: Medical record review classified 108 out of 250 patients (43%) as definite (n = 84), probable (n = 4), or possible (n = 20) PML according to diagnostic criteria...
February 6, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302326/developmental-assistance-for-child-and-adolescent-mental-health-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-2007-2014-annual-trends-and-allocation-by-sector-project-type-donors-and-recipients
#15
Jasmine Turner, Hugo Pigott, Mark Tomlinson, Mark Jd Jordans
Background: Globally, mental disorders are the leading cause of disability among children and adolescents. To date, there has been no estimate of developmental assistance supporting mental health projects that target children and adolescents (DAMH-CA). This study aimed to identify, describe and analyse DAMH-CA with respect to annual trends (2007-2014), sector, project type, recipient regions, and top donor and recipient countries, and estimate annual DAMH-CA per child/adolescent by region...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213987/neuroimaging-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Michel Elyas Jung Haziot, Silas Pereira Barbosa Junior, José E Vidal, Francisco Tomaz Meneses de Oliveira, Augusto César Penalva de Oliveira
A significant increase in the incidence of cognitive impairment in HIV/AIDS patients has been continuously observed. Consequently, three classification categories of cognitive impairment have been proposed: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), that correspond to the mild and intermediate forms, and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) for the most severe cases. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is a broad term that encompasses these three categories. Moreover, the application of neuroimaging methods has led to a major breakthrough in understanding of the neurological changes in HIV, providing greater reliability in the exclusion of associated diseases and allowing earlier diagnosis...
October 2015: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197154/risk-factors-for-serious-outcomes-associated-with-influenza-illness-in-high-versus-low-and-middle-income-countries-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Brenda L Coleman, Shaza A Fadel, Tiffany Fitzpatrick, Sera-Melisa Thomas
AIM: To determine factors associated with a serious outcome (hospital admission or severe outcome: critical care or death) and associated with illness caused by laboratory-confirmed influenza, with a specific interest in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). METHOD: Databases were searched on 11 March 2016 for reports of influenza and factors associated with mortality or morbidity in humans, with no language restrictions. Pooled risks were estimated using random-effects models...
January 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058550/immunomodulatory-role-of-complement-proteins-in-the-neuropathology-associated-with-opiate-abuse-and-hiv-1-co-morbidity
#18
Supriya D Mahajan, Ravikumar Aalinkeel, Neil U Parikh, Alexander Jacob, Katherine Cwiklinski, Prateet Sandhu, Kevin Le, Alexander W Loftus, Stanley A Schwartz, Richard J Quigg, Jessy J Alexander
The complement system which is a critical mediator of innate immunity plays diverse roles in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection such as clearing HIV-1 and promoting productive HIV-1 replication. In the development of HIV-1 associated neurological disorders (HAND), there may be an imbalance between complement activation and regulation, which may contribute to the neuronal damage as a consequence of HIV-1 infection. It is well recognized that opiate abuse exacerbates HIV-1 neuropathology, however, little is known about the role of complement proteins in opiate induced neuromodulation, specifically in the presence of co-morbidity such as HIV-1 infection...
November 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021643/cryptococcal-cerebellitis-in-no-vih-patient
#19
Fabricio Andres Lasso, Tomas Omar Zamora Bastidas, Jorge Andrés Potosí García, Bairon Díaz Idrobo
INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection whose etiology is Cryptococcus neofromans / C. gattii, complex which affects immunocompromised patients mainly. Meningeal infection is one of the most common presentations, but cerebellar affection is rare. CASE DESCRIPTION: Male patient with 65 old years, from an area of subtropical climate with chronic exposure to poultry, without pathological antecedents, who presented clinical picture consistent with headache, fever, seizures and altered mental status...
June 30, 2017: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991888/commonly-prescribed-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-and-incidence-of-aids-defining-neurological-conditions
#20
Ellen C Caniglia, Andrew Phillips, Kholoud Porter, Caroline A Sabin, Alan Winston, Roger Logan, John Gill, Marie-Anne Vandenhende, Diana Barger, Sara Lodi, Santiago Moreno, José Ramón Arribas, Antonio Pacheco, Sandra W Cardoso, George Chrysos, Charalabos Gogos, Sophie Abgrall, Dominique Costagliola, Laurence Meyer, Remonie Seng, Ard van Sighem, Peter Reiss, Roberto Muga, Santiago Pérez Hoyos, Dominique Braun, Christoph Hauser, Pilar Barrufet, Maria Leyes, Janet Tate, Amy Justice, Miguel A Hernán
BACKGROUND: The differential effects of commonly prescribed combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens on AIDS-defining neurological conditions (neuroAIDS) remain unknown. SETTING: Prospective cohort studies of HIV-positive individuals from Europe and the Americas included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. METHODS: Individuals who initiated a first-line cART regimen in 2004 or later containing a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone and either atazanavir, lopinavir, darunavir, or efavirenz were followed from cART initiation until death, lost to follow-up, pregnancy, the cohort-specific administrative end of follow-up, or the event of interest, whichever occurred earliest...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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